IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Svenson, Anders
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening programme 2005. Sub report 1 Antibiotics, Anti-inflammatory substances and Hormones2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of pharmaceuticals were performed in 179 samples of water, sludge, manure, sediment and biota at background sites, municipal STPs, landfills, hospital effluents and recipient water from STPs. Bioassays of hormone activity were performed for a selected number of water samples. The NSAIDs were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals and occurred in the highest concentrations. There were large differences in concentrations both between substances and between sampling sites. A regional trend in the STP effluent water could be observed for the NSAIDs and for some antibiotics with increased concentrations in samples originating from the north. No pattern could be seen for the hormones. Estrogenic effects were detected in STP outlets to the aquatic environment while values obtained for androgenicity were in most samples close to or below the detection limit. Based on the risk asessment (MEC/PNEC) risk quotients >1 was obtained for estradiol, estriol, ethinylestradiol and ibuprofen.

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  • 2.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Andersson, Rolf
    Liljelind, Per
    Grabic, Roman
    Screening of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicyclohexylamine and benzotriazoles 20092012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicycyclohexylamine,and benzotriazoles has been carried out in the framework of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency´s screening program.The overall objective of a screening study is to determine the concentrations of the selected substances in a variety of media in the Swedish environment. Additional aims are to assess the possible emission sources and to highlight important transport pathways in the environment.This screening has been carried out in collaboration with the research program ChEmiTecs “Organic Chemicals Emitted from Technosphere Articles" (www.chemitecs.se, financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency). The aim of ChEmiTecs is to increase the scientific understanding of the magnitude of the problem regarding emissions of organic substances from articles with the objective to support policy development in Sweden and Europe.The benzothiazoles MBT, CBS, DBS and DBD were found in one or more of the sample matrices. The detection frequencies varied both among the substances and the different media. The distribution pattern was most likely affected both by substance properties, i.e. the chemical stability and the tendency of a substance to partition to a certain media, and the use and emission pattern. MBT had the highest detection frequency while the other benzothioazoles were more occasionally found. An important pathway of MBT to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products. The occurrence in storm water indicates traffic related emissions. MBT and the other benzothiazoles did mainly occur in the aquatic environment. Air transport seems to be of minor importance.The benzenediamine DPP was occasionally detected in some of the matrices e.g surface water, storm water and sludge. DCHA was widespread in the environment and it occurred in all sample types except crops. The findings of DCHA in air and deposition indicate that this substance is emitted to air and that atmospheric transport is an important pathway in the environment. The occurrence in storm water as well as in soil indicates that traffic related emissions are important. DCHA was however not found in crops collected in the vicinity to busy roads. Another important pathway for DCHA to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products.There is a widespread occurrence of benzotriazoles in the environment both at background and urban areas. The substances occurred in all the included environmental matrices, air, deposition, surface water, sediment, soil and biota.The results also showed that diffuse spreading through WWTPs, landfills and storm water may be important for the occurrence in the environment. This indicates that these substances are distributed via use of products. UVP is the benzotriazole with the highest usage volume followed by UV 328 and UV327. These substances were also most often found in the highest concentrations. In a brief risk assessment for the aquatic pelagic ecosystems no major risks were identified, i.e. concentrations were generally below the PNEC in surface water and effluents if dilution was considered. DPP did however occur in concentrations above its PNEC in River Viskan and concentrations of DPP and DCHA in the different effluents did at some occasions exceed the PNEC undiluted. No toxicity or ecotoxicity data has been found for any of the benzotriazole substances in the available literature. Any risk estimates have therefore not been carried out.

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  • 3.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Ghebremeskel, Mebrat
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Screening of unintentionally produced organic contaminants2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report considers the screening of unintentionally produced substances. Substance groups included in the screening program were oxygenated and nitrated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds. Polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD) and furans (PBDF), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDT) and dibenzotianthrenes (PCDTA) were also included in the study. PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as reference substances. The results of the screening showed that oxidized and nitrated forms of PAHs as well as heterocyclic analogues of PAHs were frequently found in background and urban areas and in most of the environmental matrices included in the study. PCDTs were found in most abiotic samples while PCDTA generally was below the limit-of-detection. The concentrations of PBDDs were generally below the limit-of-detection but were found in deposition, urban sediment, background sediment, and fish from Kvädöfjärden. The PBDF concentrations in air varied widely in time and space. OBDF occurred in similar concentrations as PCBs in air, deposition, sediment and soil.

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  • 4.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svenson, Anders
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Bjerke, Arve
    Schlabach, Martin
    Measurements of Sucralose in the Swedish Screening Program 2007 -PART I; Sucralose in surface waters and STP samples.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of sucralose on commission from the Swedish EPA. Sucralose is a chlorine containing derivative of sucrose, manufactured by selectively substituting three hydroxyls with chlorine. The substance is used as a sweetener in food products; on a weight basis it tastes ca. 600 times sweeter than the parent compound. The objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of sucralose in media in the Swedish environment related to wastewater effluents and to highlight important transport pathways. In total 57 samples were analysed representing wastewater and sludge from sewage treatment plants as well as surface waters.

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  • 5.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svensson, Anders
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Bjerke, Arve
    Schlabach, Martin
    Measurements of Sucralose in the Swedish Screening program 2007. PART II; Sucralose in Biota samples and regional STP samples2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of sucralose on commission from the Swedish EPA, reported in two consecutive parts. Sucralose is a chlorine containing derivative of sucrose, manufactured by selectively substituting three hydroxyls with chlorine. The substance is used as a sweetener in food products; on a weight basis it tastes ca. 600 times sweeter than the parent compound. The objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of sucralose in media in the Swedish environment such as biota, wastewater effluents and to highlight important transport pathways. In total 84 samples were analysed. This report constitutes part 2 of the study.

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  • 6. Enell, Magnus
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wennberg, Lena
    Organiskt bunden klor (AOX) i Västerdalälven 19881989Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dalälvsdelegationen har finansierat en undersökning för att klarlägga orsakerna till de höga AOX-koncentrationerna (adsorberbar organiskt bunden halogen) i Västerdalälven. Vid provtagningstillfället i september 1988 var AOX-koncentrationerna i Västerdalälven och i dess tillflöden mellan 11,9 och 63,5 µg/l, med undantag för Njupeån, vars halt var 5,8 µg/l. I de torvrika områdena i trakterna kring Sälen var arealkoefficienterna mycket höga, mellan 61 och 91 kg AOX/km2*år. Vid sammanflödet med Österdalälven var koefficienten betydligt lägre, 20 kg AOX/km2*år. Vid jämförelse mellan vattnets organiska innehåll och AOX-koncentration föreligger ett starkt samband, såväl mellan AOX och TOC (totalt organiskt kol) (r=0,92) som mellan AOX och absorbanserna vid 254 och 400 nm (r=0,94). Sambandet mellan AOX och vattnets humusinnehåll tyder på att de uppmätta klororganiska föreningarna är av naturligt ursprung. Humusmaterialet tillförs från torv- och skogsmarker. Nederbördens tillskott av AOX till Västerdalälvens avrinningsområde uppgår till 40 ton/år. Denna kvantitet bör jämföras med Västerdalälvens årstransport av AOX, som uppgår till 120 ton /år.

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  • 7. Enell, Magnus
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wennberg, Lena
    Storskalig spridning av organiskt bunden klor AOX. Förekomst i svenska vattendrag och i nederbörd. Koncentrationer och belastningar på omgivande havsområden. Oktober 1987 - september 1988.1990Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genom samarbete med SNVs PMK-provtagare har vattenprov för AOX analys tagits 6-12 gånger per år vid 47 provpunkter i 33 vattendrag, från Torne älv i norr till Örekilsälven på Sveriges norra västkust. Provtagningarna startade i oktober 1987 och avslutades i september 1988. Koncentrationen av AOX (adsorberbar organiskt bunden halogen) varierade mycket mellan de olika vattendragen. De lägsta halterna uppmättes i de vattendrag som mynnar i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet, medelvärdena för de olika vattendragen var upp till ca 20 ug/l. I vattendragen som mynnar i egentliga Östersjön var halterna mellan 20 och 60 ug/l. De högsta halterna uppmättes i Örekilsälven (98ug/l), vilka mynnar i Kattegatt och Skagerack. Transporterna av AOX för den aktuella perioden till Sveriges omgivande hav, uppgick till 5 200 ton. Den största AOX-mängden transporterades med de vattendrag som mynnar i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet. Parallellt med provtagningarna i vattendragen togs nederbördsprov. I oktober 1987 startade nederbördsprovtagningen på fem platser i landet: Abisko, Umeå, Grimsö, Aneboda och Stenungsund. I juli 1988 utökades nederbördsprovtagningen med ytterligare elva stationer. Provtagningen avslutades i juni 1989. Medelvärdet för AOX-koncentrationen i nederbörden för hela landet var 15 µg/l. Tillsammans med medelnederbörden i Sverige ger detta en årlig deposition av AOX över Sverige på 5 100 ton.

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  • 8. Enell, Magnus
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wennberg, Lena
    Storskalig spridning av organiskt bunden klor. AOX. Halvårsrapport. Oktober 1987 - mars 1988.1988Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genom samarbete med SNV's PMK-provtagare har vattenprov för AOX-analys tagits 6-12 gånger/år vid 47 provpunkter, från Torne älv i norr till Örekilsälven på Sveriges norra västkust. Provtagningarna började i oktober 1987 och skall avslutas i september 1988. AOX-halterna i de vattendrag som mynnar i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet är låga, omkring 20 ug/l. Halterna i vattendragen som mynnar i Egentliga Östersjön är betydligt högre, mellan 40 och 70 ug/l. De högsta halterna finner man i Nissan (93 ug/l) och i Örekilsälven (90 ug/l), vilka mynnar i Kattegatt och Skagerack. Trots att AOX-halterna i de norrländska älvarna är låga så transporteras relativt stora mängder AOX. Ca 50% av all AOX-transport ut till Sveriges omgivande kusthav, sker med de älvar som mynnar i Bottenviken och Bottenhavet. Årligen transporteras ca 3.700 ton AOX till våra omgivande kusthav. Denna mängd är preliminärt beräknad och baserad på vattenflöden för perioden 1931-1960. Höga AOX-halter förekommer även i vissa vattendragssystem helt utan skogsindustriella anläggningar.

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  • 9. Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010 Subreport 3. Pharmaceuticals2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning Pharmaceuticals where the selection of pharmaceuticals included in the screening was based on ecotoxicological criteria, primarily potency and potential to bioconcentrate. In addition, antibiotics and some pharmaceuticals that have been included in previous screening programmes were also included. A total of 101 pharmaceuticals and 54 samples were included in the national programme and 67 samples were included in the regional programme. The sampling programme was focused on diffuse emissions from urban areas reflected in samples from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving waters. Biota samples (perch) from two background lakes and two of the receiving waters and also drinking water from two cities were also included. Of the 101 pharmaceuticals included in this study 92 were detected in the WWTP influent of at least one WWTP, in levels that ranged from low ng/L up to 540 µg/L, with a median concentration of 53 ng/L. Paracetamol was the pharmaceutical that was detected in highest amounts, up to 540 µg/L. 85 of the 101 pharmaceuticals included in this study were detected in the effluent of at least one WWTP, in levels that ranged from low ng/L up to 4 µg/L, with a median concentration of 35 ng/L. Diclofenac was the pharmaceutical that was detected in highest amounts (3.9 µg/L) in the effluent. Removal efficiencies and sludge concentrations from all four WWTPs are also presented.Of the 101 pharmaceuticals included in this study 66 were detected in the surface water samples in the range from low ng/L up to 1.8 µg/L. Measured surface water concentrations were evaluated by comparing them to critical environmental concentrations, i.e. the water concentration that is expected to cause a pharmacological effect in fish. This evaluation showed that five pharmaceuticals in these samples are expected to cause a pharmacological response in fish exposed to these waters. In this study 23 pharmaceuticals were detected in the seven biota (perch) samples. Concentrations were in the low µg/Kg range and highest detected levels were found in the perch caught in close proximity to the discharge point of WWTP Kungsängsverket (Uppsala) in River Fyris. Detected pharmaceuticals in biota correlate to the surface water concentrations and previous reports on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in biota.Low levels (low ng/L range) of 26 pharmaceuticals were detected in the drinking water samples. There was significant difference between the two drinking waters; only two pharmaceuticals could be detected in the samples from Umeå, carbamazepine and trimethoprim, while 26 pharmaceuticals were detected in the Stockholm samples.

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  • 10.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2014 - Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows result of a screening study on selected pharmaceuticals and hormones.

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  • 11. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010. Subreport 1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs)2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SammanfattningEn screeningundersökning har utförts angående polyklorerade naftalener (PCN). PCN hittades i alla prover som analyserats och baserat på resultaten var det möjligt att identifiera flera källor. Långväga lufttransport är sannolikt en betydande spridningsväg för PCN. Kommunala avfallsförbränningsanläggningar och soptippar samt metallförädlings- och kloralkali-industri verkar även de släppa ut PCN men det är svårt att skatta dess kvantitativa betydelse för den totala PCN belastningen. Däremot verkar trafiken sannolikt vara en mindre källa till PCN. Slam från kommunala reningsverk har en homologprofil som liknar den i luft, vilket kan tyda på att PCN främst når avloppssystemen via dagvatten. En gradient i PCN-koncentrationer observerades även i sediment som samlats in på ökande avstånd från Stockholm. Dock var halterna inom intervallet för bakgrundssediment (utsjöprover), vilket tyder på att den urbana påverkan är liten eller måttlig. PCN-koncentrationerna minskar över tid i både strömming och sillgrissla. För den senare kunde tidstrenden följas under de senaste 35 åren. Under denna period sjönk PCN-koncentrationerna tiofalt. Under det senaste årtiondet har dock nivåerna planat ut. Den långsiktiga tidstrenden och de kortsiktiga haltvariationerna för PCN är mycket lika de för polyklorerade dibenso-p-dioxiner och dibensofuraner (PCDD/F) vilket tyder på att dessa ämnesklasser bioackumulerar/biomagnifierar på liknande sätt. Bröstmjölk befanns innehålla relativt höga halter av PCN. Omräknat som relativ biologisk potens (REP) motsvarar halterna de för PCDD/F (uttryckt i totala toxiska ekvivalenter; TEQs). Veckointaget av PCN-REP beräknades till 22 pg/kg kroppsvikt för en 1-månaders bebis, vilket ligger över det tolerabla veckointag på 14 pg TEQ/kg kroppsvikt som rekommenderas av EU:s vetenskapliga kommitté för livsmedel. Det tyder på att det kan vara dags att överväga att inkludera PCN i TEQ-begreppet och att Världshälsoorganisationen (WHO) i så fall fastställer toxiska ekvivalentfaktorer (TEF) för de mest toxiska kongenerna.English SummaryA screening study has been performed concerning Polychlorinated Naphthalenes (PCNs). These chemicals are currently not used in Sweden, but may be unintentionally emitted from various sources. The current project indicates that PCNs are ubiquitous in the Swedish environment. PCNs were found in all samples analysed and based on the results it was possible to identify several sources of PCNs. Long-range air transport is most likely a significant source of PCNs. Further, municipal solid waste incinerators, municipal solid waste dump sites, metal processing facilities and chlor-alkali production plants all seem to emit PCNs. On the contrary, traffic is likely a minor source of PCNs.Sludge from municipal sewage treatment plants has a homologue pattern similar to air, which may indicate that PCNs mainly reach the sewer systems through collection of storm water. A gradient in PCN concentrations were also observed in sediments collected at increasing distance from Stockholm. However, the concentrations were in the range of background (offshore) sediments, which suggest that the urban impact on the PCN levels are minor to moderate. In biota the PCN levels seems to decrease over time. The time trend for PCNs in guillemot eggs could be followed for the last 35 years and over that period the concentrations have dropped by an order of magnitude, although, during the last decade the levels has levelled off. The long term time-trend and short-term temporal variations of PCNs resembles those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) they may thus share the same bioaccumulation/biomagnification pathways. Furthermore, human milk was found to contain relatively high concentrations of PCNs. Expressed on relative biological potency (REP) basis the levels are similar to the total toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDD/F. The weekly PCN-REP intake for a 1-month baby was estimated at 22 pg/kg body weight (bw), which is above the tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg TEQ/kg bw recommended by EU Scientific Committee of Food. It may, thus, be time to consider the PCNs for inclusion in the TEQ concept of the World Health Organization and assign the most toxic congeners toxic equivalent factors (TEFs).

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  • 12.
    Hansson, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2013 - Assesment of the occurence of stormwater related substances in sewage sludge and effluent water2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Förekomsten av dagvattenrelaterade föroreningar i utgående vatten och slam från kommunala reningsverk har satts i relation till andelen dagvatten i det inkommande vattnet. Det totala flödet in till ett reningsverk kan delas upp i sanitärt vatten och tillskottsvatten. Tillskottsvattnet kan i sin tur delas upp i tre olika typer: läck- och dränvatten; den direkta nederbördspåverkan - avrinning från tak och gatumark kopplade till avloppsystem samt den indirekta nederbördspåverkan vars källa till stor del är hårdgjorda ytor, men dess väg till avloppssystemet är via markinfiltration och vidare läckage till avloppsnätet. Andelen dagvatten av belastningen till reningsverken bedömdes med hjälp av information från de årliga miljörapporterna och genom kontakt med ansvariga på reningsverken. Kännedomen om andelen dagvatten in till reningsverken varierade mellan dessa. Vissa reningsverk hade modellerade data, andra inte. Uppskattningar från reningsverk där andelen dagvatten kunde separeras från det totala tillskottsvattnet (Henriksdal, Gässlösa, Ryaverket och Borlänge) varierade mellan 9 och 30 procent. Högsta andelen uppgavs från Henriksdal. Resultat från Naturvårdsverkets program för övervakning av utgående vatten och slam från avloppsreningsverk analyserades med multivariata metoder för att för att utröna om det finns samvariation mellan andelen dagvatten, för vilken andelen tillskottsvatten användes som en approximation, och uppmätta halter av metaller och organiska ämnen. Förändring över tid studerades också. Resultatet från den multivariata analysen visade en gruppering av data efter när provtagningen var gjord. Prover från 2006 och 2007 avvek från övriga år. Analysen kunde inte påvisa några samband mellan andelen tillskottsvatten och koncentration av föroreningar i slam eller vatten. Nya mätningar i inkommande vatten och slam också av ytterligare parametrar som antimon eller andra specifika markörer för dagvatten behövs. Tidstrender vid de olika verken kunde ses i de befintliga data men samvariation med andelen tillskottsvatten kunde inte påvisas. Att använda andelen tillskottsvatten som en approximation för andelen dagvatten är inte optimalt. En bättre uppskattning av den verkliga dagvattenadelen kan kanske avslöja samband i data som ny döljs. Utgående vatten och slam från reningsverken Henriksdal, Ryaverken, Gässlösa och Bollebygd, och även sediment nedströms dessa, analyserades kemiskt på med avseende på alkylfenoler, de dominerande ftalaterna, PAHer och metaller. Multivariat modellering visade inte någon korrelation mellan någon eller några mätta parametrar och andelen tillskottsvatten som användes som en uppskattning av andelen dagvatten. Även här skulle ett bättre mått på den verkliga dagvattenandelen varit värdefullt.. This report is only available in English.

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  • 13.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fugacitetsmodellering enligt Mackay applicerad på mesokosmförsök med 4,5,6-triklorguajakol1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modellering av en kemikalies förväntade fördelning mellan olika miljödelar kan göras med de fugacitetsmodeller som beskrivits av Mackay. Med programmet FUG 1.1 kan man på ett enkelt sätt variera ingångsparametrarna och se hur detta påverkar resultatet. Programmet har använts för modellering av ett mesokosmförsök med 4,5,6-triklorguajakol. Modellen visar en god överensstämmelse med de experimentella resultatetn.

  • 14.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Regional screening 2008. Analys av fenolära ämnen, ftalater, kvartära ammoniumföreningar, tennorganiska föreningar och ytterligare antifoulingämnen i miljöprover2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prov från svensk yttre miljö har analyserats på en eller flera av ämnesgrupperna fenolära ämnen, ftalater, kvartära ammoniumföreningar och tennorganiska föreningar. Proven omfattar främst vatten och slam från kommunala reningsverk, ytvatten och sediment. Sediment har även analyserats på diuron, irgarol 1051, DCOIT (Sea nine 211) och capsaicin

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  • 15.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 4: Siloxanes2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study of siloxanes. The substances included were three cyclic polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5, and D6) and four linear analogues (MM, MDM, MD2M and MD3M). The overall objectives of the screening were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, and to assess the possibility of current emissions in Sweden. A total of 138 samples of air, water, sludge, sediment and fish were analysed. D4 that is classified as a phase out substance was found in 37 out of 54 municipal sludge samples in concentrations from 130 to 2 300 ng/g DW and in various air samples in concentrations up to 300 ng/m3. D4 was not found in any of the water, sediment or fish samples. MM, which is on the OSPAR candidate list for dangerous substances, was found in leachate water from landfills and in low concentrations in air in the Stenungsund chemical industrial area. D5 was the dominating siloxane in most samples. It was found in all sludge samples from municipal treatment plants. The average concentration was 11 000 ng/g DW. Siloxanes were not found in aquatic biota (fish muscle).One or more of D4, D5 and D6 were found in 11 out of 49 samples of human breast milk. The maximum concentration of D4 was 10 µg/L, of D5 4.5 µg/L and of D6 4.8 µg/L.

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  • 16.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quaternary ammonium compounds : Analyses in a Nordic cooperation on screening2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 17.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2010 Subreport 2. Fluorescent Whitening Agents2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SammanfattningEn screeningundersökning har utförts angående optiska vitmedel (OV). Optiska vitmedel är en stor grupp kemikalier som används för att öka den upplevda vitheten hos textilier och papper. Studien omfattade fem substanser förkortade DSPB, DAS1, FB28, FB 85 och DAS2. Den använda analytiska slutbestämningsmetoden (LC-MS-MS) bygger inte på föreningarnas fluorescensegenskaper. Därmed detekterades inte andra OV än de uppräknade.Provtagningsprogrammet fokuserades på diffusa emissioner från urbana områden genom analys av prover från avloppsreningsverk (ARV) och deras recipienter. Prover från industriella källor (utgående vatten från skogsindustri) ingick också. Emissioner från produkter representerades av analys av toalettpapper. Den summerade OV-koncentrationen var 20 - 24 µg/l i ingående vatten till tre ARV, 0.43 - 5.1 µg/l i utgående vatten från nio ARV och 56 000 — 160 000 ng/g TS i slam från nio ARV. De dominerande substanserna var DAS2, FB28 och, i några utgående vatten, DAS1. DAS2 är förknippat med pappers- snarare än textilapplikationer. De högsta uppmätta koncentrationerna i ytvatten för DSPB, DAS1 och DAS2 var mer än 600 gånger lägre än beräknade PNEC-värden, d.v.s. koncentrationer där inga effekter på vattenmiljön av ämnet kan förväntas. Även utan utspädning var den högsta koncentrationen i utgående avloppsvatten mer än 50 gånger lägre än PNEC. Alltså bör dessa ämnen inte utgöra en risk för vattenlevande organismer. För de övriga substanserna fanns inga PNEC-värden att tillgå. Högsta koncentrationen i sediment, 7 200 ng/g TS, dominerat av DAS1, uppmättes nära utsläppspunkten för ett avloppsreningsverk. På längre avstånd, 1 km resp. 20 km i den huvudsakliga flödesriktningen var koncentrationen lägre, 69 — 150 ng/g TS. I sediment från Mälaren var koncentrationen 92 — 900 ng/g TS. Relevanta PNEC-värden för bedömning av risk för sedimentlevande organismer saknas. Man ser en generell ökning av den relativa koncentrationen av DAS1 från utgående avloppsvatten över ytvatten till sediment. I ett av sju utgående vatten från skogsindustrier var koncentrationen förhöjd (10 gånger) jämfört med det högsta värdet från ett kommunalt reningsverk. Analys av OV extraherat från toalettpapper tillverkat av återvunna fibrer (två fabrikat) visade att detta kan vara en viktig källa till OV-halten i ingående vatten till reningsverk. Bidraget från toalettpapper tillverkat av nya fibrer (ett fabrikat) var mer än hundra gånger lägre.English SummaryA screening study has been performed concerning Fluorescent whitening agents (FWA). FWAs are a large group of chemicals used to increase the apparent whiteness of textiles and paper. The screening includes five substances abbreviated DSPB, DAS1, FB28, FB85 and DAS2.The concentration range of summed FWAs was 20 - 24 µg/l in three WWTP influents, 0.43 - 5.1 µg/l in nine WWTP effluents and 56 000 — 160 000 ng/g DW in nine WWTP sludges. DAS2, FB28 and, in some effluents, DAS1 was the dominating individual cmopounds. DAS2 is associated to paper applications rather than textile/detergent applications. The highest measured concentrations in surface water for DSPB, DAS1 and DAS2 were more than 600 times lower than the calculated “predicted no-effect concentration" (PNEC). Even without dilution the highest measured concentration in WWTP effluent was more than 50 times lower than the calculated PNECs. Thus there should be no risk for aquatic organisms due to those substances. For the remaining substances PNECs were not available. Highest concentration in sediment, 7 200 ng/g DW, dominated by DAS1, was found near the discharge point of a WWTP. Further away, 1 km and 20 km from the effluent point, in the main direction of flow, concentrations were considerably lower, 69 and 150 ng/g DW. Sediments from Lake Mälaren showed summed concentrations of 92 — 900 ng/g DW. Relevant PNECs for evaluation of risks for sediment dwelling organisms were not available. Analysis of FWAs extracted from toilet paper manufactured from recycled fibres (two different brands) showed that this may be a major source for FWAs in WWTP influents. The contribution from toilet paper made from virgin fibres (only one brand analysed) was more than 100-fold lower.

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  • 18.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dusan, Brita
    Screening av organiska miljögifter i fisk - HCBD och klorbensener2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexaklorbutadien (HCBD), 1,2,4-triklorbensen och pentaklorbensen finns med på EUs vattendirektivs lista över prioriterade ämnen. Dessa ämnen samt övriga klorbensener för-utom monoklorbensen har analyserats i fiskmuskelprov från 14 svenska bakgrundslokaler. Från varje lokal analyserades fem samlingsprover. Halterna av HCBD och 1,2,4-triklorbensen var i samtliga prov under detektionsgränsen (2-8 µg/kg lipid).Medelvärdet av pentaklorbensen i strömming från Landsort var 2,2 µg/kg lipid. Förutom ett avvikande värde (Kvädöfjärden, abborre 16 µg/kg lipid) var halterna för övriga lokaler under detektionsgränsen (4-8 µg/kg lipid). Halten av 1,4-diklorbensen var 24 - 120 µg/kg lipid (0,55 - 1,2 µg/kg våtvikt). Halten 1,2- och 1,3-diklorbensen var lägre och mestadels under detektionsgränsen (2-8 µg/kg lipid). Tri- och tetraklorbensener var samtliga under detektionsgränsen (2-16 µg/kg lipid). Halterna av hexaklorbensen var

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  • 19.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dusan, Brita
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2006. Subreport 2: 1,5,9-cyklododecatriene2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has during 2006/2007 performed a 'Screening Study' of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene. The screening programme included measurements in background areas and in the vicinity of potential point sources. Measurements were also done in urban areas reflecting diffuse emission pathways from society. Sample types were air, soil, sediment, sludge and biota (fish). A total of 55 samples were included. CDDT was not found in any of the samples. The reported detection limits were 0.04 - 0.05 ng/m3 in air, 10 ng/g DW in sediment and soil, 20 ng/g DW in sludge and 1-4 ng/g WW in fish. The overall conclusion is that 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene is generally not present in the Swedish environment in concentration that is of environmental concern. The substance is thus not recommended as a candidate to be included in regular monitoring.

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  • 20.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Screening 2004 - uppföljningsprojekt. Analys av oktaklorstyren, flyktiga metylsiloxaner, vissa fenoler och endosulfan2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    - Oktaklorstyren samt penta- och hexaklorbensen har analyserats i strömming från 17 lokaler längs Norrlands- och Svealandskusten. Oktaklorstyren kunde påvisas i samtliga prov. - Flyktiga metylsiloxaner samt 4-nonylfenol, 4-t-oktylfenol, triclosan och bisfenol A har analyserats i in- och utgående vatten samt slam från Borlänge reningsverk. Transporterade mängder har beräknats. - Flyktiga metylsiloxaner har analyserats i förpackade livsmedel. Låga halter av cykliska siloxaner kunde påvisas i ett av tio prover. - Endosulfan har analyserats i luft- och depositionsprov från bakgrundsstationerna Råö och Pallas. Medelkoncentrationen i luft var högst under sommarhalvåret: 22 pg/m3 i Råö och 11 pg/m3 i Pallas. Deponerade mängder var också högst under sommarhalvåret: 1,0 ng/m2/dygn i Råö och 0,26 ng/m2/dygn i Pallas. - En översikt har gjorts över tidigare analyserade endosulfanhalter i svenska livsmedel. Antalet varor som innehöll halter av endosulfan över detektionsgränsen (0,01-0,04 mg/kg) har minskat under perioden 1995-2005 vilket speglar den minskade användningen i Europa. Efter år 2000 finns inga rapporter om endosulfan i svenskodlade grönsaker. Några gånger per år hittas importerad frukt och grönsaker med endosulfanhalter som vid stor konsumtion bedöms kunna ge barn akuta hälsoeffekter. Beräkningar av kroniskt intag visar att intaget i Sverige ligger på ca 1 % av 'acceptabelt dagligt intag' dvs under risknivån för kroniska hälsoeffekter

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  • 21.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rosenqvist, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Graae, Lisette
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Påverkan från naturligt organiskt material i GC-MS analyser - Petroleumförorenade jord- och vattenprover2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med att fraktionerade riktvärden avseende alifatiska och aromatiska kolväten i jord och grundvatten utvecklades under slutet av 1990-talet så har analys med GC/MS av dessa ämnesfraktioner blivit gängse praxis vid undersökning av misstänkt petroleumförorening i mark, grundvatten och ytvatten. I samband med tolkning av analysresultat dyker det ibland upp provsvar där endast det tyngre alifatintervallet C16-C35 detekteras. Proverna kan vara tagna i förväntat ”rena” områden, i en spridningszon från ett förorenat område, eller från ett område där tidigare provtagning inte givit utslag. I vissa fall kan alifatintervallet C16-C35 enbart detekteras under vegetationsperioden, men inte under resten av året. Ett sådant analysresultat är mycket svårtolkat om det handlar om en oljeprodukt som tangerar att innehålla dessa kolkedjelänger. Resultatet kan få stor betydelse, exempelvis om det handlar om ett dricksvatten eller vid beslut om fortsatt övervakning av det förorenade området.

    I detta projekt har vi undersökt om förekomsten av naturligt organiskt material i jord- och vattenprover kan misstas för oljeförorening vid analys av alifatiska kolväten i intervallet C16-C35 med GC/MS. För att kunna undersöka detta samlades jord- och vattenprover med varierande halt organiskt material in från områden opåverkade av oljeföroreningar. Därtill samlades olika petroleumprodukter in, dels för att undersökas med avseende på kemisk uppbyggnad, och dels för att användas för jämförelse med de oförorenade jord- och vattenproverna. Den analysmetodik som idag används av de flesta kommersiella laboratorier (som ofta felaktigt benämns SPIMFAB-metoden), har studerats ingående under projektets gång. Genom resultaten har orsaker som kan leda till att metoden även kan underskatta koncentrationer av oljekolväten i jord- och vattenprover kunnat belysas, något som ursprungligen inte ingick i projektets syfte. I denna metod används signalen för fragment m/z 57 mot normalalkaner för slutbestämning av alifatiska kolväten. Detta leder till underskattning av förekomst av cykloalkaner jämfört med om signalen för total ion current (TIC) (summan av joner som når detektorn vid en viss tidpunkt) används.

    De resultat som vi har erhållit i projektet styrker den hypotes som undersökningen ville pröva, d.v.s., att organiskt material i jord- och vattenprover kan störa analysen av oljeföroreningar i fraktionen alifater C16-C35. Fenomenet har visat sig vara relativt väldokumenterat i den internationella litteraturen och det är vedertaget att denna typ av störning kan motverkas om slutbestämning föregås av rening av extrakten med kiselgel eller annan adsorbent för att avlägsna mer polära ämnen. Vi har i vår studie visat att störningen varierar med olika typer av organiskt material, men det har inte fastslagits vilken egenskap i det organiska materialet som orsakar variationen. I vattenprover synes störningen i högre grad orsakas av partikulärt organiskt material än löst organiskt material. I jordprover synes störningen i högre grad påverkas av ungt, icke nedbrutet organiskt material än organiskt material med hög nedbrytning (högre humifieringsgrad). Detta styrks av forskning rörande paleoekologi där man konstaterar att nutida växter producerar långa alkankedjor i intervallet C21-C37 och att variationen är stor mellan olika typer av växter.

    Mot bakgrund av vad som har framkommit under vår studie så rekommenderar vi att den analysmetod med GC/MS som idag används för analys av alifatiska kolväten bör justeras genom att: 1) Ett reningssteg med adsorbent i pelarkolonn införs för att avlägsna naturligt organiskt material i form av polära ämnen. Det bör dock framgå att vid misstanke om metaboliter som härstammar från äldre oljeföroreningar kan dessa riskera att renas bort. Det gäller i synnerhet för vattenprover. Därför kan det vara klokt att analysresultat redovisas både med och utan rening. Vid misstanke om metaboliter bör även halten av löst organiskt kol undersökas. 2) Slutbestämning av alifatiska kolväten sker genom kvantifiering mot signal TIC mot normalalkaner istället för med signalen för massfragment m/z 57. Utöver dessa slutsatser har projektet visat att analysmetoder för moderna biobränslen såsom RME och HVO behöver utvecklas.

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  • 22.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lehtinen, Carola
    Kroniska oljeutsläpp från floder1986Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Halten av petroleumkolväten (PHC) har uppmätts vid 2-3 tillfällen (april-juni) 1986 i tio svenska floder. Proven analyserades gaskromatografiskt och spektrofluorometriskt och uppvisade halter på 3-118 ug/l (p-n fraktion) respektive 2-195 ug/l (råoljeekvivalenter) med typiska halter inom intervallet 5-20 ug/l. Med hjälp av flödesdata beräknades därefter mängden emitterad PHC per flod och år. Beroende på extrapoleringsförfarandet erhölls totalmängden emitterad PHC till svenska kustvatten inom intervallet 2 000- 3 000 ton/år (p-n fraktion) respektive 2 700-4 500 ton /år (råoljeekvivalenter).

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  • 23.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2007. Subreport 4: Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS)2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) is an anionic sufactant mainly used in laundry- and dishwashing detergents and lubricant additives. The annual amount used in Sweden is about 900 tonnes. As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study of LAS. The overall objective of the screening was to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment.

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  • 24.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 2. Dechlorane Plus2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning Dechlorane Plus (DP). DP is a chlorinated flame retardant that has been used for a long time but has not been noticed as an environmental contaminant until recently. The main reason for its concern is its similarity to other known chloro organic chemicals with adverse effects to the environment. DP was present in air at background locations (Råö, Aspvreten, Pallas) and in higher concentrations in urban air (Stockholm). This supports that DP is capable of long range transport and, as no traditional point sources are known, supposedly emitted from products used in urban areas, such as plastics in electrical insulators. DP was also deposited from the atmosphere. The concentration in air was in the same magnitude as for the brominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99.

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  • 25.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening av hexaklorbutadien (HCBD) i miljön. Slutrapport2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    För att få kunskap om i vilken omfattning hexaklorbutadien (HCBD) förekommer i svensk miljö har IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket genomfört en screening. Mätningar har utförts i omgivningsluft, atmosfärisk deposition, reningsverksslam, sediment och blåmusslor vid bakgrundslokaler och på platser med tänkbart förhöjda halter. HCBD återfanns i samtliga luftprov i halter av samma storleksordning (median 0,16 ng/m3) och i atmosfärisk deposition men inte i de övriga matriserna. Som ett tilläggsuppdrag har de prover som valts ut och analyserats på HCBD även analyserats på klorbensener. Klorbensener, främst 1,4-diklorbensen, återfanns i samtliga luftprov (maximal halt 11 ng/m3) och i kommunalt reningsverksslam och sediment från Stockholm

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  • 26.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Strömberg, Katarina
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 2: Octachlorostyrene, Monochlorostyrenes and b-Bromostyrene2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements were performed of octachlorostyrene, monochlorostyrenes and b-bromostyrene in 134 air, deposition, water, sludge, sediment and fish samples near source areas and at background locations. Only octachlorostyrene was detected and only in air from background locations and fish. The results indicate that long-range transport occurs, and that OCS is a generally occurring pollutant in the Baltic Sea. Elevated levels were found in fish from two potential point sources, indicating current emissions of the substance to the water compartment. Diffuse emissions of octachlorostyrene seem to be limited. Biota is suggested as a more suitable matrix for detecting OCS pollution than other matrices. Further measurements in biota and air are recommended in order to provide information on OCS levels in fish and trends related to long-range transport. However, these measurements in air require use of high-volume samplers.

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  • 27. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Leknes, Henriette
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme. Subreport 3: Pigments2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of the ester octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the screening were to determine if octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate is present in different matrices in the Swedish environment, and if so, at what concentrations. In total 64 samples were analysed representing soil, surface water, sediment, biota (fish), influent and effluent waters and sludge from STPs, storm waters, and leachate water and sludge from landfills. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate was found in all analysed STP sludge samples. It was also found in all analysed influent water samples, but concentrations were generally lower or below the detection limit in effluent water. Thus, removal of the substance from the water phase takes place during the waste water treatment process, plausible by absorption to sludge. Concentrations in the same range as in influent waters or higher was also found in the storm water samples. The chemical could also be detected just above the detection limit in two out of three fish samples, but not in soil, surface water or sediment from the city of Stockholm. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate could not be detected in any of the samples from background areas. All together, this screening study shows that diffuse emissions of octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate in the urban environment take place, resulting in exposure to and uptake in biota. Due to the limited ecotoxicological data available, it is not possible to determine the risk of its presence in the environment, but based on animal studies the chemical is considered to have a low hazard potential for human health.

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  • 28. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junedahl, Erika
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schlabach NILU, Martin
    Ghebremeskel, Mebrat
    Screening study on occurrence of hazardous substances in the eastern Baltic Sea2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL and NILU have during 2008/2009 as an assignment from HELCOM, performed a screening study in the eastern Baltic Sea environment on the occurrence of eight of the substances/substance groups identified as hazardous under the Baltic Sea Action Plan.     Of the eight substances or substance classes included in the study, six of them were found above LOQ; organic tin compounds, PBDEs, PFAS, nonylphenol, chlorinated paraffins and endosulfan (endosulfan sulphate). Substances that occurred in fish samples from all sampling sites were; TBT, PBDEs (BDE 47 and BDE 100), PFAS (PFOS), chlorinated paraffins (SCCP), and endosulfan (endosulfan sulphate). Additionally, bisphenol A was found in fish from almost all sampling sites. PFAS (PFOS and PFOA), octyphenol and nonylphenol were found in one, one and six water samples, respectively. No obvious differences in concentrations could be seen between the sampling sites classified as background areas and affected areas. Furthermore, no clear general differences between affected sites could be seen. Concentrations found for the different substances were lower or in the same range as previously reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea, thus the eastern Baltic Sea environment does not seem to be more polluted compared to the Baltic Sea in general. For all the substances, except TBT, concentrations found were below reported PNEC values. However, for TBT, concentrations in several fish muscle samples were close to or above the PNEC value estimated for protection of human health considering consumption of fishery products. Additionally, PFOS levels in fish liver exceeded the PNEC value regarding secondary poisoning of predators in six samples, but PFOS levels in fish muscle were not measured in this study.

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  • 29. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Chemical and biological monitoring of sewage effluent water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has conducted a study with the overall aim to present basic data for decision-making regarding a monitoring program for STP effluents. A program for chemical and biological monitoring in effluent water from municipal sewage treatment plants is important for the understanding on spreading of chemicals in the environment, to identify changes in the use or substitution of chemicals, to identify possible emissions of 'new' emerging substances to the environment, and also for the implementation and follow up of directives. The study consisted of several parts; a chemical characterization of STP effluents consisting of both the analysis of specific compounds but also the identification of 'unknown' compounds, measurements of estrogenic and androgenic activity with the bioassays YES and YAS, evaluation of seasonal variability in chemical composition, and chemical measurements in recipient water. Further, a literature survey of potential additional bioassays suitable for monitoring purposes was conducted. Based on the results a recommendation for a monitoring program for municipal STP effluent is given.

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  • 30.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish Screening programme 20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study of pyrithiones and their major degradation products has been performed by IVL during 2012/2013. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a broad-spectrum biocide effective against bacteria, fungi and algae. ZnPT is commercially used as anti-dandruff agent in shampoos and as preservatives in cosmetics. Due to ZnPTs solubility in water it is suitable for use in outdoor and marine paints. Sodium pyrithione (HPT) is used as a preservative in cosmetics and as protective agent for fluids used in the metal industries. The objective of the present screening was to determine concentrations and to illuminate the fate of pyrithiones in sewage treatment plants and in small boat marinas by broadening the chemical analysis also to 2-pyridinesulfonic acid (PSA) and other pyrithione residues. ZnPT and/or cupper pyrithione (CuPT) were detected in 79% of influent and in 7% of effluent wastewaters from sewage treatment plants (STPs). A decrease in concentration from influent to effluent indicates that ZnPT and CuPT are degraded in the STPs. The absence of ZnPT and/or CuPT in sludge suggests that degradation will take place in contact with sludge. The degradation product PSA was the most abundant compound in the study. PSA was present in the majority of the wastewater samples and in all the sludge samples analysed. The concentration range of PSA in influents were 73 - 480 (median 240) ng/L (n=14), in effluents <2 - 330 (median 59) ng/L (n=28) and in sludge 25 - 280 (median 110) µg/kg dw (n=21). The decrease in concentration of PSA from influent to effluent wastewater shows that PSA may be further degraded or adsorbed to sludge in the STP. In a small boat marina where ZnPT is probably constantly emitted from anti-fouling paints, (and could be trans-chelated to the even more toxic CuPT) none of these species could be detected in the water or in the sediment. PSA, however, was detected in the sediment. In the sediments from Gothenburg, where the ZnPT load is of a more diffuse character, accumulation of PSA was not detected. As the acute toxicity of pyrithiones decreases with increased degradation and PSA is the least toxic of the known pyrithione residues, the result indicates that a process leading to less toxic sediments is taking place. However, the absence of chronic tests of PSA in the scientific literature makes it impossible to estimate the long-term effect on the marine environment.

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  • 31.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2012, Rodenticides2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study of rodenticides has been performed by IVL. Warfarin, difenacoum, coumatetralyl, brodifacoum and flocoumafen are anticoagulant rodenticides and are all being used in Sweden. These chemicals are persistent and bioaccumulative and are emitted and distributed in the environment due to its usage. These substances are produced to act as rodenticides and are taken up via ingestion. They act through inhibition of the vitamin K cycle in the liver, disrupt the blood clotting process and causes death by haemorrhage. The overall objective of the present study was to determine the concentrations of rodenticide anticoagulants in livers of red foxes and different raptors in the Swedish environment and to investigate if there is a possible risk for secondary poisoning of these compounds. Ten livers from red foxes and twenty livers from four species of raptors (tawny owl, long-eared owl, Eurasian eagle owl and common kestrel) were analysed. Bromadiolone was detected in highest concentration and most frequently. Warfarin was only found in the foxes while flocoumafen could not be detected in any of the samples. In the foxes, the summed concentration of the anticoagulant rodenticides ranged between 2 and 1 100 ng/g w.w and the raptors contained < LOQ to 870 ng/g w.w. All foxes contained at least one of the compounds while 65% of the raptors contained at least one. The levels found in this study may be compared with the level for toxic effects of SGARs; >100 to 200 ng/g, which has been suggested as a “potential lethal range”. At least one of the raptor individuals contained higher concentrations and poisoning cannot be ruled out. This study shows that the anticoagulant rodenticides included are found in non-target organisms that feed on rodents in concentrations such that secondary poisoning cannot be ruled out.

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  • 32.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Subreport 3. Biocider: Difenacoum2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has performed a 'Screening Study' of difenacoum and related compounds as an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Difenacoum is used as a second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGAR). It is mainly used to control rodents around buildings and inside transport vehicles. Difenacoum is uptaken via ingestion and acts by disrupting the blood clotting process. In addition to difenacoum, the current study also includes another six substances with similar functions. The overall objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of the selected substances in the Swedish environment. A sampling programme was developed and 60 samples were included in the study, representing surface water, sediment, fish, soil, in- and effluent water from sewage treatment plants, sludge, storm water, storm water and sludge, and eagle-owl tissues. All of the seven anticoagulant rodenticides were below detection limit in all abiotic samples and in fish. This shows that these substances are not widely distributed in the Swedish environment. However, difenacoum and three of the related compounds (coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and bromadifacoum) were found in three of the eagle-owl individuals. Coumatetralyl and bromadiolone were found in highest levels followed by difenacoum and the liver sampled contained higher concentrations compared to muscle samples. This shows that secondary poisoning of animals feeding on rodents not can be excluded. Additional studies focusing on areas with known usage could reveal if other non-target organisms other than eagle-owls are likely to be exposed to rodenticides. The study also confirms that the liver is the main target for retention of these rodenticdes.Version 2 april 2012

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  • 33.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Subreport 1. Biocides: 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) and 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBNPA)2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has performed a 'Screening Study' of IPBC and DBNPA as an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. IPBC belongs to the category preservatives/disinfectants and is used as a fungicide. It is used in the paper and pulp industry to prevent the formation of slime and as a preservative in cosmetics, paints, coatings etc. DBNPA is mostly used to reduce the occurrence of slime forming microorganisms with in the paper and cellulose industry. It is also used a biocide in cooling systems. IPBC is moderately soluble and not very persistent in water, hydrolysis is expected to be main route of dissipation. DBNPA has high water solubility, a short half-life and is rapidly degraded in water by hydrolysis. The overall objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of IPBC and DBNPA in the Swedish environment. A sampling strategy was developed and the selection was based on the usage pattern of the substances. IPBC was found in air at two paint companies representing point sources and in the centre of Gothenburg, representing an urban diffuse source. In water, IPBC was found in high levels in the influent water at two paint companies and in both the in- and effluent water from three STPs. It was not found in background areas or in urban surface water, storm water and sediment, STP sludge or storm water sludge. The results indicate that if IPBC is being used, there is a possibility for the compound to be distributed to the environment since in can be detected in air and influent and effluent water from the paint industries and in STP waters. However, IPBC does not seem to reach other urban or background areas which may be due to the fact that IPBC is not very persistent in water. DBNPA was found below LOD in all samples.

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  • 34.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 1. Bis(4-Chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning bis(4-Chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS). BCPS is a high production volume chemical and is mainly used in the polymer production. It has been detected in biota in several species from the Baltic Sea environment but the source for its detection is unknown. Air, deposition, sediment, fish, effluent and surface were sampled mainly from the Baltic sea region. BCPS was present in all fish samples (perch and herring) and in similar levels as PCB 138 and PCB 153. There was no trend in concentrations between species, country or sampling location. BCPS was detected in all three marine surface samples which may explain the bioaccumulation in biota. It was detected in one air sample in the same magnitude as individual PCB congeners and in one of the WWTP samples. This screening did not clarify the pathways of BCPS to the Baltic Sea. However, the results indicate that distribution is more waterborne rather than airborne

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  • 35.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Katarina
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 5: Mirex and Endosulfan2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the pesticides mirex and ensosulfan were performed in 49 samples of air, deposition, sediment, sludge, water and biota at background sites and at diffuse sources. Mirex was not detected in any of the samples analysed, and was concluded not to occur in elevated concentrations in the Swedish environment. Endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate were detected in air and deposition and the latter also in sediments, biota and leachate water. Endosulfan seems to mainly enter the environment via long-range atmospheric transport. There may be other diffuse emissions resulting in observed levels of endosulfan sulphate. In order to address remaining questions, further analysis of e.g. outgoing sewage water, sewage sludge, biota and/or food stuffs as well as regular air monitoring of endosulfan is suggested.

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  • 36.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2006. Subreport 1: Phthalates2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of phthalates on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the study were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, to assess the possibility of current emissions, to investigate the likelihood of atmospheric transport and uptake in biota and humans. In total 66 samples were analysed representing air, sediment, sludge, biota (fish), foodstuffs and human urine both in background and source areas. The phthalates included in the study were di-(2-ethyl)hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and di-(2-ethyl)hexyl adipate (DEHA). In air, also di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butylphthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were analysed. DEHP was most commonly occurring substance. The iso-phthalates were detected in all matrices apart from human urine and biota. The results show that there are on-going emissions of iso-phthalates as well as the other substances to the Swedish environment. Long-range atmospheric transport does not seem to be of major importance. The atmospheric levels of iso-phthalates were lower than DEHP levels with the exception of urban air, where DIDP dominated. In sediments and sludge the DINP levels were similar or higher than the DEHP levels. In sediments this was true also for DIDP, whereas DIDP levels in sludge corresponded to about 50 % of the DEHP levels. Uptake of phthalates in biota seems to be limited. Human exposure via food seems to be low, but other routes of exposure are possible, e.g. inhalation of indoor air. Iso-phthalates were not detected in human urine, bur detection limits were relatively high and a direct comparison to DEHP exposure was not possible. The current pattern of environmental levels mirrors the consumption pattern 5 years ago, thus reflecting a time lag which may be explained by the large amounts of DEHP still present in the technosphere. As there are no set risk levels of iso-phthalates, it is not possible to determine the risk of their presence in the environment.

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  • 37.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 1: Adipates2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements were performed of 7 adipates in 128 air, water, sludge, sediment and fish samples near source areas and at background locations. Human breast milk samples were also analysed. Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was found in sludge, sediment, fish and in one water sample. Di-iso-butyl and di-decyl adipate were detected in a few samples of sediment and sludge. Two potential point sources were identified; Stenungsund industrial area and Gislaved plastics/rubber production plant, which showed elevated levels in sediments, sludge and/or fish. Current diffuse emissions via municipal sewage treatment plants are likely, but the factors governing the occurrence of DEHA in sludge are unclear. Sediment and biota data indicate DEHA presence in the dissolved phase of surface water, however, it was not detected in any surface water samples. The absence in air confirms that adipates have no potential for long-range atmospheric transport. Although adipates are not very persistent, the high usage and observed occurrence in sediments and fish indicate that they may locally reach high levels. Considering that there are no restrictions of their usage, the environmental releases of adipates are not expected to cease in the near future.

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  • 38.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2014 - Analysis of UV-filters (and fragrances) used in cosmetics and textiles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study concerning mainly substances used as UV-filters in sunscreen lotions.

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  • 39.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme - Antibacterial substances2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 40.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening of Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) and Polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study of selected emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) has been carried out. Additional substances in the screening were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDDs) and chlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs).

    Measurements have been carried out both at background- and urban sites. The sampling was mainly performed at the Swedish west coast with Göteborg representing the urban area. Sediment and biota was sampled in the estuary of Göta Älv and in a background area. For identification of pathways to the environment storm water/sludge and samples from WWTPs were collected. Dust samples from different indoor environments were taken both at public spaces and in homes. Air and dust samples were collected at a recycling industry for electronic waste. Fire extinguishing water from a fire at a recycling industry was included in the sampling program.

    The emerging BFRs, PBDEs and PBDFs occurred in “high” concentrations in air and dust from the recycling industry. The occurrence of BFRs at this electronic waste facility shows that electronic articles contain these chemicals. BDE-209 and DBDPE were found in highest concentrations. DBDPE has similar applications as BDE-209 and it has been marketed as a general substitute for this chemical. The occurrence of PBDFs may indicate that the BFRs are contaminated or that PBDEs are transformed to PBDFs in the recycling processes.

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  • 41.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sternbeck, John
    Kvernes, Eva
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening tertiary butylphenols, methylphenols, and long-chain alkylphenols in the Swedish environment2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En screeningstudie har utförts med avseende på 30 fenoliska ämnen, däribland 14 tertiära butylfenoler och besläktade substanser, 7 metylfenoler och 9 långkedjiga (C8, C9, C12) alkylfenoler. De huvudsakliga syftena med studien var att bestämma koncentrationer av dessa ämnen i ett flertal olika matriser i den svenska miljön, att spegla viktiga källtyper och att koppla förekomsten i miljön till den nuvarande användningen i Sverige. Ytterligare ett syfte var att undersöka möjligheten för atmosfärisk transport och upptag i biota. Mätningarna utgjordes av ett nationellt samt tre regionala mätprogram om totalt 130 prov fördelade mellan luft, mark, sediment, vatten, avloppsslam och fisk och inkluderade bakgrundsområden, urbana områden, punktkällor och reningsverk.

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  • 42.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2007. Subreport 2: Ester2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of the ester octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the screening were to determine if octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate is present in different matrices in the Swedish environment, and if so, at what concentrations. In total 64 samples were analysed representing soil, surface water, sediment, biota (fish), influent and effluent waters and sludge from STPs, storm waters, and leachate water and sludge from landfills. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate was found in all analysed STP sludge samples. It was also found in all analysed influent water samples, but concentrations were generally lower or below the detection limit in effluent water. Thus, removal of the substance from the water phase takes place during the waste water treatment process, plausible by absorption to sludge. Concentrations in the same range as in influent waters or higher was also found in the storm water samples. The chemical could also be detected just above the detection limit in two out of three fish samples, but not in soil, surface water or sediment from the city of Stockholm. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate could not be detected in any of the samples from background areas. All together, this screening study shows that diffuse emissions of octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate in the urban environment take place, resulting in exposure to and uptake in biota. Due to the limited ecotoxicological data available, it is not possible to determine the risk of its presence in the environment, but based on animal studies the chemical is considered to have a low hazard potential for human health.

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  • 43.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 3: UV-filters2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryAs an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study concerning UV-filters. Sunscreen lotions are used to protect the skin against sunburn and skin cancer caused by the UV (ultra violet) radiation of sunlight. The active moieties in sunscreens (UVfilters) are usually aromatic compounds which absorb UV-radiation and release the energy as low energy rays. Surface water collected on bathing places in the summer contained 12 UV-filters out of 13 measured whereas in sediment 10 out of 13 were found. Four of the UV-filters were also found in fish samples. UV-filters were detected in surface water early in the spring (before swimming season) but the concentration and frequency clearly increased during the summer. All measured UV-filters were found in STP effluent water, and all but two in STP sludge. Comparisons of measured concentrations of UVfilters with QSAR derived PNECs and also available experimental ecotoxicity data indicate that several of the included UV-filters pose a potential environmental risk.

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  • 44.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anti-inflammatory drugs in WWTP influents and effluent and the occurrence in the aquatic environment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a follow-up study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs on commission from the Swedish EPA. In the first project was sewage water and sludge investigated. This investigation was focused on the occurrence of these drugs in surface water, sediment and fish in a watercourse influenced by the local WWTP. For this purpose was an analytical method developed capable to concentrate, separate and detect free and conjugated anti-inflammatory drugs. Eight pharmaceutical drugs were analysed: paracetamol, acetyl salicylic acid, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and two metabolites of ibuprofen. Conjugated anti-inflammatory drugs were detected at low concentrations (< 1 % of total) in influent and effluent. In the water and sediment samples were all the analysed drugs detected but at somewhat different pattern than in the sewage water. The anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol were not detected in fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP discharge point.

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  • 45.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dusan, Brita
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish Screening 2005. Subreport 2. Biocides2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    .As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a 'Screening Study' of the following biocides: bronopol, 4-Chloro-3-cresol, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, N-didecyldimethylammoniumchloride (DDMAC), Propiconazole, Resorcinol, 2-(Tiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, triclosan, Methyl-, Ethyl-, Propyl-, Butyl- and Benzylparabene. The overall objectives of the screening were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, and to assess the possibility of current emissions in Sweden. In total, 132 samples of air, precipitation, effluent water, surface water, sludge, sediment, fish, foodstuff and human urine have been analyzed. The background sites were generally non-contaminated, only 2 out of 17 background samples contained detectable amounts of biocides, and in these samples only two substances were found;namely triclosan and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Due to regular presence in samples of wastewater effluents, sludge and urban sediments, on-going emissions are likely to occur for 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, triclosan, DDMAC and parabenes. Observed concentrations were, however, below risk levels. The atmosphere was identified as a possible transport matrix for triclosan, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and parabenes. Bronopol, resorcinol and 2-(tiocyanomethyltio)-benzothiazole were not detected in any of the samples analyzed, and were considered to pose no environmental risks. Propiconazole may be of local concern but at present it is unlikely to cause any problems on a national level.

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  • 46.
    Röttorp, Jonas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Solyom, Peter
    Eriksson, L
    DIKA. Driftstörningar i kommunala avloppsreningsverk - en studie av syreöverföring, ytaktiva ämnen, slamegenskaper och styrmöjligheter 1996-19981999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under de senaste 5-10 åren har driftstörningarna ökat i många kommunala avloppsreningsverk. Det har främst varit problem med syresättning, slammets sedimenteringsegenskaper och skumning, med ökade utsläpp som följd. Det här projektet startade med teorin att en del av problemen hade samband med den ökade användningen av biologiskt lätt nedbrytbara tensider. En viktig del i projektet var också att testa möjligheterna till övervakning och styrning av verken med multivariata metoder. En mycket stor mängd data har samlats in från fem reningsverk (Borlänge, Gävle, Haparanda, Karlstad och Örebro). Prover har tagits varannan timme under särskilda intensivprovtagningsdygn. Förutom de vanliga variablerna har då också halten av tensider och fettsyror analyserats, liksom syreöverföringen. Dessutom har verken varje vecka sammanställt en mängd driftdata inklusive mikrobiell och fysikalisk karakterisering av bioslammet. Projektet har visat att: * Tensider och fettsyror i avloppsvattnet stör syreöverföringen. * Problemen kan minskas genom att minska slambelastningen (höja slamhalten), och/eller genom att adsorbera en del av inkommande fettsyror på överskottsslammet. * Mikroskopering av bioslammet och mätningar av dess separationsegenskaper ger värdefulla upplysningar om processens tillstånd. *Det finns möjligheter att övervaka, och styra, processen i realtid med hjälp av några extra givare och multivariata modeller. Ett exempel är modellering av halten totalfosfor i inkommande vatten, som kan beräknas utifrån andra variabler.

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  • 47. Sternbeck, John
    et al.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rehngren, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    WFD Priority substances in sediments from Stockholm and the Svealand coastal region2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EC Water framework directive priority substances were analysed in surface sediments from urban, suburban and coastal areas in Stockholm and the Baltic Sea. The results are discussed in terms of spatial trends, local impact and ecological risk

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  • 48. Sternbeck, John
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Antimon i Sverige - användning, spridning och miljöpåverkan2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimon är en halvmetall vars användning ökat starkt under de senaste decennierna. I denna rapport presenteras en screening av antimon i Sverige. Antimons användning inom olika branscher har kartlagts och dess förekomst i naturen har studerats. Prov har tagits i såväl bakgrundsmiljöer som nära tänkbara punktkällor. Följande matriser har analyserats: luft, nederbörd, vatten, sediment, mark, fisk, gröda och rötslam. Som mått på diffus belastning från samhället har slam och vatten från reningsverk undersökts. Följande tänkbara punktkällor har undersökts: glasindustrin, plastindustrin och textilindustrin. Halter av antimon är förhöjda i närheten av de industrier som hanterar Sb eller varor som innehåller Sb. Antimon sprids också via reningsverken samt från trafiken. En översiktlig massbalans tyder på att antimon ackumuleras snabbt i samhället.

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  • 49. Sternbeck, John
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bignert, Anders
    Haglund, Peter
    Lindkvist, Katrin
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margareta
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rehngren, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Organiska miljögifter i fisk från svenska bakgrundslokaler2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisk från nio svenska lokaler, representerande sötvatten, kust och utsjö, har analyserats på PBDE (polybromerade difenyletrar), HBCD, PAH (polycykliska aromatiska kolväten), klorerade bensener, PCB, ftalater, och klorerade dioxiner och furaner i fiskmuskel. Dessutom har pentaklorfenol, triclosan och tetrabrombisfenol A analyserats i fiskgalla från tre av dessa lokaler.

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  • 50. Sternbeck, John
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    HBCD i Sverige - screening av ett bromerat flamskyddsmedel2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hexabromcyklododekan (HBCD) är ett alifatiskt bromerat flamskyddsmedel som i slutet av 1990-talet utgjorde ca 14% av den västeuropeiska konsumtionen av bromerade flamskyddsmedel. Trots denna relativt omfattande användning finns mycket få data på HBCDs förekomst i miljön. IVL har därför genomfört en screening av HBCD i syfte att illustrera dess förekomst i den svenska miljön, samt att identifiera betydande emissionskällor. Potentiella emissionskällor har identifierats genom en översiktlig materialflödesanalys. Mätningar har utförts nära dessa misstänkta punktkällor, i urban miljö samt i bakgrundsområden och omfattat luft, nedfall, vatten, mark, sediment, slam och biota. Dessutom har förekomsten av HBCD i föda studerats genom analys av olika typer av livsmedel.

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