IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Engleryd, Anna
    Forsius, Martin
    Hov, Öystein
    Rodhe, Henning
    Cowling, Ellis
    Acid rain and air pollution: 50 years of progress in environmental science and policy2020In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, p. 849–864-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because of its serious large-scale effects on ecosystems and its transboundary nature, acid rain received for a few decades at the end of the last century wide scientific and public interest, leading to coordinated policy actions in Europe and North America. Through these actions, in particular those under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, air emissions were substantially reduced, and ecosystem impacts decreased. Widespread scientific research, long-term monitoring, and integrated assessment modelling formed the basis for the policy agreements. In this paper, which is based on an international symposium organised to commemorate 50 years of successful integration of air pollution research and policy, we briefly describe the scientific findings that provided the foundation for the policy development. We also discuss important characteristics of the science–policy interactions, such as the critical loads concept and the large-scale ecosystem field studies. Finally, acid rain and air pollution are set in the context of future societal developments and needs, e.g. the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. We also highlight the need to maintain and develop supporting scientific infrastructures.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Limited capacity to retain phosphorus in the Baltic proper offshore sediments2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, p. 379-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on calculations using a phosphorus (P) budget model, Stigebrandt (2018) concludes that the P-concentration in the water column of the Baltic proper (BP) could be reduced by about 70% within 10–15 years if the deep bottoms were oxygenated. The calculations assume an annual influx from the sediment to the water column of almost 100 000 tonnes, which could be switched off if the sediments were oxidised.

    However, the P storage capacity is strictly limited to the uppermost oxidised layers of the sediment cores. Below the sediment redox cline, the total P-concentration levels out around 1000 mg kg-1 dw regardless of the oxygen conditions in the upper sediment layer. The maximum capacity of BP sediments to retain P from recent settling matter would be around 100 000 tonnes in total, assuming oxygenation of 50 000 km2 currently anoxic bottom.

  • 3.
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultberg, Hans
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Recovery of soil water, groundwater and streamwater from acidification at the Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, p. 836-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recovery from anthropogenic acidification in streams and lakes is well documented across the northern hemisphere. In this study, we use 1996–2009 data from the four Swedish Integrated Monitoring catchments to evaluate how the declining sulfur deposition has affected sulfate, pH, acid neutralizing capacity, ionic strength, aluminum, and dissolved organic carbon in soil water, groundwater and runoff.

    Differences in recovery rates between catchments, between recharge and discharge areas and between soil water and groundwater are assessed. At the IM sites, atmospheric deposition is the main human impact. The chemical trends were weakly correlated to the sulfur deposition decline.

    Other factors, such as marine influence and catchment features, seem to be as important. Except for pH and DOC, soil water and groundwater showed similar trends. Discharge areas acted as buffers, dampening the trends in streamwater. Further monitoring and modeling of these hydraulically active sites should be encouraged.

  • 4.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kritzberg, ES
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Skerlep, Martin
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Olsson, Olle
    Valinia, Salar
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures2020In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Browning of surface waters, as a result of increasing dissolved organic carbon and iron concentrations, is a widespread phenomenon with implications to the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In this article, we provide an overview of the consequences of browning in relation to ecosystem services, outline what the underlying drivers and mechanisms of browning are, and specifically focus on exploring potential mitigation measures to locally counteract browning. These topical concepts are discussed with a focus on Scandinavia, but are of relevance also to other regions. Browning is of environmental concern as it leads to, e.g., increasing costs and risks for drinking water production, and reduced fish production in lakes by limiting light penetration. While climate change, recovery from acidification, and land-use change are all likely factors contributing to the observed browning, managing the land use in the hydrologically connected parts of the landscape may be the most feasible way to counteract browning of natural waters.

  • 5.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kritzberg, ES.
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Skerlep, Martin
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Olsson, Olle
    Valinia, Salar
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6. Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Nathaniel, Hanna
    Franzén, Daniel
    Franzén, Frida
    Hasselström, Linus
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Sinha, Rajib
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ingmansson, Ida
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harvesting beach-cast can help mitigate marine eutrophication by closing land-marine nutrient loops and provide a blue biomass raw material for the bioeconomy. Cost–benefit analysis was applied to harvest activities during 2009–2018 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, highlighting benefits such as nutrient removal from the marine system and improved recreational opportunities as well as costs of using inputs necessary for harvest.

    The results indicate that the activities entailed a net gain to society, lending substance to continued funding for harvests on Gotland and assessments of upscaling of harvest activities to other areas in Sweden and elsewhere. The lessons learnt from the considerable harvest experience on Gotland should be utilized for developing concrete guidelines for carrying out sustainable harvest practice, paying due attention to local conditions but also to what can be generalized to a wider national and international context.

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