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  • 1.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Oliveira, Dinis Reis
    Chalmers.
    Granhag, Lena
    Chalmers.
    Larsson, Ann I.
    Univeristy of Gothenburg.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers.
    Are silicone foul-release coatings a viable and environmentally sustainable alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings in the Baltic Sea region?2022Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 184, s. 114102-114102, artikel-id 114102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To combat unwanted fouling on immersed hulls, biocidal antifouling coatings are commonly applied to vessels trafficking the Baltic Sea. Here, the efficacy, environmental sustainability and market barriers of silicone foul-release coatings (FRCs) was assessed for this region to evaluate their viability as replacements for biocidal coatings. Coated panels were exposed statically over a 1 year period at three locations in the Baltic Sea region to assess the long-term performance of a biocide-free FRC and two copper coatings. The FRC was found to perform equally well or significantly better than the copper coatings. Even though most silicone FRCs on the market are biocide-free, a review of the literature regarding toxic effects and the identity and environmental fate of leachables shows that they may not be completely environmentally benign, simply for the lack of biocides. Nonetheless, FRCs are substantially less toxic compared to biocidal antifouling coatings and their use should be promoted.

  • 2. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    Johansson, Lasse
    Smailys, Vytautas
    Telemo, Paul
    Winnes, Hulda
    Risk assessment of bilge water discharges in two Baltic shipping lanes2018Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 126, s. 575-584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concentrations and effects of bilge water contaminants in two Baltic Sea areas were estimatedfrom modelling of discharge rates and analytical data on bilge water from seven ships. Biodegradation of bilgewater oil was accounted for and annual water concentrations were estimated to peak in late spring, whichcoincides with the beginning of a period with extensive biological activities in the sea.

    Concentrations on bilgewater metals were calculated both as water concentrations and as the annual contribution of metals to sediments.The predicted bilge water concentrations of oil and metal in the marine environment were estimated tobe 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower than reported toxic concentrations. However, available toxicity data arebased on short term exposure and there is to date limited information on toxic effects of the small but chronicallyelevated contaminant concentrations derived from bilge water discharge and other operational shipping activities.

  • 3.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Norén, Fredrik
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Distribution and abundance of surface water microlitter in the Baltic Sea: A comparison of two sampling methods2016Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, nr 110, s. 177-183Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods for marine microlitter sampling were compared in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea: manta trawl (333μm) and a submersible pump (300 or 100μm). Concentrations of microlitter (microplastics, combustion particles, non-synthetic fibres) in the samples collected with both methods and filter sizes remained <10particlesm(-3). The pump with 100μm filter gave higher microlitter concentrations compared to manta trawl or pump with 300μm filter.

    Manta sampling covers larger areas, but is potentially subjected to contamination during sample processing and does not give precise volumetric values. Using a submerged pump allows method controls, use of different filter sizes and gives exact volumetric measures. Both devices need relatively calm weather for operation. The choice of the method in general depends on the aim of the study. For monitoring environmentally relevant size fractions of microlitter the use of 100μm or smaller mesh size is recommended for the Baltic Sea.

  • 4. Tiselius, Peter
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Toxicity of treated bilge water: The need for revised regulatory control2017Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 114, nr 2, s. 860-866Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Water accumulating in the bottom of ships (bilge water), contains a mixture of oil, detergents and other compounds from on board activities. To evaluate ecological effects of released bilge water the chemical composition and toxicity of treated bilge water from seven passenger ships was analysed. The oil content was below 15 mg L−1, the threshold for legal discharge, in all but one ship.

    Still, significant reductions in feeding and reproduction of Acartia tonsa were found after 48 h exposure in dilutions with 2.5–5% of bilgewater.Mortality was significant at dilutions of 5–10% in 4 of the 5 bilge water samples. Surfactantswere the most significant contributor to the toxicity on copepod vital rates and survival. Toxicity was also tested with Microtox where an EC50 was found at dilutions between 4.3% and 52%. The results showthat ecological effectsmight occur also in diluted suspensions of bilge water.

  • 5. Ytreberg, Erik
    et al.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hermansson, Anna Lunde
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Lagerström, Maria
    Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Metal and PAH loads from ships and boats, relative other sources, in the Baltic Sea2022Ingår i: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 182, s. 113904-113904, artikel-id 113904Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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