IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Kathare, Maitreyi
    et al.
    Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Julander, Anneli
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden;Sustainable work and management, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Erfani, Behnaz
    Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Schenk, Linda
    Integrative Toxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden;Department of Philosophy and History, Royal Institute of Technology , Stockholm , Sweden.
    An Overview of Cleaning Agents’ Health Hazards and Occupational Injuries and Diseases Attributed to Them in Sweden2022In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, ISSN 2398-7308, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 741-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from the Swedish Products Register, hosted by the Swedish Chemicals Agency (KemI),national occupational injury and disease statistics, and call records from the Swedish PoisonsInformation Centre (PIC) we characterize health hazards of marketed cleaning products and recordedinjuries, disease, and incidents linked to cleaning or disinfection agents.

    The results showthat cleaning agents pose many kinds of health hazards, although corrosion and irritation hazardsdominate, in particular for the eyes (54% of all included products).

    Few products were recognizedas inhalation hazards. The nature of the health hazards is reflected in the occupational disease andinjury statistics and PIC records for eyes and skin but not for the respiratory tract. Among occupationaldisease cases attributed to cleaning or disinfection agents, 61% concern skin and 26% therespiratory tract.

    Among occupational injury cases 64% concern chemical burns. However, only asmall part (<0.5%) of all reported diseases and injuries were explicitly attributed to cleaning or disinfectionagents.

    On average, there were 11 cases of disease attributed to cleaning or disinfectionagents per million workers and year. For occupational injuries the corresponding number was 8. Thedata concern a broad range of sectors and occupations, but notable sectors were healthcare, accommodationand food service, and manufacturing.

    Women were more likely to suffer from disease,men and women equally likely to suffer from injury. PIC cases were evenly distributed between menand women, but the clear risk cases more frequently involved men.

    Occupational diseases increasedmany-fold in 2020 while injuries decreased, which could be due to COVID-19 changing use patternsof cleaning and disinfection agents at work.

    We conclude that cleaning agents pose a variety of risksto a large part of the workforce, although particular attention for preventive efforts may need to bedirected to the healthcare, accommodation and food service, and manufacturing sectors.

  • 2.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute , Stockholm , Sweden;Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Werner, Paulina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Isaksson, Marléne
    Lund University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Skane University Hospital Malmö , Malmö , Sweden.
    Wisgrill, Lukas
    Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna , 1090 Vienna , Austria.
    Lidén, Carola
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Fyhrquist, Nanna
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Julander, Anneli
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute , Stockholm , Sweden;Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Cobalt nanoparticles cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans2022In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cobalt (Co) causes allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and the emerging use of Co nanoparticles (CoNPs) warrants gaining further insight into its potential to elicit ACD in sensitized individuals.

    Objectives: The aims of the study were to clarify to what extent CoNPs may elicit ACD responses in participants with Co contact allergy, and to evaluate whether the nanoparticles cause a distinct immune response compared with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in the skin reactions.

    Methods: Fourteen individuals with Co contact allergy were exposed to CoNPs, CoCl2, a Co-containing hard-metal disc (positive control), and an empty test chamber (negative control) by patch testing. Allergic responses were evaluated clinically by a dermatologist at Days 2, 4 and 7. At Day 2, patch-test chambers were removed, and remaining test-substance and skin-wipe samples were collected for inductive-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis.

    Additionally, skin biopsies were taken from patch-test reactions at Day 4 for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, histopathology and ICP-MS analysis of Co skin penetration.

    Results: Patch testing with CoNPs elicited allergic reactions in Co-sensitized individuals. At all timepoints, clinical assessment revealed significantly lower frequencies of positive patch-test reactions to CoNPs compared with CoCl2 or to the positive control. CoNPs elicited comparable immune responses to CoCl2. Chemical analysis of Co residues in patch-test filters, and on skin, shows lower doses for CoNPs compared with CoCl2.

    Conclusions: CoNPs potently elicit immune responses in Co-sensitized individuals. Even though patch testing with CoNPs resulted in a lower skin dose than CoCl2, identical immunological profiles were present. Further research is needed to identify the potential harm of CoNPs to human health.

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