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  • 1.
    Awad, Raed
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    A. de Miranda, Daniele
    P. Benskin, Jonathan
    Lepoint, Gilles
    Leonel, Juliana
    Hatje, Vanessa
    Bioaccumulation of Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical estuarine food web2020Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The biomagnification of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated in a tropical mangrove food web from an estuary in Bahia, Brazil. Samples of 44 organisms (21 taxa), along with biofilm, leaves, sediment and suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Sum (∑) PFAS concentrations in biota samples were dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 93% detection frequency in tissues; 0.05 to 1.97 ng g⁻¹ ww whole-body (wb)), followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrDA, 57%; 0.01 to 0.28 ng g⁻¹ ww wb). PFOS precursors such as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 54%; 0.01 to 0.32 ng g⁻¹ ww wb) and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA; 30%; 0.01 to 0.21 ng g⁻¹ ww wb) were also detected. PFAS accumulation profiles revealed different routes of exposure among bivalve, crustacean and fish groups. Statistics for left-censored data were used in order to minimize bias on trophic magnification factors (TMFs) calculations. TMFs >1 were observed for PFOS (linear + branched isomers), EtFOSA (linear + branched isomers), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and in all cases, dissimilar accumulation patterns were observed among different trophic positions. The apparent biodilution of some long-chain PFCAs through the food chain (TMF < 1) may be due to exposure from multiple PFAS sources. This is the first study investigating bioaccumulation of PFASs in a tropical food web and provides new insight on the behavior of this ubiquitous class of contaminants.

  • 2.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fång, Johan
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Graae, Lisette
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    The effect of hydraulic retention time in onsite wastewater treatment and removal of pharmaceuticals, hormones and phenolic utility substances2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, s. 250-261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, hormones and phenolic utility chemicals in sewagewater are considered to be an emerging problem because of increased use and observed adverse effects in the environment. The study provides knowledge on the removal efficiency ofmicropollutantswith a range of physical and chemical properties in three commercially available onsitewastewater treatment facilities (OWTFs), tested on influent wastewater collected from 2500 person equivalents in Bildchen, Germany. A longer hydraulic retention time would in theory be expected to have a positive effect, and this study presents results for three different OWTFs in full-scale comparable tests under natural conditions. A range of 24 different pharmaceuticals, five phenols and three hormoneswere analyzed. Flow-proportional consecutive sampling was performed in order to determine the removal efficiency.

    Twenty-eight substances were detected in the effluent wastewater out of 32 substances included. Average effluent concentrations of Simvastatin, Estrone, Estradiol and Ethinylestradiolwere above the indicative critical-effect concentration of pharmacological effect on fish in all facilities. Average effluent concentrations of both Diclofenac and Estradiol were higher than the Environmental Quality Standards applied in Sweden (190–240 times and 9–35 times respectively). The removal efficiency of micropollutantswas high for substanceswith high logKow,whichenhance the adsorption and removal with sludge. Low removal was observed for substances with low logKow and acidic characteristics, and for substances with stabilizing elements of the chemical structure.

    Facilities that use activated sludge processes removed hormones more efficiently than facilities using trickling filter treatment technique. Moreover, longer hydraulic retention time increased the removal of pharmaceuticals, hormones, turbidity and total nitrogen. Removal of Caffeine, Ibuprofen, Estrone, Naproxen and Estradiol,was strongly correlated to the sludge and particles removal. Thus, the efficiency of the tested OWTFs could be improved by adjusting the technical methods and increasing the hydraulic retention time.

  • 3. Gasperini, Cristina
    et al.
    Carrari, Elisa
    Govaert, Sanne
    Meeussen, Camille
    De Pauw, Karen
    Plue, Jan
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Jacopetti, Giovanni
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Selvi, Federico
    Edge effects on the realised soil seed bank along microclimatic gradients in temperate European forests2021Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 798, s. 149373-149373, artikel-id 149373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the crucial role of the seed bank in forest conservation and dynamics, the effects of forest edge microclimate and climate warming on germination responses from the forest seed bank are still almost unknown. Here, we investigated edge effects on the realised seed bank and seedling community in two types of European temperate deciduous forest, one in the Oceanic and one in the Mediterranean climatic region. Responses in terms of seedling density, diversity, species composition and functional type of the seed bank at the forest edge and interior were examined along latitudinal, elevational and stand structural gradients by means of soil translocation experiments. Moreover, we translocated soil samples from high to low elevation forests in the two regions, thus performing a warming simulation. Density, species diversity and mortality of the seedlings varied with region and elevation.

    Seedling density also differed between forest edge and interior position, while seedling cover mainly depended on forest structure. Both the edge and interior forest seed bank contained a high proportion of generalist species. In Belgium, a more homogeneous seed bank was found at the forest edge and interior, while in Italy compositional and ecological differences were larger: at the forest edge, more light and less moisture demanding seedling communities developed, with a higher proportion of generalists compared to the interior. In both regions, the upland-to-lowland translocation experiment revealed effects of warming on forest seed banks with thermophilization of the realised communities. Moreover, edge conditions shifted the seedling composition towards more light-demanding communities. The establishment of more light and warm-adapted species from the seed bank could in the long term alter the aboveground vegetation composition, with communities becoming progressively richer in light-demanding generalists and poorer in forest specialists.

  • 4.
    Hållén, J.
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Malmaeus, J.M.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Johansson, N.
    Karlsson, O.M.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Johansson, Niklas
    Melica Biologkonsult.
    Using a dynamic mass balance model to predict fate and transport of PCBs in a polluted boreal lake in Sweden2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 853, s. 158522-158522, artikel-id 158522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2013, a screening survey including fish (European perch, Perca fluviatilis) from 20 locations in the Stockholm region of Sweden indicated exceptionally high levels of PCBs (>450 ng ΣPCB7/g ww) in Lake Oxundasjön. An extensive sampling program was launched to define the magnitude and area of impact of PCBs. Moreover, a dynamic mass balance model approach was applied to identify and quantify key transport processes and predict the long-term turnover of PCBs given various remediation scenarios.Based on the dating of sediment profiles, primary emissions of PCBs to Lake Oxundasjön have likely occurred from the end of the 1940s until 1980, reaching the lake via one of its tributaries. Presently, the main source of PCBs is diffusion from the lake sediments. From the lake outlet, >400 g ΣPCB7/yr are transported to LakeMälaren (the third largest lake in Sweden), supplying drinkingwater for parts of the Stockholm area. Remediation actions are necessary to reduce the PCB levels in fish below today's marketing limits and environmental quality standards.

    With natural recovery, our results indicate that the PCB levels in non-migratory fish from Lake Oxundasjön will be elevated for decades to come. The mass of PCBs stored in the lake sediments was estimated, and to our knowledge, Lake Oxundasjön is the most heavily PCB contaminated lake in Sweden. The system constitutes a unique opportunity to test and develop a mathematical mass balance model for PCBs, with substantial data acquired from different aquatic matrices. The model presented in the paper is applicable for risk assessments of PCBs, and the results contribute to the general understanding of the transport and turnover dynamics of PCBs in aquatic ecosystems.

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  • 5. Järlskog, Ida
    et al.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Galfi, Helén
    Björklund, Karin
    Polukarova, Maria
    Garção, Rita
    Markiewicz, Anna
    Aronsson, Maria
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Norin, Malin
    Blom, Lena
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Traffic-related microplastic particles, metals, and organic pollutants in an urban area under reconstruction2021Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 774, s. 145503-145503, artikel-id 145503Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban environments, particularly areas under reconstruction, metals, organic pollutants (OP), and microplastics (MP), are released in large amounts due to heavy traffic. Road runoff, a major transport route for urban pollutants, contributes significantly to a deterioratedwater quality in receivingwaters. This studywas conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is unique because it simultaneously investigates the occurrence of OP, metals, and MP on roads and in stormwater from an urban area under reconstruction. Correlations between the various pollutants were also explored.

    The study was carried out by collecting washwater and sweepsand generated from street sweeping, road surface sampling, and flow-proportional stormwater sampling on several occasions. The liquid and solid samples were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oxyPAH, aliphatics, aromatics, phthalates, andMP. The occurrence ofOPwas also analyzedwith a non-target screening method of selected samples. Microplastics, i.e. plastic fragments/fibers, paint fragments, tire wear particles (TWP) and bitumen, were analyzed with a method based on density separation with sodium iodide and identificationwith a stereomicroscope, melt-tests, and tactile identification.MP concentrations amounted to 1500 particles/L in stormwater, 51,000 particles/L in washwater, and 2.6 × 106 particles/kg dw in sweepsand. In stormwater, washwater and sweepsand, MP ≥20 μmwere found to be dominated by TWP (38%, 83% and 78%, respectively). The results confirm traffic as an important source to MP, OP, andmetal emissions.

    Concentrations exceeding water and sediment quality guidelines for metals (e.g. Cu and Zn), PAH, phthalates, and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the C16–C35 fraction were found inmost samples. The results show that the street sweeper collects large amounts of polluted materials and thereby prevents further spread of the pollutants to the receiving stormwater.

  • 6. Karlsson, P.E.
    et al.
    Akselsson, C.
    Hellsten, S.
    Pihl Karlsson, G.
    Twenty years of nitrogen deposition to Norway spruce forests in Sweden2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 809, s. 152192-152192, artikel-id 152192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The yearly, total (dry+wet) deposition of inorganic nitrogen (inorg-N) to Norway spruce forests was estimated with afull spatial coverage over Sweden for a twenty-year period, 2001–2020, based on combined measurements with Teflonstring samplers, throughfall deposition and bulk deposition to the open field.

    The results were based on a novel methodto apply estimates of the dry deposition based on measurements at a limited number of sites, to a larger number of siteswith only bulk deposition measurements, in turn based on the existence of a strong geographical gradient in the dry depositionof inorg-N from southwest to northeast Sweden. The method should be applicable for other geographical regionswhere gaseous NH3, NO2 and HNO3 are not main drivers of N dry deposition and where geographical gradientsin dry deposition could be defined.

    It was shown that Norway spruce forests in south Sweden receive more N from depositionthan has been previously estimated, based onmodelling. Clear time trends were demonstrated for decreased depositionof inorg-N to Norway spruce forests in all parts of Sweden. The decreaseswere somewhat larger thanwhat couldbe expected from the decrease in the reported emissions of inorg-N from Europe. The results emphasize that estimates of the total deposition are necessary in order to map levels and follow the development of N deposition in forests.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Epidemiological analysis of ozone and nitrogen impacts on vegetation – critical evaluation and recommendations2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, s. 785–792 603–604-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For human health studies, epidemiology has been established as important tool to examine factors that affect the frequency and distribution of disease, injury, and other health-related events in a defined population, serving the purpose of establishing prevention and control programs. On the other hand, gradient studies have a long tradition in the research of air pollution effects on plants.

    While there is no principal difference between gradient and epidemiological studies, the former address more one-dimensional transects while the latter focus more on populations and include more experience in making quantitative predictions, in dealing with confounding factors and in taking into account the complex interplay of different factors acting at different levels. Epidemiological analyses may disentangle and quantify the contributions of different predictor variables to an overall effect, e.g. plant growth, and may generate hypotheses deserving further study in experiments. Therefore, their use in ecosystem research is encouraged.

    This article provides a number of recommendations on: (1) spatial and temporal aspects in preparing predictor maps of nitrogen deposition, ozone exposure and meteorological covariates; (2) extent of a dataset required for an analysis; (3) choice of the appropriate regression model and conditions to be satisfied by the data; (4) selection of the relevant explanatory variables; (5) treatment of interactions and confounding factors; and (6) assessment of model validity.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Past, present and future concentrations of ground-level ozone and potential impacts on ecosystems and human health in northern Europe2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 576, s. 22–35-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Europe there has been a re-distribution in the hourly ozone concentrations during 1990-2015. The highest concentrations during summer daytime hours have decreased while the summer night-time and winter day- and night-time concentrations have increased. The yearly maximum 8-h mean concentrations ([O3]8h,max), a metric used to assess ozone impacts on human health, have decreased significantly during 1990-2015 at four out of eight studied sites in Fennoscandia and northern UK.

    Also the annual number of days when the yearly [O3]8h,max exceeded the EU Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) target value of 60ppb has decreased. In contrast, the number of days per year when the yearly [O3]8h,max exceeded 35ppb has increased significantly at two sites, while it decreased at one far northern site. [O3]8h,max is predicted not to exceed 60ppb in northern UK and Fennoscandia after 2020. However, the WHO EQS target value of 50ppb will still be exceeded. The AOT40 May-July and AOT40 April-September metrics, used for the protection of vegetation, have decreased significantly at three and four sites, respectively.

    The EQS for the protection of forests, AOT40 April-September 5000ppbh, is projected to no longer be exceeded for most of northern Europe sometime before the time period 2040-2059. However, if the EQS is based on Phytotoxic Ozone Dose (POD), POD1, it may still be exceeded by 2050. The increasing trend for low and medium range ozone concentrations in combination with a decrease in high concentrations indicate that a new control strategy, with a larger geographical scale than Europe and including methane, is needed for ozone abatement in northern Europe.

  • 9.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Polukarova, Maria
    Galfi, Helen
    Aronsson, Maria
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Occurrence of tire and bitumenwear microplastics on urban streets and in sweepsand and washwater2020Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, nr 729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tire and roadwear particles have been identified as a potentialmajor source ofmicroplastics in the environment. However, more knowledge of the emissions and their further fate in the environment is needed, and the effec- tiveness and benefits of potential measures must be investigated to support future risk management efforts. Here the concentrations of tire and bitumenmicroplastic particles (TBMP) on roads and in nearby in stormwater, sweepsand andwashwaterweremeasured for the first timewithin the same area and time period. The analysis also included plastic, paint and fiber particles. Road dustwas sampled on the road surface using awet dust sam- pler, before and after street sweeping on twooccasions. On each of these occasions, and several occasions during a four-month periodwith frequent street sweeping, sweepsand and washwater, aswell as flow-weighted sam- pling of stormwater, were collected. TBMP concentrations were operationally defined, using density separation for some samples, followed by analysis by stereo microscopy. Sodium iodide (NaI) was found to be effective for density separation of TBMP. The largest proportion of anthropogenic microplastics detected consisted of tire tread wear and bitumen. The number of TBMP ≥100 μm in the WDS samples was up to 2561 particles/L. Sweepsand andwashwater contained highamounts of TBMP ≥100 μm, up to 2170 particles/kgdwand 4500 par- ticles/L, respectively. The results showthat the sweeper collects considerableamounts of TBMP, and thusweekly sweeping might prevent further transport of TBMP to the receiving stormwater. In stormwater the number of particles ≥100 μm was up to 3 particles/L and ≥ 20 μm was up to 5900 particles/L showing the importance of analysing smaller microparticle sizes than 100 μmin all samples in future studies. This study also confirms that there is a substantial volume of TBMP generated from traffic that enters the environment.

  • 10.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Futter, M.
    Cosby, BJC.
    Wright, RF.
    Consequences of intensive forest harvesting on the recovery of Swedish lakes from acidification and on critical load exceedances2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acrossmuch of the northern hemisphere, lakes are at risk of re-acidification due to incomplete recovery fromhistorical acidification and pressures associated withmore intensive forest biomass harvesting. Critical load (CL) calculations aimed at estimating the amount of pollutants an ecosystem can receive without suffering adverse consequences are dependent on these factors. Here, we present a modelling study of the potential effects of intensified forest harvesting on re-acidification of a set of 3239 Swedish lakes based on scenarios with varying intensities of forest biomass harvest and acid deposition. There is some evidence that forestrywould have caused a certain level of acidification even if deposition remained at 1860 levels. We show that all plausible harvest scenarios delay recovery due to increased rates of base cation removal. Scenario resultswere used to estimate critical loads for the entire population of lakes in Sweden. The forestry intensity included in critical load calculations is a political decision. After scaling calculations to the national level, it was apparent that a high but plausible forest harvest intensity would lead to an increase in the area of CL exceedances and that even after significant reductions in forest harvest intensity, there would still be areas with CL exceedances. Our results show that forest harvest intensity and regional environmental change must be carefully considered in future CL calculations.

  • 11.
    Moldanova, Jana
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Raudsepp, U.
    Maljutenko, I.
    Kõuts, M.
    Granhag, L.
    Wilewska-Bien, M.
    Hassellöv, I-M.
    M. Eriksson, K.
    Johansson, L.
    Jalkanen, J-P.
    Karl, M.
    Matthias, V.
    Shipborne nutrient dynamics and impact on the eutrophication in the Baltic Sea2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, nr 671, s. 189-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a severely eutrophicated sea-area where intense shipping as an additional nutrient source is a potential contributor to changes in the ecosystem. The impact of the two most important shipborne nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus, on the overall nutrient-phytoplankton-oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea was determined by using the coupled physical and biogeochemical model system General Estuarine Transport Model–Ecological Regional Ocean Model (GETM-ERGOM) in a cascade with the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. We compared two nutrient scenarios in the Baltic Sea: with (SHIP) and without nutrient input from ships (NOSHIP). The model uses the combined nutrient input from shipping-related waste streams and atmospheric depositions originating from the ship emission and calculates the effect of excess nutrients on the overall biogeochemical cycle, primary production, detritus formation and nutrient flows. The shipping contribution is about 0.3% of the total phosphorus and 1.25–3.3% of the total nitrogen input to the Baltic Sea, but their impact to the different biogeochemical variables is up to 10%. Excess nitrogen entering the N-limited system of the Baltic Sea slightly alters certain pathways: cyanobacteria growth is compromised due to extra nitrogen available for other functional groups while the biomass of diatoms and especially flagellates increases due to the excess of the limiting nutrient. In terms of the Baltic Sea ecosystem functioning, continuous input of ship-borne nitrogen is compensated by steady decrease of nitrogen fixation and increase of denitrification, which results in stationary level of total nitrogen content in the water. Ship-borne phosphorus input results in a decrease of phosphate content in the water and increase of phosphorus binding to sediments. Oxygen content in the water decreases, but reaches stationary state eventually.

  • 12.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Lunds universitet.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Atmospheric deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests since 1985 – Effects of reduced emissions of sulphur and nitrogen2024Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 913, s. 169734-169734, artikel-id 169734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends for the atmospheric deposition of sulphur (S) and inorganic nitrogen (inorg-N) to forests and changes in the forest soil water chemistry in Sweden have been assessed since 1985, with special focus on the last 25 years, based on measurements within the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network (SWETHRO). The reductions in the deposition of S and inorg-N in the southern part of Sweden corresponded relatively well with the pollutant emission reductions for S and inorg-N from both EU27 + UK and Sweden during 1996/97–2021/22. For northern Sweden the deposition of S and inorg-N decreased to a lesser extent than both European and Swedish emissions.

    The bulk deposition of NO3-N has decreased more than the deposition of NH4-N over the last 25-year period, which is consistent with the much larger emission reductions for NOx compared to NH3 from EU27 + UK and Sweden. The S concentrations in the soil water, at 50 cm below soil surface, have decreased during the last 25 years, however somewhat less than the S deposition. At sites with low ANC and pH in the beginning of the period, the increase in ANC was generally greater and the increase in pH was smaller, but at sites with high pH and ANC above zero, the increase in pH was dominant, in line with the nonlinear relationship between pH and ANC in the soil water. The incidence of elevated concentrations of NO3-N in the soil water was highest in southwest Sweden, ranging between 4 and 19 % of all measuring occasions since 1985/86. The reduced deposition of N over the 35-year period was not reflected in the incidence of elevated concentrations of NO3-N in the soil water over time.

  • 13.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, nr 636, s. 383-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions.

    Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (ρ > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and C8 chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (C8 Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and/or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution.

    Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 Cl-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China.

  • 14. Vijayan, Arya
    et al.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Marsalek, Jiri
    Viklander, Maria
    Microplastics (MPs) in urban roadside snowbanks: Quantities, size fractions and dynamics of release2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 851, s. 158306-158306, artikel-id 158306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microplastics (MP) pollution has been receiving high attention in recent years, because of the massive amounts ofplastics it contributes to the environment.

    Tyre wear and road wear particles (TWPandRWPs) were identified as majorsources of MPs, but the observed data on these particles in urban snow deposits and snowmelt is scarce.

    To contributeto remediation of this situation, a study designed to quantify TWPs and RWPs in urban roadside snowbanks, and assessthe MP occurrence in three size fractions, was conducted in the Luleå and Umeå municipalities in Northern Sweden.

    TWPs and RWPs were determined in three size fractions: 50–100 μm, 100–300 μm, and ≥300 μm, and their releasefrom melting snow was investigated in the laboratory under controlled conditions.

    Among the MPs identified insnow and the associated snowmelt samples, a majority consisted of both types of particles (T&RWPs) with an averageof 20,000±48,000 number/L, whereas other MPs (fibres, fragments, flakes, and films of plastic) were much less plentifulwith an average concentration of 24±16 number/L. The largest proportion of T&RWPs was detected in the sizefraction 50–100 μm (around 80%), and the smallest proportion was in the fraction ≥300 μm (about 2%). Of theT&RWPs, about 85%were black bitumen particles (RWPs), composed of bitumen, mineral material and polymer modifiers,and 15% were tyre wear particles (TWPs) composed of rubber.

    The laboratory snow melting experiments demonstratedthat urban snow stored MPs, which were eventually released during snowmelt. The ultimate fate of releasedMPs would depend on snowmelt drainage; it may either drain away from the road pavement and infiltrate into theground, or enter the road gutter and be conveyed to storm sewers discharging to the receiving waters.

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