IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Ali, Arshad
    et al.
    Hebei University.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nissanka, Sarath Premalal
    Big-sized trees and species-functional diversity pathways mediate divergent impacts of environmental factors on individual biomass variability in Sri Lankan tropical forests2022In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 315, p. 115177-115177, article id 115177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we used the Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Models (PLS-SEMs), and other complementary analyses, on data from 189 tropical forest plots in Sri Lanka, to test the linkages amongst climate, soil, plot conditions, big-sized trees, species-functional diversity, and abiotic and biotic effects on individual biomass variability (BioVar). This study suggests that individual tree biomass variability (i.e., BioVar) should be considered for managing natural tropical forests in the context of the plant-plant interactions for species coexistence.

  • 2.
    Fridell, Erik
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Valuating environmental impacts from ship emissions - the marine perspective2020In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 282, article id 111958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is an activity responsible for a range of different pressures affecting the marine environment, air quality and human welfare. The methodology on how ship emissions impact air quality and human health are comparatively well established and used in cost-benefit analysis of policy proposals. However, the knowledge base is not the same for impacts on the marine environment and a coherent environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of shipping has not yet been made. This risk policies to be biased towards air pollution whilst trading off impacts on the marine environment. The aim of the current study was to develop a comprehensive framework on how different pressures from shipping degrade marine ecosystems, air quality and human welfare. A secondary aim was to quantify the societal damage costs of shipping due to the degradation of human welfare in a Baltic Sea case study. By adding knowledge from marine ecotoxicology and life-cycle analysis to the existing knowledge from climate, air pollution and environmental economics we were able to establish a more comprehensive conceptual framework that allows for valuation of environmental impacts from shipping, but it still omits economic values for biological pollution, littering and underwater noise. The results for the Baltic Sea case showed the total annual damage costs of Baltic Sea shipping to be 2.9 billion €2010 (95% CI 2.0–3.9 billion €2010). The damage costs due to impacts on marine eutrophication (768 million €2010) and marine ecotoxicity (582 million €2010) were in the same range as the total damage costs associated with reduced air quality (816 million €2010) and climate change (737 million €2010). The framework and the results from the current study can be used in future socio-economic assessments of ship emissions to prioritize cost efficient measures. The framework can be used globally but the damage costs presented on the marine environment are restricted to emissions on the Baltic Sea and Kattegat region as they are based on willingness to pay studies conducted on citizens around the Baltic Sea where eutrophication and emissions of chemicals are particularly threats to the state of the Baltic Sea.

  • 3.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dalgaard, T.
    Rankinen, K.
    Törseth, K.
    Bakken, L.
    Bechmann, M.
    Kulmala, A.
    Olofsson, S.
    Piil Pira, K.
    Turtola, E.
    Abating N in Nordic agriculture – policy, measures and way forward2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 236, p. 674-686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years. The four Nordic countries have different priorities and strategies regarding agricultural N flows and mitigation measures, and therefore they are facing different challenges and barriers. In Norway farm subsidies are used to encourage measures, but these are mainly focused on phosphorus (P). In contrast, Denmark targets N and uses control regulations to reduce losses. In Sweden and Finland, both voluntary actions combined with subsidies help to mitigate both N and P. The aim of this study was to compare the present situation pertaining to agricultural N in the Nordic countries as well as to provide recommendations for policy instruments to achieve cost effective abatement of reactive N from agriculture in the Nordic countries, and to provide guidance to other countries. To further reduce N losses from agriculture, the four countries will have to continue to take different routes. In particular, some countries will need new actions if 2020 and 2030 National Emissions Ceilings Directive (NECD) targets are to be met. Many options are possible, including voluntary action, regulation, taxation and subsidies, but the difficulty is finding the right balance between these policy options for each country. The governments in the Nordic countries should put more attention to the NECD and consult with relevant stakeholders, researchers and farmer's associations on which measures to prioritize to achieve these goals on time. It is important to pick remaining low hanging fruits through use of the most cost effective mitigation measures. We suggest that N application rate and its timing should be in accordance with the crop need and carrying capacity of environmental recipients. Also, the choice of application technology can further reduce the risk of N losses into air and waters. This may require more region-specific solutions and knowledge-based support with tailored information in combination with further targeted subsidies or regulations.

  • 4. Hooftman, Danny A.P.
    et al.
    Kimberley, Adam
    Cousins, Sara A.O.
    Santamaría Bueno, Silvia
    Honnay, Olivier
    Krickl, Patricia
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poschlod, Peter
    Traveset, Anna
    Bullock, James M.
    Could green infrastructure supplement ecosystem service provision from semi-natural grasslands?2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 328, p. 116952-116952, article id 116952Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient semi-natural grasslands in Europe are important for ecosystem service (ES) provision. Often, the surrounding matrix contains ‘Grassland Green Infrastructure’ (GGI) that contain grassland species which have the potential to supplement grassland ES provision across the landscape. Here we investigate the potential for GGI to deliver a set of complementary ES, driven by plant composition.We surveyed 36 landscapes across three European countries comprising core grasslands and their surrounding GGI. We calculated community-level values of plant species characteristics to provide indicators for four ES: nature conservation value, pollination, carbon storage and aesthetic appeal.Inferred ES delivery for GGI was substantially lower than in core grasslands for conservation, pollination and aesthetic appeal indicators, but not for carbon storage.

    These differences were driven by the GGI having 17% fewer plant species, and compositional differences, with 61% of species unique to the core grasslands. In addition, connectivity to the core, the amount of GGI and inferred seed dispersal distances by livestock, were strongly positively correlated with conservation value, pollination and aesthetic indicators. All ES indicators showed similar responses to the GGI spatial structure and distance to the core, suggesting robust effects of these drivers on ES. We projected that improved landscape-wide delivery of nature conservation value and pollination could be achieved through targeted GGI management. Reductions in the distances seeds would need to disperse, more GGI, along with a diversification of the GGI elements, were predicted to enhance service credits.We conclude that for vegetation-related ES, species surveys can be employed to assess potential ES delivery. Creating and enhancing GGI is a useful landscape management strategy to supplement the ES delivered by ancient grasslands.

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  • 5. Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Cole, Scott
    Franzén, Frida
    Hasselström, Linus
    Beery, Thomas H.
    Bengtsson, Fredrik
    Björn, Helena
    Kjeller, Elsie
    Lindblom, Erik
    Mellin, Anna
    Wiberg, Johanna
    Jönsson, K. Ingemar
    Metrics for environmental compensation: A comparative analysis of Swedish municipalities2021In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 299, p. 113622-113622, article id 113622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental compensation (EC) aims at addressing environmental losses due to development projects and involves a need to compare development losses with compensation gains using relevant metrics. A conceptual procedure for computing no net loss is formulated and used as a point of departure for a comparative analysis of metrics used by five Swedish municipalities as a part of their EC implementation in the spatial planning context of detailed development plans. While Swedish law does not require EC in this context, these municipalities have still decided to introduce EC requirements for development projects that occur on municipality-owned land and to promote voluntary EC among private actors in development projects on private land.

    There is substantial variation across the municipalities studied with respect to both metrics and attributes subject to measurement, but there are also similarities: The attributes considered when assessing the need for EC in conjunction with development are not only about nature per se, but also about recreational opportunities and other types ecosystem services; semi-quantitative metrics such as scores are common while quantitative or monetary metrics are rare; and metrics are rarely applied to assess compensatory gains, focusing instead on losses from development. Streamlining across municipalities might be warranted for increasing predictability and transparency for developers and citizens, but it also introduces considerable challenges such as a need for developing consistent guidelines for semi-quantitative metrics, and to handle substitutability issues if metrics are not only applied on individual attributes but also on groups of attributes.

    The broad scope of attributes used by the municipalities is in line with an international tendency to broaden EC to include not only biodiversity aspects but also ecosystem services. Moreover, the EC systems applied by the municipalities are of particular importance for highlighting the crucial role of environmental management for maintaining and enhancing biodiversity and ecosystem services not only in areas having formal protection status but also in the everyday landscape. The municipalities’ experience and strengths and weaknesses associated with their EC systems are therefore relevant also in an international perspective.

  • 6.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    R Barboza, Francisco
    Ferreira, Joao
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Ytreberg, Erik
    R. Jonsson, Per
    Watermann, Burkard
    Dahlström, Mia
    Monitoring biofouling as a management tool for reducing toxic antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea.2020In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 264, article id 110447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over two million leisure boats use the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea for recreational purposes. The majority of these boats are painted with toxic antifouling paints that release biocides into the coastal ecosystems and negatively impact non-targeted species. Regulations concerning the use of antifouling paints differ dramatically between countries bordering the Baltic Sea and most of them lack the support of biological data. In the present study, we collected data on biofouling in 17 marinas along the Baltic Sea coast during three consecutive boating seasons (May–October 2014, 2015 and 2016). In this context, we compared different monitoring strategies and developed a fouling index (FI) to characterise marinas according to the recorded biofouling abundance and type (defined according to the hardness and strength of attachment to the substrate). Lower FI values, i.e. softer and/or less abundant biofouling, were consistently observed in marinas in the northern Baltic Sea. The decrease in FI from the south-western to the northern Baltic Sea was partially explained by the concomitant decrease in salinity. Nevertheless, most of the observed changes in biofouling seemed to be determined by local factors and inter-annual variability, which emphasizes the necessity for systematic monitoring of biofouling by end-users and/or authorities for the effective implementation of non-toxic antifouling alternatives in marinas. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how monitoring programs and other related measures can be used to support adaptive management strategies towards more sustainable antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea.

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