IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Guerrieri, Rossella
    et al.
    Cáliz, Joan
    Mattana, Stefania
    Barceló, Anna
    Candela, Marco
    Elustondo, David
    Fortmann, Heike
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Koenig, Nils
    Lindroos, Antti-Jussi
    Matteucci, Giorgio
    Merilä, Päivi
    Michalski, Greg
    Nicolas, Manuel
    Thimonier, Anne
    Turroni, Silvia
    Vanguelova, Elena
    Verstraeten, Arne
    Waldner, Peter
    Watanabe, Mirai
    Casamayor, Emilio O.
    Peñuelas, Josep
    Mencuccini, Maurizio
    Substantial contribution of tree canopy nitrifiers to nitrogen fluxes in European forests2024In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 130-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have greatly increased the reactive nitrogen in the biosphere, thus profoundly altering global nitrogen cycling. The large increase in nitrogen deposition over the past few decades has led to eutrophication in natural ecosystems, with negative effects on forest health and biodiversity. Recent studies, however, have reported oligotrophication in forest ecosystems, constraining their capacity as carbon sinks. Here we demonstrate the widespread biological transformation of atmospheric reactive nitrogen in the canopies of European forests by combining nitrogen deposition quantification with measurements of the stable isotopes in nitrate and molecular analyses across ten forests through August–October 2016. We estimate that up to 80% of the nitrate reaching the soil via throughfall was derived from canopy nitrification, equivalent to a flux of up to 5.76 kg N ha−1 yr−1. We also document the presence of autotrophic nitrifiers on foliar surfaces throughout European forests. Canopy nitrification thus consumes deposited ammonium and increases nitrate inputs to the soil. The results of this study highlight widespread canopy nitrification in European forests and its important contribution to forest nitrogen cycling.

  • 2.
    Liptzin, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA;Now at Soil Health Institute Morrisville NC USA.
    Boy, Jens
    Institute of Soil Science Leibniz Universität Hannover Germany.
    Campbell, John L.
    USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station Durham NH USA.
    Clarke, Nicholas
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) Ås Norway.
    Laclau, Jean‐Paul
    Eco&Sols University Montpellier CIRAD INRA IRD Montpellier SupAgro Montpellier France.
    Godoy, Roberto
    Instituto Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile.
    Johnson, Sherri L.
    USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Corvallis OR USA.
    Kaiser, Klaus
    Soil Science Martin Luther University Halle‐Wittenberg Halle Germany.
    Likens, Gene E.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook NY USA.
    Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Gothenburg Sweden.
    Markewitz, Daniel
    Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources The University of Georgia Athens GA USA.
    Rogora, Michela
    National Research Council of Italy Water Research Institute (CNR‐IRSA) Rome Italy.
    Sebestyen, Stephen D.
    Northern Research Station US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Grand Rapids MN USA.
    Shanley, James B.
    US Geological Survey Montpelier VT USA.
    Vanguelova, Elena
    Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham UK.
    Verstraeten, Arne
    Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) Geraardsbergen Belgium.
    Wilcke, Wolfgang
    Institute of Geography and Geoecology Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Karlsruhe Germany.
    Worrall, Fred
    Department of Earth Sciences Durham University Durham UK.
    McDowell, William H.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA.
    Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Atmospheric Deposition of Dissolved Organic Carbon2022In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 36, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric deposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to terrestrial ecosystems is a small, but rarely studied component of the global carbon (C) cycle.

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and organic particulates are the sources of atmospheric C and deposition represents a major pathway for the removal of organic C from the atmosphere.

    Here, we evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of DOC deposition using 70 data sets at least one year in length ranging from 40° south to 66° north latitude. Globally, the median DOC concentration in bulk deposition was 1.7 mg L −1. The DOC concentrations were significantly higher in tropical (<25°) latitudes compared to temperate (>25°) latitudes.

    DOC deposition was significantly higher in the tropics because of both higher DOC concentrations and precipitation. Using the global median or latitudinal specific DOC concentrations leads to a calculated global deposition of 202 or 295 Tg C yr −1 respectively.

    Many sites exhibited seasonal variability in DOC concentration. At temperate sites, DOC concentrations were higher during the growing season; at tropical sites, DOC concentrations were higher during the dry season. Thirteen of the thirty-four long-term (>10 years) data sets showed significant declines in DOC concentration over time with the others showing no significant change.

    Based on the magnitude and timing of the various sources of organic C to the atmosphere, biogenic VOCs likely explain the latitudinal pattern and the seasonal pattern at temperate latitudes while decreases in anthropogenic emissions are the most likely explanation for the declines in DOC  concentration.

  • 3. Verstraeten, Arne
    et al.
    Bruffaerts, Nicolas
    Cristofolini, Fabiana
    Vanguelova, Elena
    Neirynck, Johan
    Genouw, Gerrit
    De Vos, Bruno
    Waldner, Peter
    Thimonier, Anne
    Nussbaumer, Anita
    Neumann, Mathias
    Benham, Sue
    Rautio, Pasi
    Ukonmaanaho, Liisa
    Merilä, Päivi
    Lindroos, Antti-Jussi
    Saarto, Annika
    Reiniharju, Jukka
    Clarke, Nicholas
    Timmermann, Volkmar
    Nicolas, Manuel
    Schmitt, Maria
    Meusburger, Katrin
    Kowalska, Anna
    Kasprzyk, Idalia
    Kluska, Katarzyna
    Grewling, Łukasz
    Malkiewicz, Małgorzata
    Vesterdal, Lars
    Ingerslev, Morten
    Manninger, Miklós
    Magyar, Donát
    Titeux, Hugues
    Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl
    Gehrig, Regula
    Adriaenssens, Sandy
    Ekebom, Agneta
    Dahl, Åslög
    Ferretti, Marco
    Gottardini, Elena
    Effects of tree pollen on throughfall element fluxes in European forests2023In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 165, no 3, p. 311-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of tree pollen on precipitation chemistry are not fully understood and this canlead to misinterpretations of element deposition in European forests. We investigated the relationship between forest throughfall (TF) element fluxes and the Seasonal Pollen Integral (SPIn) using linear mixed-effects modelling (LME). TF was measuredin 1990–2018 during the main pollen season (MPS,arbitrary two months) in 61 managed, mostly pure, even-aged Fagus, Quercus, Pinus, and Picea stands which are part of the ICP Forests Level II network.

    The SPIn for the dominant tree genus was observed at 56 aerobiological monitoring stations in nearby cities. The net contribution of pollen was estimated as the TF flux in the MPS minus the fluxes in the preceding and succeeding months. In stands of Fagus and Picea, two genera that do not form large amounts of flowers every year, TF fluxes ofpotassium (K+), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4 +-N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) showed a positive relationship with SPIn. However- for Fagus- a negative relationship was found between TF nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) fluxes and SPIn.

    For Quercus and Pinus, two genera producing many flowers each year, SPIn displayed limited variability and no clear association with TF element fluxes. Overall, pollen contributed on average 4.1–10.6% of the annual TF fluxes of K+ > DOC > DON > NH4 +-N with the highest contribution in Quercus > Fagus > Pinus > Picea stands. Tree pollen appears to affect TF inorganic nitrogen fluxes both qualitatively and quantitatively, acting as a source of NH4 +-N and a sink of NO3 −-N. Pollen appears to play a more complex role in nutrient cycling than previously thought. 

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