IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Gustavsson Binder, Tobias
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svedberg, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Styrmedel för elektrifiering av vägtransporter, sjöfart och arbetsmaskiner2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, a survey of policies for the electrification of road transport, maritime transport, and working machinery is presented. The report was commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and carried out by the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.In the survey, we have focused on national policies with a direct impact on electrification.

    The main focus has been on the Nordic countries (Norway, Finland, and Denmark), but some comparisons have been made when there was value in finding more examples. Sweden has not been included in the survey.

    The policies described include incentives for the purchase of vehicles, vessels, and machinery, incentives for operation and ownership, administrative regulations aimed at supporting the use of electric alternatives, procurement requirements, as well as support, requirements, and investments related to charging infrastructure. We have included both current policies and policies that have been decided but not yet implemented. In some cases, we have also described policies that have been discontinued.In the survey, we have not examined policies with an indirect impact on electrification of these three segments, such as carbon dioxide taxes or investments in electricity production and grids. We have also not looked at policies or other initiatives at municipal, regional, or EU levels.For passenger cars, the survey shows that there is a wide range of policies, while several countries have phased out or even abolished certain policies.

    An important observation here is how different policies affect the flow of electric cars in the second-hand market, where Sweden has long struggled with the export of many electric cars.The survey of policies for heavy road transport shows that several countries provide support for the purchase of electric trucks and incentivize the operation of electric trucks through reductions in distance-based taxes.For shipping, the survey shows that relatively few countries have introduced incentives for this transport sector. However, Norway stands out through the introduction of investment support, procurement requirements, and a national action plan for green shipping.

    The survey of policies for working machinery shows that few countries currently have such policies. However, we have found examples in Norway and the Netherlands of support for the purchase of electric machinery, support for the conversion of fossil fuel machinery, support for feasibility studies before purchase, and investments in fossil-free construction sites within state infrastructure projects. Norway also has support for mobile charging stations.

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  • 2.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Davíðsdóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Iceland.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Koosup Yum, Kevin
    Sintef Ocean AS.
    Latapí, Mauricio
    University of Iceland.
    Lundström, Helena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenersen, Dag
    Sintef Ocean AS.
    Wimby, Per
    Stena Rederi AB.
    Burgren, Johan
    PowerCell Sweden AB.
    HOPE - Hydrogen fuel cells solutions in Nordic shipping. Project summary: A Nordic Maritime Transport and Energy Research Programme Project2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries aim for a carbon-neutral Nordic region. Maritime transport is one of the key remaining sectors to decarbonize and is important from a Nordic perspective due to the relatively large Nordic involvement in this industry. The HOPE project addresses how regional shipping in the Nordic region can do the transition to become fossil-free. The project aims at clarifying the potential role of hydrogen based marine solutions in reducing the Nordic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the centre of the project is a ship concept where a typical RoPax-vessel with operating distances of around 100 nautical miles is designed for including operation with hydrogen as fuel and fuel cells for energy conversion. The overall design of the concept ship is compared with selected other fuel alternatives from a cost perspective. 

    Further, both the conditions for designing such a ship and the consequences are studied. The conditions include technical design and costs of fuel systems and handling, powertrains etc. but also an analysis of barriers and drivers for the realisation of hydrogen solutions for shipping, such as economic, legal, and policy issues. For example, in terms of drivers, policy options needed to accelerate the uptake of hydrogen based marine solutions are assessed. Strategies and the potential of producing these fuels in the Nordic region are also reviewed from a shipping perspective. A realistic potential for uptake of these technologies/fuels by Nordic shipping are assessed and the benefits regarding lower emissions of GHGs and air pollutants are estimated. This report summarizes the assessments made in the HOPE project including main findings. 

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  • 3.
    Hult, Cecilia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Merelli, Luca
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Styrmedel för minskade NOX-utsläpp från vägtrafik i scenarier med skärpta EU-krav för fordons CO2-utsläpp2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med projektet var att beräkna utsläpp av CO2, NOX och partiklar från vägtrafiken i ett scenario där EU antar skärpta krav på CO2-utsläpp från nya fordon. Dessutom beräknas effekten av ytterligare styrmedel.  Beräkningarna visar att skärpta EU-krav har liten effekten på utsläppen till 2030, eftersom striktare krav till inte hinner ha någon betydande effekt till dess. Efter 2030 är effekten från EU-kraven större. Styrmedelsanalysen visar att nya avgasnormer (Euro 7) är det styrmedel som har störst effekt på NOX och partiklar. För CO2 är utsläppsminskningarna små för alla styrmedel.

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  • 4.
    Lundström, Helena
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roth, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wisell, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bergström Jonsson, Per
    Low Emission Zone in Sarajevo- Implementation and Developmen2022Report (Other academic)
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    C728 Development of Low emission zone in Sarajevo
  • 5. Romson, Åsa
    et al.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    Rydstedt, Anton
    Tillståndsvillkor för klimatutsläpp rörande transporter till och från hamnar och flygplatser – rättsligt olämpligt eller rimlig styrning mot klimatmålen?2021In: Nordisk miljörättslig tidskrift, Vol. 1, p. 33-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate issues has in recent years been raised in relation to different parts of the legal system. This article asks the question whether it would be legally appropriate for environmental permits for transport-intensive facilities in Sweden to include conditions which aims to limit the climate impact from transports. In examining case law both barriers and support for the use of such conditions is found. In this regard a mapping is conducted of the largest ports and airports in Sweden and their permits including the conditions. This revealed the use of ‘soft-transport conditions’ and difficulties in the permit process to fully assess possible transport measures. The article discusses whether conditions can be set based on transport efficient measures that are highlighted in transport research.A conclusion is that permit conditions on transports based on climate considerations could be a complement to general climate policy instruments in the transport sector such as fuel taxes and vehicle requirements. Permit conditions have the advantage that they can be adapted to a specific situation and directly affect the transport choices possible in that situation, which would support transport efficiency as a main strategy to reduce climate emissions.

  • 6.
    Styhre, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Santén, Vendela
    Green, Lars
    Aktörssamverkan för ökad och hållbar närsjöfart;2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att förstå hur en ökad och hållbar containeriserad närsjöfart kan uppnås med utgångspunkt i hur rederier, varuägare, speditörer och hamnar i aktörssamverkan kan utveckla konkurrenskraftiga transportlösningar.

    En modell för aktörssamverkan har utvecklats som tillsammans med ökad förståelse för aktörernas roller och relationer samt krav på leveransservice och miljö, resulterat i slutsatser och rekommendationer för att närsjöfarten ska kunna nyttjas i större utsträckning samt möjliggöra initiativ för en hållbarare sjöfart.

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