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Concept design and environmental analysis of a fuel cell RoPax vessel - Report in the HOPE (Hydrogen fuel cells solutions in shipping in relation to other low carbon options) project
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
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2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report includes a ship concept design developed for a RoPax ship (a ferry transporting passengers and goods) with hydrogen fuel cell propulsion for intended operations on the route Frederikshavn (Denmark) to Gothenburg (Sweden). The assessments, performed within the HOPE (Hydrogen fuel cells solutions in shipping in relation to other low carbon options – a Nordic perspective) project, shows that it is technically feasible to build and operate such a ship with existing technology for the studied route between these two Nordic countries. Also, the costs of such a concept are assessed and compared to other fuel options including: battery-electric propulsion, electro-ammonia, electro-methanol, biomass-based methane, or fossil liquefied natural gas (LNG), as well as conventional fossil marine gas oil (MGO).

The overall result from the comparative analysis of the estimated costs is that the hydrogen fuel cell ship, when assuming current or near future costs for the technology and the hydrogen, is estimated to be some 25 percent more expensive than a conventional fossil fuelled (MGO) RoPax ship (when including costs for emissions in the EU emission trading scheme). However, the cost developments are uncertain. In the case that fuel cell prices, and hydrogen prices, are decreasing, and todays cost levels of emission allowances in the EU emission trading scheme (ETS) increase, the hydrogen fuel cell ship could possibly be operated at lower total costs compared to the MGO fuelled ship.

A cost benefit analysis was also performed, comparing costs linked to the technical implementation of hydrogen fuel cell solutions in shipping (with a private and social perspective) to benefits in terms of reduced external costs linked to lower emissions and potential subsides. The cost benefit assessment also confirms that the investment from a private perspective is not cost effective and that additional subsidies may be needed for investments in fuel cell hydrogen technology to take place. The cost effectiveness from a social perspective is strongly dependent on values of highly uncertain parameters.

The impacts of emissions of hydrogen as fuel in a Nordic context were assessed for deployment scenarios for hydrogen and fuel cell solutions in Nordic shipping. There is a considerable potential for emission reductions both in terms of CO2, nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM) linked to the implementation of hydrogen and fuel cells in Nordic shipping, particularly in the RoPax segment, representing 30% of total CO2 emissions in 2018. Considering the relatively long lifetime of vessels, investments must be made soon to enable a hydrogen powered shipping fleet in the near future. Since it is currently not economically viable with hydrogen and fuel cells vessels there is need for subsidies and investments in pilots to develop solutions and speed up the process. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB , 2023.
Series
C report ; C781
Keywords [en]
Alternative marine fuels, Hydrogen propulsion, Fuel cells, PEM fuel cell, Cost, Emission, Ferry, RoPax ship
National Category
Environmental Sciences Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ivl:diva-4227ISBN: 978-91-7883-523-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ivl-4227DiVA, id: diva2:1796056
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationAvailable from: 2023-09-11 Created: 2023-09-11 Last updated: 2023-09-11

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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Output format
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