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  • 1.
    Bibi, Momina
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure2017Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier.

    The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266 μg/g dust, respectively, and the nonphthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73 μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foammattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling roomwere associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust.

    Children's exposure frompreschool dust ingestionwas belowestablished health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2–27% of the total exposure.Wefound significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

  • 2.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, s. 115–126-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways.

    Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH.

    Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 3.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Anh Nguyen, Minh
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Arwidsson, Maria
    Lagerqvist, Anne
    Reduction of hazardous chemicals in Swedish preschool dust through article substitution actions2019Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 4.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms–Implications for indoor exposure.2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, nr 119, s. 493-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Winkens, K
    Koponen, J
    Berger, U
    Karvonen, AM
    Pekkanen, J
    Kiviranta, H
    Cousins, IT
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms - Implications for indoor exposure,2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, s. 493-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5.26 ng/g for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). However, the dust samples were dominated by polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (highest medians: 53.9 ng/g for 6:2 diPAP and 45.7 ng/g for 8:2 FTOH). Several significant and strong correlations (up to ρ = 0.95) were found among different PFASs in dust as well as between PFASs in dust and air samples (previously published) from the same rooms. The logarithm of dust to air concentrations (log Kdust/air) plotted against the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficient (log Koa) resulted in a significant linear regression line with R2 > 0.88. Higher dust levels of PFOS were detected in rooms with plastic flooring material in comparison to wood (p < 0.05). Total estimated daily intakes via dust (EDIdust) and air (EDIair) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), including biotransformation of precursors to PFAAs, were calculated for 10.5-year-old children. The total EDIdust for PFOA and PFOS were estimated to be 0.007 ng/kg bw/day and 0.006 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, in an intermediate exposure scenario. The sum of the total EDIs for all PFAAs was slightly higher for dust than air (0.027 and 0.019 ng/kg bw/day). Precursor biotransformation was generally important for total PFOS intake, while for the PFCAs, FTOH biotransformation was estimated to be important for air, but not for dust exposure.

  • 6.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sackmann, K.
    Reemtsma, T.
    Bunke, D.
    Impact of European chemicals regulation on the industrial use of plasticizers and patterns of substitution in Scandinavia,2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 2018, nr 119, s. 346–352-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of chemicals regulation on substitution of chemicals by analyzing time trends in the industrial use of chemicals from 2000 to 2014 in Scan-dinavia. It is shown that the use of ten water-relevant SVHCs decreased by about 90% in the considered period in Sweden as compared to a control group of unregulated substances which decreased by only 20%. A closer inspection of the use of 23 highly used plasticizers revealed that the use of regulated phthalate plasticizers decreased while the use of non-phthalate plasticizers increased.

  • 7.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Historical human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids in the United States and Australia reconstructed from biomonitoring data using population-based pharmacokinetic modelling2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 92-102, nr 108Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS) are found in the blood of humans and wildlife worldwide. Since the beginning of the 21st century, a downward trend in the human body burden, especially for PFOS and PFOA, has been observed while there is no clear temporal trend in wildlife. The inconsistency between the concentration decline in human serum and in wildlife could be indicative of a historical exposure pathway for humans linked to consumer products that has been reduced or eliminated.

    In this study, we reconstruct the past human exposure trends in two different regions, USA and Australia, by inferring the historical intake from cross-sectional biomonitoring data of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS using a population-based pharmacokinetic model. For PFOS in the USA, the reconstructed daily intake peaked at 4.5ng/kg-bw/day between 1988 and 1999 while in Australia it peaked at 4.0ng/kg-bw/day between 1984 and 1996. For PFOA in the USA and Australia, the peak reconstructed daily intake was 1.1ng/kg-bw/day in 1995 and 3.6ng/kg-bw/day in 1992, respectively, and started to decline in 2000 and 1995, respectively. The model could not be satisfactorily fitted to the biomonitoring data for PFHxS within reasonable boundaries for its intrinsic elimination half-life, and thus reconstructing intakes of PFHxS was not possible.

    Our results indicate that humans experienced similar exposure levels and trends to PFOS and PFOA in the USA and Australia. Our findings support the hypothesis that near-field consumer product exposure pathways were likely dominant prior to the phase-out in industrialized countries. The intrinsic elimination half-life, which represents elimination processes that are common for all humans, and elimination processes unique to women (i.e., menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding) were also investigated. The intrinsic elimination half-lives for PFOS and PFOA derived from model fitting for men were 3.8 and 2.4years, respectively, for the USA, and 4.9 and 2years respectively for Australia. Our results show that menstruation is a depuration pathway for PFOA for women, similarly but to a lesser extent compared to previous reports for PFOS.

    However menstruation, cord-blood transfer and breastfeeding together do not fully explain the apparently more rapid elimination of PFOA and PFOS by women compared to men; the intrinsic elimination half-lives in women were up to 13% lower for PFOS and up to 12% lower for PFOA compared to the corresponding half-lives in men.

  • 8.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Winkens, K.
    Koponen, J.
    Berger, U.
    M. Karvonen, A.
    Cousins, I.T.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms–Implications for indoor exposure.2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, nr 119, s. 493-502.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    indoor exposure to contaminants

  • 9.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Gomis, M.
    Borg, D.
    Cousins, I.T.
    Comparing the toxic potency in vivo of long-chain perfluoroalkyl acids and fluorinated alternatives.2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, nr 113, s. 1-9.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    toxicokinetic modelling of PFASs

  • 10.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Koponen, J.
    Winkens, K.
    Airaksinen, R.
    Berger, U.
    Cousins, I.T.
    Kiwiranta, H.
    Longitudinal trends of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances in children's serum.2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, nr 121, s. 591-599.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical exposure to children

  • 11.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    W. Gabrielsen, Geir
    Summer sea ice melt and wastewater are important local sources of microlitter to Svalbard waters2020Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, artikel-id 105511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities leave traces of marine litter around the globe. The Arctic is, despite its remoteness, emerging as an area of no exception to this environmental issue. Arctic sea ice has previously been found to constitute a temporal sink of microplastics, but the potential release and subsequent fate of microplastics in the marine environment are yet unknown. Furthermore, the relative importance of local sources of microplastics in the Arctic marine environment is under discussion. In this study, the concentration and distribution of anthropogenic microparticles (AMPs,<5 mm, including microplastics) have been investigated in marine waters and sea ice of Svalbard. Seawater samples throughout the water column and floating sea ice samples were collected along a transect originating in Rijpfjorden, reaching northwards to the sea ice-edge. Seawater samples were also collected along a transect extending westwards from head to mouth of Kongsfjorden. Samples were collected throughout the water column with stations positioned to enable detection of potential AMP emissions from the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund. Along both transects, environmental parameters were measured to explore potential correlations with AMP distribution. High concentrations of AMPs were detected in sea ice (158 ± 155 AMPs L−1). Based on both AMP concentrations and characteristics, AMPs identified in seawater of the marginal ice zone are to a large extent likely released during the melting of sea ice. The release of AMPs during summer melting of sea ice was concomitantly taking place with the ice-edge bloom, suggesting increased bioavailability to Arctic marine biota. Concentrations of AMPs were up to an order of magnitude higher in Kongsfjorden (up to 48.0 AMPs L−1) than in Rijpfjorden (up to 7.4 AMPs L−1). The distribution and composition of AMPs in Kongsfjorden suggest the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund to be a likely source. Our results emphasize the importance of local point- and diffuse sources of AMPs in the Arctic and stress the urgency of considering their associated environmental impact. Implementation of regulatory policy is of importance, particularly since human activities and environmental pressures are increasing in the Arctic.

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