IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Abbasi, Umar Aftab
    et al.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nissanka, Sarath Premalal
    Ali, Arshad
    Biological, structural and functional responses of tropical forests to environmental factors2022In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 276, p. 109792-109792, article id 109792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we hypothesize that the biological, structural and functional attributes of tropical forests respond to water-related climatic and soil nutrient-related factors.

    Thus, we quantified 27 forest attributes and 20 environmental factors across 189 plots of Sri Lankan tropical forests. Our results suggest that environmental conditions were characterized by both water-related and temperature-related factors, and as such, both coarse-textured and compacted-structured soils determined soil conditions.

    Forest conditions were characterized by high species-functional diversity, structural complexity and aboveground biomass-related functions. We found strong positive effects of water-related climatic factors followed by temperature-related climatic factors but negligible positive to negative effects of textured-related and nutrient-related soil factors on most of the biological, structural and functional attributes.

    Overall the biodiversity and carbon stocks of Sri Lankan tropical forests are likely to increase with water-energy balance and improved soil conditions, and thus, studied forests could offset a substantial quantity of anthropogenic carbon emissions to achieve carbon neutrality which can have both regional and global significance if protected from anthropogenic disturbances. 

  • 2. Abbasi, Umar Aftab
    et al.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nissanka, Sarath Premalal
    Ali, Arshad
    Species α-diversity promotes but β-diversity restricts aboveground biomass in tropical forests, depending on stand structure and environmental factors2022In: Journal of Forestry Research, ISSN 1007-662X, E-ISSN 1993-0607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest plays a vital role in the global biogeochemical cycles through a high rate of carbon sequestration and harboring biodiversity. However, local species diversity is declining while also becoming increasingly homogenized across communities. Although effects of local biotic processes (e.g., species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity) and environmental factors on aboveground biomass (AGB) have been widely tested, there is a huge knowledge gap for the effect of regional biotic processes (i.e., taxonomic and functional β-diversity) in forests. Here, we hypothesized that regional and local environmental factors along with biotic processes jointly regulate AGB through species shifts in tropical forests.

    Using piecewise structural equation modeling (pSEM), we linked climatic water availability, soil fertility, stand structural heterogeneity (either tree DBH inequality, height inequality, or stand density), species α-diversity, taxonomic or functional β-diversity (and its two components; β-turnover and β-richness), and AGB across 189 inventory plots in tropical forests of Sri Lanka. Soil fertility and climatic water availability shaped local and regional biotic processes. Stand structural heterogeneity promoted species α-diversity but declined β-diversity (but increased β-taxonomic turnover). Species α-diversity and stand structural heterogeneity promoted AGB whereas taxonomic and functional β-diversity declined (but β-taxonomic turnover increased) AGB.

    The relationships of AGB with species α-diversity and β-diversity varied from significant to nonsignificant positive depending on the specific combinations of stand structural heterogeneity metrics used. This study shows that local biotic processes could increase AGB due to the local and regional niche complementarity effect whereas the regional biotic processes could restrict AGB due to the regional selection or functional redundancy effect under favorable environmental conditions. We argue that biotic homogenization, as well as drought conditions, may have strong divergent impacts on forest functions and that the impacts of tree diversity loss may greatly reduce carbon sequestration.

  • 3.
    Bergström, Per
    et al.
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Thorngren, Linnea
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Fiskebäckskil Sweden.
    Lindegarth, Mats
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Identifying high‐density areas of oysters using species distribution modeling: Lessons for conservation of the native Ostrea edulis and management of the invasive Magallana ( Crassostrea ) gigas in Sweden2021In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 5522-5532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimUnderstanding spatial patterns of the distribution of adult native oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Magallana (Crassostrea) gigas is important for management of these populations. The aim of this study was to use ensemble SDM’s to (a) identify and predict conservation hotspots, (b) assess the current level of protection for O. edulis, and (c) quantify the amount of overlap between the two species where interactions with M. gigas are most likely.

    LocationSkagerrak, Sweden.

    MethodsWe used data collected by video at depths from 0.5 to 10 m in 436 sites. Models of occurrence and densities >1 m−2 were fitted and assessed using ensemble methods (“biomod2” package). Models of high-density hotspots were used to predict, map, and quantify areal extent of the species in order to assess the degree of overlap with protected areas and the potential for interactions between the two species.

    ResultsBoth species were widely distributed in the region. Observations of high-density habitats, mainly occurring at depths of ≈3 and 0.5 m for O. edulis and M. gigas, respectively, were found in 4% and 2% of the sites. Models provided useful predictions for both species (AUC = 0.85–0.99; sensitivity = 0.74–1.0; specificity = 0.72–0.97). High-density areas occupy roughly 15 km2 each with substantial overlap between species. 50% of these are protected only by fisheries regulations, 44% are found in Natura 2000 reserves and 6% of the predicted O. edulis enjoys protection in a national park.

    Main conclusionsData collection by video in combination with SDM’s provides a realistic approach for large-scale quantification of spatial patterns of marine population and habitats. O. edulis and M. gigas are common in the area, but a large proportion of the most valuable O. edulis habitats are not found in protected areas. The overlap between species suggests that efforts to manage the invasive M. gigas need to be integrated with management actions to conserve the native O. edulis.

  • 4.
    Cousins, Sara AO
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lindgren, Jessica
    Stockholm University.
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brown, Ian
    Stockholm University.
    Kimberley, Adam
    Stockholm University.
    Landskapsindikatorer för biologisk mångfald2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med detta projekt är att identifiera landskapsindikatorergenom att integrera tillgänglig statistik och geodata tillsammans med ekologiskteori för att identifiera hur förlust av gräsmarker och småhabitat i jordbrukslandskappåverkar mångfald av gräsmarksväxter nationellt. I projektet har vi använt historiskadataunderlag; statistik, kartor, och satellitbilder tillsammans med geografisk analysoch vegetationsinventeringar. 48 jordbrukslandskap valdes ut i fyra olika biogeografiskaregioner; Norrbotten, Gävleborg, Södermanland och Skåne. Studieandskapenvar cirkelrunda med en diameter på 2 km och valdes ut baserat på tillgången av brahistoriskt kartmaterial från 1800-talets andra hälft. De historiska kartorna rektifieradesoch digitaliserades i ett geografiskt informationssystem varefter markanvändningentolkades med fokus på gräsmark och åker. Som ett mått på den biologiska mångfalden kopplat till gräsmarkshabitat inventerades kärlväxter i 20 stycken slumpmässigt utlagda 1m2 rutor i små resthabitat av gräsmarkskaraktär (framförallt åkerholmar, vägkanter, skogsbryn) och 10 stycken 1m2 rutor slumpmässigt utlagda i en centralt belägen betesmark (om en sådan fanns) inom varje jordbrukslandskap. Ett annat mått på biologisk mångfald är genetisk variation. Den genetiska variationen hos gräsmarksspecialisten liten blåklocka (Campanula rotundifolia) analyserades genom att blad samlades in från 25 olika populationer, utspridda i varje jordbrukslandskap. Växternas mångfald och den genetiska mångfalden hos liten blåklocka inventerades inom en 1 km bred cirkel i mitten av varje studielandskap. 

    Resultaten blev följande:Det lämpligaste historiska dataunderlaget att använda vid landskapsanalyser berortill stor del på vilken rumslig noggrannhet och upplösning av analys som efterfrågas.Jordbruksstatistiken anges årligen över socknen men socknarna varierar stort i storlekoch det kan vara svårt att fånga förändringar som påverkar gräsmarker i stora socknarmed stor andel skog. Historiska kartor har en hög rumslig upplösning men endast ettfåtal platser har ett äldre kartmaterial. Det äldre kartmaterialet täcker oftast ett relativtlitet område då utmarkerna sällan karterades. Historiska data bör tolkas med en förståelseför den begränsade informationen som kan extraheras från underlaget. Detär önskvärt att fler historiska kartor digitaliseras i geografiska informationssystemför att underlätta vidare analys. Den ekonomiska kartan kan vara ett bra tillskott föratt analysera förändring över tid men det måste ske med förbehåll då kartmaterialetär av olika ålder i olika delar av landet och svårigheten att med säkerhet separera bergi dagen, kalhygge och gräsmark. Historiska satellitbilder fungerar dåligt då det är svårtatt få både molnfria och snöfria bilder över alla regioner under vegetationsperiodenoch att det inte går att använda samma träningsytor över hela landet i en analys. Metodenatt använda maskininlärning och Sentinel-2 L2A för att övervaka naturbetesmarkerverkar mycket lovande kan vidareutvecklas.För 150 år sedan fanns det i snitt 42 % gräsmark (öppen/halvöppen mark, ej åker)inom de 48 jordbrukslandskapen. Idag finns det 2 % av den ursprungliga gräsmarkenkvar i Norrbotten och Gävleborg, 6% i Skåne och 10% i Södermanland. Många jordbrukslandskap har ingen gräsmark kvar alls, trots att alla 48 jordbrukslandskap fortfarande är jordbrukslandskap. Resultatet visar att andelen naturbetesmarker minskat betydligt mer än vad som visats i tidigare studier.

    Den avgörande faktorn för dagens artrikedom av växter i jordbrukslandskapet är attdet finns betesmarker i landskapet. Naturbetesmarker med lång kontinuerlig hävd ärviktiga, och ju större betesmark desto bättre. Småhabitat av tidigare gräsmark hade enrelativt låg andel arter, jämfört med tidigare studier. Vägrenar i de nordligare regionernaär breda, på grund av snöröjning, och kan ha en relativt hög andel gräsmarksspecialister.I jordbrukslandskap med få eller inga betesmarker spelar småhabitat en stor roll för många gräsmarksspecialister men småhabitaten kan dock inte kompensera för betade gräsmarker, speciellt inte naturbetesmarker. Analys av gräsmarksspecialisten liten blåklocka visade att dess populationsstorlek spelar stor roll för den genetiska diversiteten. Ju större population i landskapet desto högre genetisk variation. Populationsstorlek var högre med ökad andel betesmark, naturbetesmark och variation i jordbrukslandskapet på nationell nivå. På regional nivå blir resultaten inte lika tydliga. Bristen på betesmark i många av jordbrukslandskapen försvårar statistiskt robusta analyser. Flera av de 48 jordbrukslandskap som ingick i analysen har tidigare haft naturbetesmarker, enligt GIS-skiktet tillhörande TUVA-databasen, men var ohävdade och övergivna sedan flera år tillbaka vid tidpunkten för våra växtinventeringar. För att kunna göra landskapsanalyser och övervaka gräsmarkernas situation är det viktigt att både databasen och dess nedladdningsbara GIS-filer hålls uppdaterade. Resultaten visar på vikten att inkludera vardagslandskap och landskap från flera av Sveriges olika regioner. Fokus på de flesta tidigare landskapsekologiska studierbaseras på jordbrukslandskap med en relativt hög andel biologisk viktiga habitat ochfrån södra Sverige. Genom att analysera landskapsförändringar från ett stort antaljordbrukslandskap från flera biogeografiska regioner i Sverige ger denna studie enhögre generalitet och pekar ännu tydligare på vikten att öka insatserna för att bevaraoch restaurera gräsmarker nationellt innan dess biologiska värden går förlorade.

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  • 5.
    Dahl, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boltenstern, Mikaela
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Undersökning av akvatiska invasiva främmande arter med miljö-DNA2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Invasiva arter utgör ett hot mot biologisk mångfald. I Gävlebukten har förekomst av svartmunnad smörbult ökat. Denna art kan leva och fortplanta sig i ett brett spann av salthalt och eDNA har använts för att undersöka om de vandrar upp i vattendrag som mynnar i Gävle och Gävlebukten. En temporal studie med metabarcoding har följt förekomsten av svartmunnad smörbult under en månads tid med en veckas mellanrum mellan provtagningar. 

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  • 6.
    De Pauw, Karen
    et al.
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Govaert, Sanne
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Bernhardt‐Römermann, Markus
    Institute of Ecology and Evolution Friedrich‐Schiller‐University Jena Jena Germany.
    Bollmann, Kurt
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden.
    Calders, Kim
    CAVElab – Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Ghent Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Vegetation Ecology and Conservation Biology Institute of Ecology FB2University of Bremen Bremen Germany.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UR “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN, UMR 7058 CNRS‐UPJV) Jules Verne University of Picardie Amiens France.
    Lindmo, Sigrid
    Department of Biology Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia Katowice Poland.
    Ponette, Quentin
    Earth and Life Institute Université catholique de Louvain Louvain‐la‐Neuve Belgium.
    Plue, Jan
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Selvi, Federico
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UR “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN, UMR 7058 CNRS‐UPJV) Jules Verne University of Picardie Amiens France.
    Verbeeck, Hans
    CAVElab – Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Ghent Belgium.
    Vermeir, Pieter
    Laboratory for Chemical Analysis (LCA) Department of Green Chemistry and Technology Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Gent Belgium.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plants respond differently to environmental conditions in European forest edges2021In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 2629-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Forest biodiversity worldwide is affected by climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and today 20 % of the forest area is located within 100 m of a forest edge. Still, forest edges harbour a substantial amount of terrestrial biodiversity, especially in the understorey. The functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest edges have never been studied simultaneously at a continental scale, in spite of their importance for the forests’ functioning and for communities’ resilience to future change.

    2. We assessed nine metrics of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plant communities in 225 plots spread along edge‐to‐interior gradients in deciduous forests across Europe. We then derived the relative effects and importance of edaphic, stand and landscape conditions on the diversity metrics.

    3. Here, we show that taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity metrics respond differently to environmental conditions. We report an increase in functional diversity in plots with stronger microclimatic buffering, in spite of their lower taxonomic species richness. Additionally, we found increased taxonomic species richness at the forest edge, but in forests with intermediate and high openness, these communities had decreased phylogenetic diversity.

    4. Functional and phylogenetic diversity revealed complementary and important insights in community assembly mechanisms. Several environmental filters were identified as potential drivers of the patterns, such as a colder macroclimate and less buffered microclimate for functional diversity. For phylogenetic diversity, edaphic conditions were more important. Interestingly, plots with lower soil pH had decreased taxonomic species richness, but led to increased phylogenetic diversity, challenging the phylogenetic niche conservatism concept.

    5. Synthesis. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey communities in forest edges respond differently to environmental conditions, providing insight in different community assembly mechanisms and their interactions. Therefore, it is important to look beyond species richness with phylogenetic and functional diversity approaches when focusing on forest understorey biodiversity.

  • 7.
    Gasperini, Cristina
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy;Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Bollmann, Kurt
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    De Pauw, Karen
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Vegetation Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Ecology, FB2 University of Bremen Bremen Germany.
    Govaert, Sanne
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Graae, Bente J.
    Department of Biology NTNU Trondheim Norway.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Lindmo, Sigrid
    Department of Biology NTNU Trondheim Norway.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia Katowice Poland.
    Ponette, Quentin
    Earth and Life Institute Université Catholique de Louvain Louvain‐la‐Neuve Belgium.
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Selvi, Federico
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Frenne, Pieter De
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Soil seed bank responses to edge effects in temperate European forests2022In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1877-1893Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The amount of forest edges is increasing globally due to forest fragmentationand land-use changes. However, edge effects on the soil seed bank of temperate forests are still poorly understood. Here, we assessed edge effects at contrasting spatialscales across Europe and quantified the extent to which edges can preserve the seedsof forest specialist plants.Location: Temperate European deciduous forests along a 2,300-km latitudinalgradient.Time period: 2018–2021.Major taxa studied: Vascular plants.Methods: Through a greenhouse germination experiment, we studied how edge effects alter the density, diversity, composition and functionality of forest soil seedbanks in 90 plots along different latitudes, elevations and forest management types.We also assessed which environmental conditions drive the seed bank responses at the forest edge versus interior and looked at the relationship between the seed bankand the herb layer species richness.

    Results: Overall, 10,108 seedlings of 250 species emerged from the soil seed bank.Seed density and species richness of generalists (species not only associated withforests) were higher at edges compared to interiors, with a negative influence of C : Nratio and litter quality. Conversely, forest specialist species richness did not declinefrom the interior to the edge. Also, edges were compositionally, but not functionally,different from interiors. The correlation between the seed bank and the herb layerspecies richness was positive and affected by microclimate.Main conclusions: Our results underpin how edge effects shape species diversity andcomposition of soil seed banks in ancient forests, especially increasing the proportionof generalist species and thus potentially favouring a shift in community composition.However, the presence of many forest specialists suggests that soil seed banks stillplay a key role in understorey species persistence and could support the resilience ofour fragmented forests.

  • 8. Gasperini, Cristina
    et al.
    Carrari, Elisa
    Govaert, Sanne
    Meeussen, Camille
    De Pauw, Karen
    Plue, Jan
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Jacopetti, Giovanni
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Selvi, Federico
    Edge effects on the realised soil seed bank along microclimatic gradients in temperate European forests2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 798, p. 149373-149373, article id 149373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the crucial role of the seed bank in forest conservation and dynamics, the effects of forest edge microclimate and climate warming on germination responses from the forest seed bank are still almost unknown. Here, we investigated edge effects on the realised seed bank and seedling community in two types of European temperate deciduous forest, one in the Oceanic and one in the Mediterranean climatic region. Responses in terms of seedling density, diversity, species composition and functional type of the seed bank at the forest edge and interior were examined along latitudinal, elevational and stand structural gradients by means of soil translocation experiments. Moreover, we translocated soil samples from high to low elevation forests in the two regions, thus performing a warming simulation. Density, species diversity and mortality of the seedlings varied with region and elevation.

    Seedling density also differed between forest edge and interior position, while seedling cover mainly depended on forest structure. Both the edge and interior forest seed bank contained a high proportion of generalist species. In Belgium, a more homogeneous seed bank was found at the forest edge and interior, while in Italy compositional and ecological differences were larger: at the forest edge, more light and less moisture demanding seedling communities developed, with a higher proportion of generalists compared to the interior. In both regions, the upland-to-lowland translocation experiment revealed effects of warming on forest seed banks with thermophilization of the realised communities. Moreover, edge conditions shifted the seedling composition towards more light-demanding communities. The establishment of more light and warm-adapted species from the seed bank could in the long term alter the aboveground vegetation composition, with communities becoming progressively richer in light-demanding generalists and poorer in forest specialists.

  • 9.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöundersökning efter hybridoljepåslag i Öckerö kommun2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On April 14-15, 2022 a marine spill of hybrid oil (VLSFO) reached the Öckerö and Hönö archipelago. The oil originated from a spill that occurred while the ship Alpine Penelope (Creole Marine Ltd) drew oil from the Swedish bunker ship Fox Luna (BRP Shipping AB) at sea while anchored by the lighthouse Trubaduren outside Gothenburg harbor. The crew estimated the spill to 30-50 L while the Swedish coastguard collected 500 L by the ship and an additional 1000 L of oily water at sea. Single clumps of oil were found as far north as “Ytre Hvaler”, a national park in southern Norway. 

    Öckerö municipality engaged IVL Swedish Environmental Research institute to 1) investigate the degree of marine pollution caused by the spill, and 2) provide suggestions for mitigation actions and make a follow-up plan for the spill.  On May 3, 2022 sediment, invertebrates (snails, Littorina littorea and oysters, Magallana gigas) and macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) were collected at five oil contaminated (Kröckle, Räveskär, Båteviksholmarna, Norra Öckerö and Saltars) and two reference sites (Halse långe and Tjolmen). Sampling was carried out together with two environmental officers from Öckerö municipality and a representative from ITOPF. All samples, including a water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” and an oil sample collected by the municipal staff during beach cleaning, were analyzed for their contents of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, BTEX, PAHs and alkylated PAHs. Measured concentrations in water, sediment and biota were compared to limit values for individual compounds given in HVMFS 2019:25 based on the EU water framework directive. Measured concentrations in oysters and algae were compared to limit values for seafood for human consumption, provided by the Swedish food agency and the Swedish EPA. Sediments were classified according to SGU guidelines.

    Elevated oil pollutant levels were detected in oysters, macroalgae and in seawater surrounding oil polluted algae. The site ”Norra Öckerö” was highly impacted, and both biological and consumption related limit were exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene in biota and bivalves. There are no limit values for PAHs in macroalgae, but by comparing to those developed for biota (bivalves and crustaceans), the environmental limit values were exceeded in algal shoots by a factor 13 for fluoranthene and a factor 132 for benzo(a)pyrene. The limit values for human consumption were also exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene and PAH4 in algae shots from “Norra Öckerö”. At the time of sampling there was thus a serious risk of PAH poisoning from eating oysters or algae (and likely other stationary organisms) collected in the ”Norra Öckerö” area and surroundings. 

    The sediment samples did not show any pollution related to the oil spill. The elevated levels of fluoranthene and pyrene measured at the reference site “Tjolmen” corresponded to SGU class 3 (moderate pollution). This pollution was likely combustion related, originating from boat or car traffic, and should be further investigated. The water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” contained high levels of phenol, the annual average limit value for benzo(a)pyrene was exceeded by a factor 8 and the maximum limit value for benzo(ghi)perylene was exceeded by a factor 3. Consequently, the water close to the algal belt was toxic. The analyzed oil sample contained high amounts of 2-6 ringed PAHs, which constituted almost 90% of the organic pollutants of the oil. This makes the Öckerö VLSFO oil particularly prone to causing long term effects.Although small, the spill did affect a large part of the coastline. Due to difficulties of coming ashore, all samples could not be collected at all stations. It is likely that biota from the station “Kröckle” contained similar levels of oil pollutants as biota from “Norra Öckerö”, yet samples could not be collected there. Correspondingly, biota from oil polluted areas that were not included in the sampling program likely contained high concentrations of oil pollutants in line with what was found at “Norra Öckerö”. The oil was very sticky and therefore particularly difficult to clean up. The algal belt that extends all along the brim of every island has functioned as an oil filter, collecting the remaining water borne oil, which has then continued to leak water soluble oil components to the coastal waters. In all, the oil spill has led to contamination of biota in many places, with “Norra Öckerö” as the most severely affected site, having negative consequences for marine life and also affecting recreation and collection of food from the sea. Because it has become popular to pick and eat wild algae, and algae farms have been established along the coasts, regulations for safe pollution levels in seaweed and algae should urgently be established by food authorities. The municipality is recommended to consider future oil spills and local pollutions sources, like harbors, roads et c in their coastal planning, especially regarding locations for aquaculture. A follow-up study of the Öckerö VLSFO spill is recommended to further understand the long-term effects on marine life and humans.

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  • 10.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    De Wit, Pierre
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Robert, Chloé
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar Del 3 – Underlag för bedömning av bevarandevärde av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are keystone species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other or-ganisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Con-servation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodi-versity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    Marine species with high dispersal potential, such as Mytilus and to some extent Ostrea, have historically been thought unlikely to show genetic differentiation on local scales. However, it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that dispersal barriers caused by, for example, current conditions or lack of suitable habitats, are common and can result in genetically differentiated subpopulations on geographically small scales. This means that knowledge of genetic structures can contribute valuable information for the establishment of effective management strategies for different species, for example through analysis of genetic diversity and dispersal mechanisms. For example, knowledge of population structures, local recruitment patterns and dispersal of larvae are of great value to ensure a good genetic basis for the conservation of source- and sink populations and to maintain a good recruitment base and spread of new individuals. For both Mytilus and Ostrea, information about genetic structures, recruitment patterns and larval dispersal is lacking in Sweden, hence limiting the possibilities of assessing the conservation value of different bivalve beds.This report presents the work done to fill this knowledge gap and thereby support the identifica-tion of valuable Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds for species conservation (WP3 in the project). With the help of genetic analyses, large-scale patterns of distribution of the different "species" of the gene-ra Mytilus and Ostrea in the Skagerrak have been studied. The aim was to analyse genetic diversi-ty and gene flow between different areas in the Skagerrak and to identify possible barriers to larval transport along the coasts of Sweden and Norway. To further study the connectivity (de-fined as how well areas are linked to each other by sea currents, eg larval transport from one population to another) between different populations, the spread of particles (eggs and larvae) from Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds was also evaluated using an oceanographic distribution model (ROMS / OpenDrift). The aim was also to identify important areas where larvae from several areas gather (sink areas) as well as important areas which contribute to a high dispersal of larvae (source regions).

    The results from both the oceanographic trajectory modelling and genetic analysis were con-sistent for Mytilus and illustrated a general transport of larvae northwards along the coast. The results also showed that beds located in the inner archipelago were more isolated than beds in the outer part of the archipelago, especially inside of the islands Tjörn and Orust, and in the Oslo Fjord. A barrier was also observed between Tvedestrand and Kragerö along the Norwegian coast. The southern European species M. galloprovencialis was also observed in Swedish waters for the first time, in several different places, but in a low proportion of the total number of mussels sampled. Genetic monitoring of this alien species is desirable to study how the occurrence of the species develops in the future and how it interacts with local populations of M. edulis.For Ostrea, the genetic patterns and results from the oceanographic modelling were less con-sistent. The dispersal simulations showed that sites in the inner archipelago had little larval ex-change with other areas, while sites in the central archipelago had the most exchange of larvae both among themselves and, above all, with sites in the outer archipelago. The genetic data, how-ever, did not show a clear geographical structure. This is attributed to historical movements of oysters. Common to Mytilus and Ostrea is that larvae were in general transported northwards along the coast of Sweden, and that larvae from many different sites seem to gather in the archi-pelago around the Koster island (sink area). Based on the back-tracking of larvae, important source areas for larvae were found further south between Öckerö and Väderöarna (source areas).

    Based on the results presented in this report, it is concluded that both the Mytilus and the Ostrea populations in different geographical areas along the Swedish west coast should be managed as separate sub-units as extensive genetic structures and dispersal barriers were observed for both species. For example, it may be important to preserve populations in the Gothenburg area and in the area around Koster, as one is an important source area with the potential to contribute to significant dispersal of both species, and the other was identified to be an important sink area where large numbers of larvae gather. It is also important to preserve both nearshore and off-shore beds due to the low larval dispersal between these two environments. The bivalve beds in the central archipelago receive larvae from both the outer and the inner archipelago, so it is pos-sible that these beds can act as bridges/steppingstones and connect beds in the outer and inner archipelago. Some areas, such as the area inside the islands of Orust and Tjörn were found to be more or less isolated, illustrating the importance of local management that takes into account the lack of larval transport in and out of the area. With regard to the Orust area, it is also important to study how the large number of mussel farms in the area affect the wild populations.All in all, the project has resulted in valuable knowledge that can support the development of constructive and long-term sustainable management strategies for both Mytilus and Ostrea, but that there is also a need for further knowledge building connected to certain aspects, especially linked to the dispersal and population structures for Ostrea as well as to the interactions between farmed and wild Mytilus.

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  • 11. Hassellöv, Martin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Mattsson, Karin
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Strand, Jakob
    Lenz, Robin
    Bavel, Bert van
    Eidsvoll, David Pettersson
    Progress towards monitoring of microlitter in Scandinavian marine environments2018In: TemaNord, 2018, 551, 2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different case studies were carried out to determine dominating microlitter types from urban environments to the regional Scandinavian seas (eastern North Sea). The sampling was both from sediment near sources (urban runoff and road dust sediment), and further out from coastal sediments. The sea surface layer and subsurface samples was taken in two different gradients, in the Oslo and Roskilde fjords, where also blue mussels were sampled. Best available technologies for sampling each compartment was used and evaluated, and while the water samples was analysed as collected, the sediment and biota samples needed some pretreatment of chemical digestion and/or heavy density liquid floatation or elutriation.

    In order to develop visual identification as objective as possible, a visual and physical observation scheme was proposed. The visual identification scheme should be complemented with spectroscopic identification to different degrees depending on the size fractions.Spectroscopic identification is still often a quite time-consuming process, meaning that for monitoring purposes it is not currently advisable to aim to identify all particles during monitoring studies. Until fully or partly automated spectroscopic methods are available they are still important tools for verification of representative types of particles in samples above 100 μm.

    The amount of particles that should be identified to provide adequate compositional information would be dependent on the aim of the study as well as the type and composition of the samples. However, in order to do monitoring and include sample composition in the results a minimum of 100 of the fewest particles should be counted in a sample to achieve 10% standard deviation in terms of counting statistical uncertainty.The field is however rapidly evolving, and automated procedures are already being published. For research purposes and more detailed monitoring and screening studies spectroscopic methods can aside from providing particle identification also give clues on additives and level of degradation.The most common types of microlitter found varied between studies but common trends could be identified between the road tunnel sediment and the urban creek sediment that these contained black particles resembling tire rubber from both visual and tactile tests, and also asphalt, charcoal, oil/tar particles and road marker particles. In the coastal water samples the surface layer was dominated by polystyrene foam particles and polyethylene fragments and films.

    In the subsurface water samples fibres, films and fragments of plastic was most common. In both the Gothenburg urban creek sediment and Oslo fjord surface water samples particles that could be related to artificial sports turf (polyethylene green grass and clear cut, tire granulate) was observed. The microlitter in mussels was dominated by fibres. The approach of using gradient studies, and include both near source sampling as well as recipient gradient sampling, was concluded to be very suitable to determine sources and fate.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Carl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Cecilia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Underwater noise from fairways – policies, incentives and measures to reduce the environmental impact2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Underwater noise and its negative impact on marine life is a growing environmental concern where scientific knowledge is increasing but mitigation is scarce. This report is the outcome of a joint effort of the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and the Swedish Maritime Administration that addresses this challenge.

    Motivated by environmental concerns and coming EU legislation, our vision is that Sweden should become the first country to implement national incentives for underwater noise mitigation. The technical aspects of ship underwater noise are relatively well known.

    At cruise speed, cavitation at the propeller is typically the dominant source of underwater noise, but this is not true for all ships. Standardised measurement methods exist but are costly to implement. Prediction models are useful for noise mapping and fleet-wide estimates but not sufficiently accurate for individual ships. 

    The environmental impact of underwater noise from shipping has gained increased scientific attention in recent years. While many studies have been made, dose-response relationships and thresholds for different effects are largely unknown. Behavioural effects, including escape reactions, difficulty to avoid predators and masking of important communication calls, have been observed across a large number of species upon exposure to ship noise.

    There are no national or international binding rules on ship underwater noise emissions. The International Maritime Organisation is currently updating its voluntary guidelines on ship underwater noise. The EU is introducing legislation on permissible levels of ship underwater noise in the environment, which is expected to come into force in member states within a few years.

    Technical methods for mitigation of underwater noise are known but not independently validated. Ship speed reductions may reduce underwater noise but may incur increased operational costs at the ship owners. Stakeholders in ship underwater noise mitigation are found across ship owners, the ship design and technology industry, research bodies and authorities.

    Through interviews and workshops a network of relevant stakeholders in Sweden has been established. A stakeholder analysis showed that there is a need for more knowledge on ship underwater noise and its environmental impacts as well as its mitigation. Fairway design for reduced transmission of underwater noise to the environment was investigated by long-term measurements at different sections of the fairway leading to Västerås in lake Mälaren. Neither depth nor a turn could be demonstrated to have an effect on the radiated noise.

    A more detailed experiment would be required to clarify if fairway design is a viable alternative for noise mitigation. Six different ways of designing a financial incentive for ship underwater noise reduction were described. Rewarding speed reductions or technical measures for noise mitigation is feasible but the scientific basis is not clear. An incentive may be based on a silent ship notation from a classification society, but these are not commonly issued.

    A noise inquiry may be performed, but it may be difficult to identify the most relevant mitigations without underwater noise measurement. Bespoke measurement stations at or near port inlets may be a cost-effective way to collect measurement data, but the accuracy of such opportunistic measurements would need to be improved if the data is to be used for a financial incentive.

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  • 13.
    Jucker, Tommaso
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. School of Biological Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.
    Fischer, Fabian Jörg
    School of Biological Sciences University of Bristol Bristol UK.
    Chave, Jérôme
    Laboratoire Évolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB) UMR 5174 (CNRS/IRD/UPS) Toulouse Cedex 9 France;Université Toulouse Toulouse Cedex 9 France.
    Coomes, David A.
    Conservation Research Institute University of Cambridge Cambridge UK.
    Caspersen, John
    Institute of Forestry and Conservation University of Toronto Toronto Ontario Canada.
    Ali, Arshad
    Forest Ecology Research Group, College of Life Sciences Hebei University Baoding Hebei China.
    Loubota Panzou, Grace Jopaul
    Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro‐Bio Tech Gembloux Belgium;Laboratoire de Biodiversité, de Gestion des Ecosystèmes et de l'Environnement (LBGE), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Université Marien Ngouabi Brazzaville Republic of Congo.
    Feldpausch, Ted R.
    College of Life and Environmental Sciences University of Exeter Exeter UK.
    Falster, Daniel
    Evolution & Ecology Research Centre University of New South Wales Sydney Sydney New South Wales Australia.
    Usoltsev, Vladimir A.
    Department of Forestry Ural State Forest Engineering University Yekaterinburg Russia;Department of Forest Dynamics Botanical Garden of the Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences Yekaterinburg Russia.
    Adu‐Bredu, Stephen
    Forestry Research Institute of Ghana, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research University Kumasi Ghana.
    Alves, Luciana F.
    Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles California USA.
    Aminpour, Mohammad
    Natural Recourses and Watershed Management Office, West Azerbaijan Province Urmia Iran.
    Angoboy, Ilondea B.
    Institut National pour l'Etude et la Recherche Agronimiques Democratic Republic of the Congo.
    Anten, Niels P. R.
    Center for Crop Systems Analysis Wageningen University Wageningen The Netherlands.
    Antin, Cécile
    AMAP Lab Montpellier University, IRD, CIRAD, CNRS, INRAE Montpellier France.
    Askari, Yousef
    Research Division of Natural Resources, Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO Yasouj Iran.
    Muñoz, Rodrigo
    Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán Ciudad de México Mexico;Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group Wageningen University Wageningen The Netherlands.
    Ayyappan, Narayanan
    Department of Ecology French Institute of Pondicherry Puducherry India.
    Balvanera, Patricia
    Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Morelia Michoacán Mexico.
    Banin, Lindsay
    UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Edinburgh UK.
    Barbier, Nicolas
    AMAP Lab Montpellier University, IRD, CIRAD, CNRS, INRAE Montpellier France.
    Battles, John J.
    University of California Berkeley Berkeley California USA.
    Beeckman, Hans
    Service of Wood Biology Royal Museum for Central Africa Tervuren Belgium.
    Bocko, Yannick E.
    Laboratoire de Biodiversité, de Gestion des Ecosystèmes et de l'Environnement (LBGE), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques Université Marien Ngouabi Brazzaville Republic of Congo.
    Bond‐Lamberty, Ben
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Joint Global Change Research Institute College Park Maryland USA.
    Bongers, Frans
    Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group Wageningen University Wageningen The Netherlands.
    Bowers, Samuel
    School of GeoSciences University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.
    Brade, Thomas
    School of GeoSciences University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.
    van Breugel, Michiel
    Yale‐NUS College Singapore;ForestGEO Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Apartado Panama Republic of Panama;Department of Geography National University of Singapore Singapore.
    Chantrain, Arthur
    Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro‐Bio Tech Gembloux Belgium.
    Chaudhary, Rajeev
    Division Forest Office Ministry of Forest Dhangadhi Sudurpashchim Province Nepal.
    Dai, Jingyu
    College of Urban and Environmental Sciences and MOE Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes Peking University Beijing China.
    Dalponte, Michele
    Research and Innovation Centre, Fondazione Edmund Mach San Michele all'Adige Italy.
    Dimobe, Kangbéni
    Institut des Sciences de l'Environnement et du Développement Rural (ISEDR) Université de Dédougou Dédougou Burkina Faso.
    Domec, Jean‐Christophe
    Bordeaux Sciences Agro‐UMR ISPA, INRAE Bordeaux France;Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham NC USA.
    Doucet, Jean‐Louis
    Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro‐Bio Tech Gembloux Belgium.
    Duursma, Remko A.
    Shinto Labs Eindhoven The Netherlands.
    Enríquez, Moisés
    Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán Ciudad de México Mexico.
    van Ewijk, Karin Y.
    Department of Geography and Planning, Queen's University Kingston Ontario Canada.
    Farfán‐Rios, William
    Department of Biology Washington University in St Louis St Louis Missouri USA.
    Fayolle, Adeline
    Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro‐Bio Tech Gembloux Belgium.
    Forni, Eric
    CIRAD, UPR Forêts et Sociétés Montpellier France.
    Forrester, David I.
    CSIRO Land and Water Canberra Australian Capital Territory Australia.
    Gilani, Hammad
    Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad Highway Islamabad Pakistan.
    Godlee, John L.
    School of GeoSciences University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.
    Gourlet‐Fleury, Sylvie
    CIRAD, UPR Forêts et Sociétés Montpellier France.
    Haeni, Matthias
    Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Hall, Jefferson S.
    ForestGEO Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute Apartado Panama Republic of Panama.
    He, Jie‐Kun
    Spatial Ecology Lab, School of Life Sciences South China Normal University Guangzhou Guangdong China.
    Tallo: A global tree allometry and crown architecture database2022In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 28, no 17, p. 5254-5268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data capturing multiple axes of tree size and shape, such as a tree's stem diameter, height and crown size, underpin a wide range of ecological research—from developing and testing theory on forest structure and dynamics, to estimating forest carbon stocks and their uncertainties, and integrating remote sensing imagery into forest monitoring programmes. However, these data can be surprisingly hard to come by, particularly for certain regions of the world and for specific taxonomic groups, posing a real barrier to progress in these fields.

    To overcome this challenge, we developed the Tallo database, a collection of 498,838 georeferenced and taxonomically standardized records of individual trees for which stem diameter, height and/or crown radius have been measured. These data were collected at 61,856 globally distributed sites, spanning all major forested and non-forested biomes. The majority of trees in the database are identified to species (88%), and collectively Tallo includes data for 5163 species distributed across 1453 genera and 187 plant families. The database is publicly archived under a CC-BY 4.0 licence and can be access from: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6637599.

    To demonstrate its value, here we present three case studies that highlight how the Tallo database can be used to address a range of theoretical and applied questions in ecology—from testing the predictions of metabolic scaling theory, to exploring the limits of tree allometric plasticity along environmental gradients and modelling global variation in maximum attainable tree height. In doing so, we provide a key resource for field ecologists, remote sensing researchers and the modelling community working together to better understand the role that trees play in regulating the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  • 14. Karlsson, P.E.
    et al.
    Akselsson, C.
    Hellsten, S.
    Pihl Karlsson, G.
    Twenty years of nitrogen deposition to Norway spruce forests in Sweden2022In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 809, p. 152192-152192, article id 152192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The yearly, total (dry+wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen (inorg-N) to Norway spruce forests was estimated with afull spatial coverage over Sweden for a twenty-year period, 2001–2020, based on combined measurements with Teflonstring samplers, throughfall deposition and bulk deposition to the open field.

    The results were based on a novel methodto apply estimates of the dry deposition based on measurements at a limited number of sites, to a larger number of siteswith only bulk deposition measurements, in turn based on the existence of a strong geographical gradient in the dry depositionof inorg-N from southwest to northeast Sweden. The method should be applicable for other geographical regionswhere gaseous NH3, NO2 and HNO3 are not main drivers of N dry deposition and where geographical gradientsin dry deposition could be defined.

    It was shown that Norway spruce forests in south Sweden receive more N from depositionthan has been previously estimated, based onmodelling. Clear time trends were demonstrated for decreased depositionof inorg-N to Norway spruce forests in all parts of Sweden. The decreaseswere somewhat larger thanwhat couldbe expected from the decrease in the reported emissions of inorg-N from Europe. The results emphasize that estimates of the total deposition are necessary in order to map levels and follow the development of N deposition in forests.

  • 15.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reamon, Molly C.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet / Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 1 Nulägesanalys av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar i Sverige.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems and they contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus and Ostrea banks have declined in number and extent in Europe, and there are also strong indications of a similar situation for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, knowledge of population sizes is generally lacking, which makes assessments of population development difficult.

    The threat assessment carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus and Ostrea beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalve beds in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. Swedish populations are, however, more or less spared from these factors and other aspects can therefore be assumed to have a greater impact on popu-lation development. However, other factors can also affect population development. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) will worsen the conditions for Mytilus and Ostrea stocks in Sweden.

    In this project, data from historical (1970s onwards) surveys was compiled with the aim of evaluating whether analysis of temporal changes in bivalve populations was possible. A review of historical data from Bohuslän did not generate any time series that could contribute to an as-sessment of the population development of Mytilus and Ostrea.

    In addition, the review showed that the survey methods used differed between studies and over time, and that there was a lack of a standardized definition of what is designated as a bivalve bed. Overall, this illustrates the need for continuity and standardized monitoring of bivalve beds, including a clear definition of what counts as a bivalve bed. This could support the development of time series to monitoring trends in the population development of the target species.

    The compilation of the historical data was also combined with a threat analysis focusing on interactions with the invasive Pacific oyster, with mapping of current distribution patterns and monitoring to evaluate present day population development, as well as with an analysis of short-term changes in population distribution and/or densities. This information was combined in an analysis aimed to evaluate the current status of the Mytilus and Ostrea beds.

    The threat analysis showed that, in the short term, the main threat to the Swedish bivalve populations is probably disease outbreaks and parasites due to the continued commercial importation of live shellfish. In a more long-term perspective, climate change and the increasing presence of environmental tox-ins may pose serious threats to shallow, coastal, environments. Even though the invasive Pacific oyster to a large extent has overlapping habitats and ecological functions with the native species, no signs of negative interactions with the native bivalves were observed in this project.

    Monitor-ing of population development in selected bivalve beds showed a decrease in density of both Mytilus and Ostrea over the projects lifetime (2018-2021), a pattern that was also strengthened for Mytilus through the results of the re-survey of previously surveyed beds. For Ostrea, the re-survey of previously surveyed sites showed a more scattered pattern with an increase in the number of oysters in some beds while the number of oysters in other beds had decreased.

    Overall, it was concluded that it is likely that a reduction in Mytilus occurred during the 1990s and has continued onwards, and that more information is required to determine both the extent and cause of the patterns observed.

    Based on the results in this project, four main actions are recommended to improve the state of knowledge for both Mytilus and Ostrea. Firstly, species-specific definitions of what is regarded as a bivalve bed should be developed. The definition should include information on cover-age/density, size, patchiness, and presence of Pacific oysters. The definition should also be aligned with international frameworks and take field conditions into account.

    Second, monitor-ing programs that record distribution and changes in demographic parameters (e.g., population density/recovery/biomass, recruitment, mortality, and growth) for both Mytilus and Ostrea should be established. Time series of data is the only thing that enables the analysis of population development and the identification of threats.

    Thirdly, infrastructure and routines for storing inventory data and implementation in accordance with the FAIR principle are needed to ensure that historical data is not lost. A lot of data is lost when it is stored within specific projects and with individuals. As data is often collected within ongoing research projects, solutions for storage with a publication embargo for actors other than those who collected the data should be ex-plored.

    Finally, continued knowledge building is required about both general and specific threats and possible measures that can reduce the threats. Examples of such activities are impact analy-sis of various risk factors and combinations of these, knowledge development about the effects of harvesting of wild Ostrea and establishment of activity-based management, and knowledge de-velopment regarding food competition and other interactions between Pacific oysters and our native bivalves.

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  • 16. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    J�rundsd�ttir, Hr�nn
    Nor�n, Fredrik
    Lloyd, Hywel
    Talvitie, Julia
    Set�l�, Outi
    Microlitter in sewage treatment systems2016In: TemaNord report 2016:510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microscopic litter particles in the sea is a problem that has received considerable attention over the past decade. There are numerous possible sources to these microparticles and also numerous ways by which they may reach the marine environment. In order to take efficient measures to reduce the concentrations important sources and entrance routes have to be identified. Effluent water from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is one entrance route for microlitter to the sea and other aquatic environments. The purpose of the present study has been to quantify the amount of litter particles being discharged into the sea this way and also to investigate whether elevated microlitter concentrations could be detected in water, sediment and biota in the STP recipient areas.

    The study was limited to particles ≥300 μm in water and particles ≥100 μm in biota and sediment.The microlitter content was analysed in influent and effluent water at two STPs in each of Sweden, Finland and Iceland. Analyses of microlitter concentrations in water, sediment and biota were done in the recipient to one of the STPs in each country. Two major groups of microlitter were registered; microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibers (e.g. cotton).The study showed that in the Swedish and Finnish STPs more than 99.7% of the microlitter particles ≥300 μmThe plume of waste water coming from the discharge tube was fairly easy to detect in the Swedish and Finnish STP recipients. In both these recipients the microlitter concentrations in the plumes were found to be significantly higher than in water at the reference sites.

    The Swedish STP recipient water was localized in a river mouth in a heavily urbanized and industrialized area but the microlitter concentration in the waste water plume was still distinctly elevated compared to the water unaffected by the waste water.Microlitter concentrations in the recipient to the Swedish STP were found to be considerably lower when sampling during a period with no precipitation compared to sampling during a heavy rainfall, 1.9 microplastics and 1.5 non-synthetic fibres per m3 compared to 10.5 microplastics per m3 and non-synthetic fibers too numerous to be counted. In the Finnish recipient the concentrations were on average 12.7 microplastics and 11.3 non-syntheic fibres per m3 on the first sampling occasion and 0.7 microplastic and 6.7 non-synthetic fibres per m3 on the second. The difference could not be explained by any obvious climatolocial factors since both samplings were carried out during periods of dry weather. The microplastic concentrations in the Icelandic STP recipient water were slightly elevated compared to the reference site, and the difference was larger for the non-synthetic fibres than for the microplastics.

    Concentrations of microplastics varied between 2 and 5 litter particles per m3 at both sites. The small difference between the STP recipient and the reference site was probably at least partly due to the fact that the discharge point was localized in an area with an open coastline and a very good water circulation.Microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibres were detected in biota and sediment from the waste water recipient areas in all countries but it was not possible to trace them with any certainty to the waste water effluents.The study shows that STP effluents are entrance routes for microplastics and other microlitter particles to the aquatic environment. If the plants are equipped with chemical and biological treatment most of the litter particles in influent waste water will be retained in the sewage sludge. This reduces the impact on the recipient water, but if the sludge for example is to be used as an agricultural fertilizer the microlitter will still be spread to the environment. Efforts to reduce the microlitter concentrations in waste water should therefore preferably be done in households and other locations where the waste water is originally being formed.

  • 17. Marchetto, Aldo
    et al.
    Simpson, David
    Aas, Wenche
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Hansen, Karin
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Rogora, Michela
    Sanders, Tanja G. M.
    Schmitz, Andreas
    Seidling, Walter
    Thimonier, Anne
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    de Vries, Wim
    Waldner, Peter
    Good Agreement Between Modeled and Measured Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition in Europe, in Spite of Marked Differences in Some Sites2021In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition is an important effect of atmospheric pollution and may affect forest ecosystems positively, for example enhancing tree growth, or negatively, for example causing acidification, eutrophication, cation depletion in soil or nutritional imbalances in trees. To assess and design measures to reduce the negative impacts of deposition, a good estimate of the deposition amount is needed, either by direct measurement or by modeling.

    In order to evaluate the precision of both approaches and to identify possible improvements, we compared the deposition estimates obtained using an Eulerian model with the measurements performed by two large independent networks covering most of Europe. The results are in good agreement (bias <25%) for sulfate and nitrate open field deposition, while larger differences are more evident for ammonium deposition, likely due to the greater influence of local ammonia sources. Modeled sulfur total deposition compares well with throughfall deposition measured in forest plots, while the estimate of nitrogen deposition is affected by the tree canopy. The geographical distribution of pollutant deposition and of outlier sites where model and measurements show larger differences are discussed.

  • 18.
    Meeussen, Ccamille
    et al.
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Pauw, Karen
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Gasperini, Cristina
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium;Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UMR CNRS 7058 « Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés » (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Selvi, Frederico
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UMR CNRS 7058 « Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés » (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Uria Diez, Jaime
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Frenne, P.
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Initial oak regeneration responses to experimental warming along microclimatic and macroclimatic gradients2022In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 745-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quercus spp. are one of the most important tree genera in temperate deciduous forests in terms of biodiversity, economic and cultural perspectives.

    However, natural regeneration of oaks, depending on specific environmental conditions, is still not sufficiently understood.

    Oak regeneration dynamics are impacted by climate change, but these climate impacts will depend on local forest management and light and temperature conditions.

  • 19.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Dept of Biology, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium;Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Dept of Physical Geography, Stockholm Univ. Stockholm Sweden;IVL, Swedish Environmental Research Inst. Stockholm Sweden.
    Kimberley, Adam
    Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Dept of Physical Geography, Stockholm Univ. Stockholm Sweden.
    Bullock, James M.
    UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Wallingford UK.
    Hellemans, Bart
    Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Dept of Biology, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium.
    Hooftman, Danny A. P.
    Lactuca Amsterdam the Netherlands.
    Krickl, Patricia
    Univ. of Regensburg Regensburg Germany.
    Leus, Leen
    Plant Sciences Unit, Flanders Inst. for Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Melle Belgium.
    Peeters, Gerrit
    Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Dept of Biology, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium.
    Poschlod, Peter
    Univ. of Regensburg Regensburg Germany.
    Traveset, Anna
    Global Change Research Group, Mediterranean Inst. for Advanced Studies Mallorca Spain.
    Volckaert, Filip
    Biodiversity and Evolutionary Genomics, Dept of Biology, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Landscape, Environment and Geomatics, Dept of Physical Geography, Stockholm Univ. Stockholm Sweden.
    Honnay, Olivier
    Plant Conservation and Population Biology, Dept of Biology, KU Leuven Leuven Belgium.
    Green infrastructure can promote plant functional connectivity in a grassland species around fragmented semi‐natural grasslands in NW‐Europe2022In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species may benefit from green infrastructure, i.e. the network of natural and anthropogenic habitat remnants in human-dominated landscapes, if it helps isolated populations in remaining habitat patches to be functionally connected. The importance of green infrastructure is therefore increasingly emphasized in conservation policy to counter biodiversity loss. However, there is limited evidence, particularly in plants, that green infrastructure promotes functional connectivity, i.e. supports the colonization of habitat patches across a landscape. We applied landscape genetics to test whether the green infrastructure supports structural and functional connectivity in the grassland perennial Galium verum, in 35 landscapes in Belgium, Germany and Sweden. We used multivariate genetic clustering techniques, nestedness analyses and conditional inference trees to examine landscape-scale patterns in genetic diversity and structure of plant populations in the green infrastructure surrounding semi-natural grasslands. Inferred functional connectivity explained genetic variation better than structural connectivity, yielding positive effects on genetic variation.

    The road verge network, a major structural component of the green infrastructure and its functional connectivity, most effectively explained genetic diversity and composition in G. verum. Galium verum ramets occupying the surrounding landscape proved to be genetic subsets of focal grassland populations, shaping a nested landscape population genetic structure with focal grasslands, particularly ancient ones, harbouring unique genetic diversity. This nested pattern weakened as road network density increased, suggesting road verge networks enable high landscape occupancy by increased habitat availability and facilitates gene flow into the surrounding landscape. Our study proposes that green infrastructure can promote functional connectivity, providing that a plant species can survive outside of core habitat patches. As this often excludes habitat specialist species, conservation practice and policy should primarily focus on ancient, managed semi-natural grasslands. These grasslands both harbour unique genetic diversity and act as primary gene and propagule sources for the surrounding landscape, highlighting their conservation value.

  • 20.
    Strand, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet och Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane. T
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 2 - Metoder för restaurering och skydd av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organ-isms and to several other important ecosystem services. In recent years, both Mytilus- and Os-trea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden.

    For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Conservation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodiversity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    The threat analysis carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalves in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. The Swedish bivalve populations, however, are more or less spared from these impact factors. Nevertheless, other factors can also affect population de-velopment. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster may impact the populations of Mytilus and Ostrea in Sweden negatively.

    All in all, there are good reasons to explore the possible alternatives for supporting the development of the Mytilus- and Ostrea-populations, and also methods that could be used if the Pacific oyster prove to impact the native bivalve populations negatively. The purpose of this project was therefore to produce a knowledge base for the establishment of management models for the pro-tection of Sweden's populations of Mytilus and Ostrea. Part of this work include knowledge building, both theoretical and practical, about possible restoration measures of bivalve beds, e.g. removal of Pacific oysters or stock enhancement.

    To summarise, a number of performed activities are discussed in this report, including a removal experiment in which Pacific oysters were removed from both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds, a stock enhancement experiment with Ostrea in which juveniles of Ostrea were placed on different sites, and several different studies on stock enhancement of Mytilus, including studies of biological conditions and methodology for population enhancement.

    The removal experiments demonstrated that it was possible to clear Pacific oysters from bivalve beds but that this is time consuming and complicated, especially in Mytilus beds. In terms of numbers of oysters the effect of the removal was short-lived. Already one year after the removal, the number of Pacific oysters was equal, or higher, to the number before the experiment. In terms of biomass, however, many of the cleared sites did not show complete recovery och the biomass of the invasive species. How long the recolonization time was before the original biomass was re-established is unknown, but calculations indicate that this time is longer than for the abundance of oysters. Better technologies must be developed for more resource-efficient efforts if this type of activity is to be carried out regularly. Additionally, ways to utilize the harvested biomass of Pacific oysters must be established.

    The stock enhancement experiments also showed that it was possible to re-establish bivalve beds on a pilot scale. Even in sites with good conditions, however, the target species will decrease after relaying. In the experiments performed, the survival of Ostrea (about 30-50 mm in length when re-laid) on the best sites was only about 16% after 2 years, and for Mytilus the cover of mussels (a mixture of large and small mussels) decreased by almost 50% in one year and the survival was about 20% after this period of time. In general, predation was observed to be a problem for both species. Small and medium-sized Mytilus were greatly affected by eider duck, while shore crabs caused high mortality for Ostrea. Site-specific conditions were also of great importance for the success of the experiments.

    Examples of factors discussed in this report are, in addition to the presence of predators, also ice-cover, substrate, the possibility of moving in organisms for resto-ration experiments/activities, depth and exposure. It is obvious that much can be gained from solid preparatory work before stock enhancement activities are initiated. The experiences from the project also illustrate the importance of protection against exploitation of the restored populations and a good relationship with authorities and landowners.

    A unique activity in the project that, to our knowledge, has not been tested before is the use of residual mussels from commercial mussel production for stock enhancement of Mytilus. By using waste mussels, increased circularity and improved resource utilization in aquaculture produc-tion can be achieved, with both ecological and economic gains as important natural environments are recreated and costs for waste management from production is reduced for the aquaculture companies.

    However, it remains to be explored how extensive this type of activity can be as the goal in mussel farming is, of course, to produce a product without fouling.

    In addition, the regulatory conditions for this type of use must be established.Finally, the report discusses a number of development needs that should be studied further be-fore future stock enhancement experiments. Among these aspects, monitoring of ongoing activi-ties and success rate of restoration should be implemented, guidelines for site selection should be established, optimized techniques for restoration adapted to local conditions should be devel-oped, and the ecosystem services that the bivalve beds can support should be documented in future work.

    An important part of this is to learn from existing knowledge but also to put this knowledge into a local context with the goal of identifying important knowledge gaps for context relevant activities. Combined, these activities can be a first step towards establishing a manual for the restoration of mussels and oysters in Sweden.

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  • 21.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce sulfur emission from global shipping, exhaust gas cleaning systemsare increasingly being installed on board commercial ships. These so-called scrubbers extractSOX by spraying water into the exhaust gas. An effluent is created which is either releaseddirectly to the sea (open-loop system) or treated to remove harmful substances beforerelease (closed-loop system). We found severe toxic effects in the ubiquitous planktoniccopepod Calanus helgolandicus of exposure to effluents from two closed-loop systems andone open-loop system on North Sea ships.

    The effluents contained high concentrations ofheavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including alkylated PAHs. Weobserved significantly elevated mortality rates and impaired molting already in the lowesttested concentrations of each effluent: 0.04 and 0.1% closed-loop effluents and 1% open-loopeffluent. These concentrations correspond to total hydrocarbon concentrations of 2.8, 2.0,and 3.8 μg L−1, respectively, and compared to previous studies on oil toxicity in copepods,scrubber effluents appear more toxic than, for example, crude oil. None of the individualPAHs or heavy metals analyzed in the effluents occurred in concentrations which couldexplain the high toxicity. The effluents showed unexpected alkylated PAH profiles, and we hypothesize that scrubbers act as witch’scauldrons where undesired toxic compounds form so that the high toxicity stems from compounds we know very little about.

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