IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poothong, S.
    A. Sánchez, J.
    Papadopoulou, E.
    Thomsen, C.
    Haug, L.S.
    Hand Wipes: A Useful Tool for Assessing Human Exposure to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) through Hand/to-Mouth and Dermal Contacts2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poothong, Somrutai
    Antonio Padilla-Sanchez, Juan
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Haug, Line
    Hand Wipes: A Useful Tool for Assessing Human Exposure to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) through Hand-to-Mouth and Dermal Contacts2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor environment contributes considerably to human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study estimated the human exposure to PFASs from the indoor environment through hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts using hand wipes. An analytical method was developed to determine 25 PFASs in hand wipe samples collected as a composite sample from both hands of 60 adults. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) were the predominant PFASs in the hand wipe samples (medians between 0.21 and 0.54 ng per sample). Positive and significant correlations were observed between PAPs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in hand wipes. Low frequency of daily hand washing (≤8 times day–1) was associated with 30–50% higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and 8:2diPAP in hand wipes. Further, significant correlations between paired hand wipes and house dust samples were observed for PFOS, PFOA, and 6:2diPAP. Also, a significant correlation between PFOS in hand wipes and EtFOSE in indoor air was found. This finding indicates either a common source of exposure or a transformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in the environment or on the hands. The contributions of direct and indirect exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) showed that PFOA contributed the highest exposure to adults via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts, followed by PFOS. The median of estimated daily intakes via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts (for hands only) for PFOA were 0.83 and 0.50 pg·kg bw–1·day–1, respectively. This study gives a first indication that PFAS concentrations in hand wipes can be used as a proxy for the exposure to PFASs from indoor environments, but further studies are needed to confirm this.

  • 3.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Bromoanisoles Along a Temperate to Arctic Gradient2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 19, p. 10974-10982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bromoanisoles (BAs) arise from O-methylation of bromophenols, produced by marine algae and invertebrates. BAs undergo sea-air exchange and are transported over the oceans. Here we report 2,4-DiBA and 2,4,6-TriBA in air and deposition on the Swedish west coast (Råö) and the interior of arctic Finland (Pallas). Results are discussed in perspective with previous measurements in the northern Baltic region in 2011−2013.

    BAs in air decreased from south to north in the order Råö > northern Baltic > Pallas. Geometric mean concentrations at Pallas increased significantly (p < 0.05) between 2002 and 2015 for 2,4-DiBA but not for 2,4,6-TriBA. The logarithm of BA partial pressures correlated significantly to reciprocal air temperature at the coastal station Råö and over the Baltic, but only weakly (2,4-DiBA) or not significantly (2,4,6-TriBA) at inland Pallas. Deposition fluxes of BAs were similar at both sites despite lower air concentrations at Pallas, due to greater precipitation scavenging at lower temperatures.

    Proportions of the two BAs in air and deposition were related to Henry’s law partitioning and source regions. Precipitation concentrations were 10−40%percent of those in surface water of Bothnian Bay, northern Baltic Sea. BAs deposited in the bay catchment likely enter rivers and provide an unexpected source to northern estuaries. BAs may be precursors to higher molecular weight compounds identified by others in Swedish inland lakes

  • 4.
    Kanchiralla, Fayas Malik
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brynolf, Selma
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Malmgren, Elin
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden;Sustainable Society, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, SE-411 33 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Life-Cycle Assessment and Costing of Fuels and Propulsion Systems in Future Fossil-Free Shipping2022In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 56, no 17, p. 12517-12531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future ships need to operate with low or possibly zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while ensuring low influence on other environmental impacts and that the operation is economically feasible.

    This study conducts a life-cycle evaluation of potential decarbonization solutions involving selected energy carriers (electrolytic hydrogen, electro-ammonia, electro-methanol, and electricity) in different propulsion system setups (engines, fuel cells, and carbon capture technologies) in terms of environmental impact and costs.

    The results of the study show that the assessed decarbonization options are promising measures to reduce maritime GHG emissions with low-carbon-intensive electricity.

    The same order of GHG reduction is shown to be possible independent of the propulsion system and energy carrier used onboard.

    However, the carbon abatement cost ranges from 300 to 550 €/tCO2eq, and there is a trade-off with environmental impacts such as human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer effects) and freshwater ecotoxicity mainly linked with the wind infrastructure used for electricity production.

    Electro-ammonia in fuel cells is indicated to be effective in terms of the carbon abatement cost followed by the so-called HyMethShip concept.

    The higher abatement cost of all options compared to current options indicates that major incentives and policy measures are required to promote the introduction of alternative fuel and propulsion systems.

  • 5.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Seasonal study of mercury species in the Antarctic sea ice2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited studies have been conducted on mercury concentrations in the polar cryosphere and the factors affecting the distribution of mercury within sea ice and snow are poorly understood. Here we present the first comprehensive seasonal study of elemental and total mercury concentrations in the Antarctic sea ice environment covering data from measurements in air, sea ice, seawater, snow, frost flowers, and brine. The average concentration of total mercury in sea ice decreased from winter to spring while the average elemental mercury concentration increased from winter to summer.

    The opposite trends suggest potential photo- or dark oxidation/reduction processes within the ice and an eventual loss of mercury via brine drainage or gas evasion of elemental mercury. Our results indicate a seasonal variation of mercury species in the polar sea ice environment probably due to varying factors such as solar radiation, temperature, brine volume, and atmospheric deposition. This study shows that the sea ice environment is a significant interphase between the polar ocean and the atmosphere and should be accounted for when studying how climate change may affect the mercury cycle in polar regions.

  • 6.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Posch, M
    Aherne, J
    Evans, CD
    Forsius, M
    Larssen, T
    Helliwell, RC
    Cosby, BJ
    Dynamic modeling and target loads of sulfur and nitrogen for surface waters in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Missing Food, Missing Data? A Critical Review of Global Food Losses and Food Waste Data2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food losses and food waste (FLW) have become a global concern in recent years and emerge as a priority in the global and national political agenda (e.g., with Target 12.3 in the new United Nations Sustainable Development Goals). A good understanding of the availability and quality of global FLW data is a prerequisite for tracking progress on reduction targets, analyzing environmental impacts, and exploring mitigation strategies for FLW. There has been a growing body of literature on FLW quantification in the past years; however, significant challenges remain, such as data inconsistency and a narrow temporal, geographical, and food supply chain coverage.

    In this paper, we examined 202 publications which reported FLW data for 84 countries and 52 individual years from 1933 to 2014. We found that most existing publications are conducted for a few industrialized countries (e.g., the United Kingdom and the United States), and over half of them are based only on secondary data, which signals high uncertainties in the existing global FLW database.

    Despite these uncertainties, existing data indicate that per-capita food waste in the household increases with an increase of per-capita GDP. We believe that more consistent, in-depth, and primary-data-based studies, especially for emerging economies, are badly needed to better inform relevant policy on FLW reduction and environmental impacts mitigation.

  • 8.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce sulfur emission from global shipping, exhaust gas cleaning systemsare increasingly being installed on board commercial ships. These so-called scrubbers extractSOX by spraying water into the exhaust gas. An effluent is created which is either releaseddirectly to the sea (open-loop system) or treated to remove harmful substances beforerelease (closed-loop system). We found severe toxic effects in the ubiquitous planktoniccopepod Calanus helgolandicus of exposure to effluents from two closed-loop systems andone open-loop system on North Sea ships.

    The effluents contained high concentrations ofheavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including alkylated PAHs. Weobserved significantly elevated mortality rates and impaired molting already in the lowesttested concentrations of each effluent: 0.04 and 0.1% closed-loop effluents and 1% open-loopeffluent. These concentrations correspond to total hydrocarbon concentrations of 2.8, 2.0,and 3.8 μg L−1, respectively, and compared to previous studies on oil toxicity in copepods,scrubber effluents appear more toxic than, for example, crude oil. None of the individualPAHs or heavy metals analyzed in the effluents occurred in concentrations which couldexplain the high toxicity. The effluents showed unexpected alkylated PAH profiles, and we hypothesize that scrubbers act as witch’scauldrons where undesired toxic compounds form so that the high toxicity stems from compounds we know very little about.

  • 9.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c07805

  • 10.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emissions, Transport, and Fate of Emerging Per-and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances from One of the Major Fluoropolymer Manufacturing Facilities in China2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluoropolymer manufacturing is a major historical source of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on a global scale, but little is known about the emissions, transport, and fate of emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Here, we performed a comprehensive spatial trend and interyear comparison of surface water and sediment samples from the Xiaoqing River, which receives water discharge from one of the major fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities in China.

    A suspect screening identified 42 chemical formulas, including the tetramer acid of hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO-TeA) and numerous tentatively detected isomers of C9−C14 per- or polyfluoroalkyl ether carboxylic acids (PFECAs). As revealed by the spatial trends and peak area-based sediment-water distribution coefficients, emerging PFASs with 3−9 perfluorinated carbons were transported unimpededly with the bulk water flow having no measurable degradation. Emerging PFASs with >9 perfluorinated carbons displayed more rapidly decreasing spatial trends than shorterchain homologues in surface water due to increasing sedimentation rates.

    The presence of HFPO oligomers, monoether PFECAs, monohydrogen-substituted perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and monochlorine-substituted PFCAs could partly be explained by the active use of polymerization aids or the impurities therein. However, further research is encouraged to better characterize the emissions of low-molecular-weight PFASs from fluoropolymers throughout their life-cycle.

  • 11.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Probing the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances of varying chain-lengths, isomeric structures and functional groups in crucian carp.2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, no 52(8), p. 4592-4600.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kort beskrivning av ämnesområde och innehåll Bioaccumulation mechanisms of PFASs

  • 12.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Shi, Y.
    Nost, T.H.
    Zhou, Z.
    Cai, Y.
    Probing the differential tissue distribution and bioaccumulation behavior of per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances of varying chain-lengths, isomeric structures and functional groups in crucian carp.2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 4592-4600.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioaccumulation mechanisms of PFASs

  • 13.
    von Borries, Kerstin
    et al.
    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kosnik, Marissa
    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Beckwith, Katie V.
    Centre for Molecular Informatics, Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom.
    Jolliet, Olivier
    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Goodman, Jonathan M.
    Centre for Molecular Informatics, Yusuf Hamied Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, United Kingdom.
    Fantke, Peter
    Quantitative Sustainability Assessment, Department of Environmental and Resource Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Bygningstorvet 115, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.
    Potential for Machine Learning to Address Data Gaps in Human Toxicity and Ecotoxicity Characterization2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 46, p. 18259-18270Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Westerberg, Ida
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The Role of Rating Curve Uncertainty in Real-Time Flood Forecasting2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, no 53, p. 4197-4213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data assimilation has been widely tested for flood forecasting, although its use in operational systems is mainly limited to a simple statistical error correction. This can be due to the complexity involved in making more advanced formal assumptions about the nature of the model and measurement errors. Recent advances in the definition of rating curve uncertainty allow estimating a flow measurement error that includes both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties more explicitly and rigorously than in the current practice. The aim of this study is to understand the effect such a more rigorous definition of the flow measurement error has on real-time data assimilation and forecasting.

    This study, therefore, develops a comprehensive probabilistic framework that considers the uncertainty in model forcing data, model structure, and flow observations. Three common data assimilation techniques are evaluated: (1) Autoregressive error correction, (2) Ensemble Kalman Filter, and (3) Regularized Particle Filter, and applied to two locations in the flood-prone Oria catchment in the Basque Country, northern Spain. The results show that, although there is a better match between the uncertain forecasted and uncertain true flows, there is a low sensitivity for the threshold exceedances used to issue flood warnings. This suggests that a standard flow measurement error model, with a spread set to a fixed flow fraction, represents a reasonable trade-off between complexity and realism. Standard models are therefore recommended for operational flood forecasting for sites with well-defined stage-discharge curves that are based on a large range of flow observations.

  • 15.
    Westerberg, Ida
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uncertainty in hydrological signatures in gauged and ungauged catchments2016In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, p. 1847–1865-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable information about hydrological behavior is needed for water-resource management and scientific investigations. Hydrological signatures quantify catchment behavior as index values, and can be predicted for ungauged catchments using a regionalization procedure. The prediction reliability is affected by data uncertainties for the gauged catchments used in prediction and by uncertainties in the regionalization procedure. We quantified signature uncertainty stemming from discharge data uncertainty for 43 UK catchments and propagated these uncertainties in signature regionalization, while accounting for regionalization uncertainty with a weighted-pooling-group approach. Discharge uncertainty was estimated using Monte Carlo sampling of multiple feasible rating curves.

    For each sampled rating curve, a discharge time series was calculated and used in deriving the gauged signature uncertainty distribution. We found that the gauged uncertainty varied with signature type, local measurement conditions and catchment behavior, with the highest uncertainties (median relative uncertainty ±30–40% across all catchments) for signatures measuring high- and low-flow magnitude and dynamics. Our regionalization method allowed assessing the role and relative magnitudes of the gauged and regionalized uncertainty sources in shaping the signature uncertainty distributions predicted for catchments treated as ungauged. We found that 1) if the gauged uncertainties were neglected there was a clear risk of over-conditioning the regionalization inference, e.g. by attributing catchment differences resulting from gauged uncertainty to differences in catchment behavior, and 2) uncertainty in the regionalization results was lower for signatures measuring flow distribution (e.g. mean flow) than flow dynamics (e.g. autocorrelation), and for average flows (and then high flows) compared to low flows.

  • 16.
    Yang, Shen
    et al.
    Human-Oriented Built Environment Lab, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.
    Licina, Dusan
    Human-Oriented Built Environment Lab, School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne 1015, Switzerland.
    Weschler, Charles J.
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark;Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.
    Wang, Nijing
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, Mainz 55128, Germany.
    Zannoni, Nora
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, Mainz 55128, Germany.
    Li, Mengze
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, Mainz 55128, Germany.
    Vanhanen, Joonas
    Airmodus Limited, Erik Palménin Aukio 1, Helsinki FI-00560, Finland.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg SE-400 14, Sweden;Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Division of Building Services Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Wargocki, Pawel
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark.
    Williams, Jonathan
    Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Hahn-Meitner Weg 1, Mainz 55128, Germany;Energy, Environment and Water Research Center, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia 2121, Cyprus.
    Bekö, Gabriel
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby 2800, Denmark.
    Ozone Initiates Human-Derived Emission of Nanocluster Aerosols2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 21, p. 14536-14545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocluster aerosols (NCAs, particles <3 nm) are important players in drivingclimate feedbacks and processes that impact human health. This study reports, for the first time, NCA formation when gas-phase ozone reacts with human surfaces. In an occupied climatecontrolledchamber, we detected NCA only when ozone was present.

    NCA emissions weredependent on clothing coverage, occupant age, air temperature, and humidity. Ozone-initiated chemistry with human skin lipids (particularly their primary surface reaction products) is thekey mechanism driving NCA emissions, as evidenced by positive correlations with squalene in human skin wipe samples and known gaseous products from ozonolysis of skin lipids. Oxidation by OH radicals, autoxidation reactions, and human-emitted NH3 may also play a role in NCA formation. Such chemical processesare anticipated to generate aerosols of the smallest size (1.18−1.55 nm), whereas larger clusters result from subsequent growth of the smaller aerosols. This study shows that whenever we encounter ozone indoors, where we spend most of our lives, NCAs will be produced in the air around us.

  • 17.
    Zannoni, Nora
    et al.
    Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Li, Mengze
    Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Wang, Nijing
    Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Ernle, Lisa
    Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Bekö, Gabriel
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    Wargocki, Pawel
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, 41133 Göteborg, Sweden;Division of Building Services Engineering, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Weschler, Charles J.
    International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark;Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.
    Morrison, Glenn
    Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-7431, United States.
    Williams, Jonathan
    Atmospheric Chemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, 55128 Mainz, Germany.
    Effect of Ozone, Clothing, Temperature, and Humidity on the Total OH Reactivity Emitted from Humans2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 20, p. 13614-13624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People influence indoor air chemistry through theirchemical emissions via breath and skin. Previous studies showed thatdirect measurement of total OH reactivity of human emissionsmatched that calculated from parallel measurements of volatile organiccompounds (VOCs) from breath, skin, and the whole body.

    In thisstudy, we determined, with direct measurements from twoindependent groups of four adult volunteers, the effect of indoortemperature and humidity, clothing coverage (amount of exposedskin), and indoor ozone concentration on the total OH reactivity ofgaseous human emissions.

    The results show that the measuredconcentrations of VOCs and ammonia adequately account for themeasured total OH reactivity. The total OH reactivity of humanemissions was primarily affected by ozone reactions with organic skinoilconstituents and increased with exposed skin surface, higher temperature, and higher humidity. Humans emitted a comparabletotal mixing ratio of VOCs and ammonia at elevated temperature-low humidity and elevated temperature-high humidity, withrelatively low diversity in chemical classes.

    In contrast, the total OH reactivity increased with higher temperature and higherhumidity, with a larger diversity in chemical classes compared to the total mixing ratio. Ozone present, carbonyl compounds were thedominant reactive compounds in all of the reported conditions.

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