IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bedömning av möjlighet till återanvändning av byggvaror med hänsyn till innehåll av kemiska ämnen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att öka kunskapen om bygg- och rivningsprodukter och -material som går att återanvända, för att på så sätt öka andelen material som cirkuleras. Rapporten sammanställer befintlig information och presenterar en enkel utvärdering av byggvarugrupper och deras återanvändbarhet baserat på ett ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Detta kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter i relation till deras farlighet under driftsfasen. Rapporten utvärderar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras kategoriserat utifrån husdelar. Ett byggåterbruksguiden har tagit fram baserad på rapporten som publiceras som ett separat dokument till rapporten.

    Rapporten och guiden omfattar följande produktgrupper:

    -        Takkonstruktion

    -        Fasader

    -        Fundament

    -        Dörrar och fönster

    -        Innertak och bjälklag

    -        Golv

    -        Badrumsmaterial

    -        Köksinredning

    -        Mark och trädgård

    -        Emballage

    -        Restpartier

    Följande ämnen inkluderas i utvärderingen

    -        Asbest

    -        Metaller: bly (Pb), kadmium (Cd), krom (Cr), koppar (Cu), nickel (Ni), zink (Zn), arsenik (As) och kvicksilver (Hg)

    -        Klorparaffiner, kortkedjiga (SCCP)

    -        PAH (polycykliska aromatiska kolväten)

    -        CFC / HCFC (klorfluorkarboner och vätefluorkolväten)

    -        Kolväten (C6 - C36, alifatiska kolväten)

    -        PCB (polyklorerade bifenyler, inkluderar 209 PCB-varianter)

    -        Bromerade flamskyddsmedel (hexabromcyklododekan)

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  • 2.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ByggÅterbruksGuiden: En vägledning för att underlätta återbruk av byggprodukter i bostäder2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna guide är att öka kunskapen om byggprodukter och byggmaterial som går att återanvända, så att den cirkulära användningen blir större. Guiden kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter.

    Guiden är riktad till privatpersoner som vill använda begagnade byggvaror eller som har äldre byggprodukter i sina bostäder och vill veta om de innehåller farliga ämnen innan de lämnar dem till återbruk. Den ger en enkel och lättavläst utvärdering av byggvaror och visar om de går att återanvända, baserat på ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Guiden omfattar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras utifrån husets delar. Den ger även tips på hur man känner igen farliga material och hur man sorterar avfallet. Här finns även en lista över aktörer i Sverige som arbetar med återbruk av byggvaror, dock inte fullständig – eftersom antalet aktörer inom detta område ökar stadigt.

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  • 3.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatnyttan med materialåtervinning av byggavfall2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to find carbon footprints for material recycling of 15 construction and demolition waste fractions in comparison to virgin production. Incineration as an alternative to recycling was also included for some waste fractions. 

    The study presents the carbon fotprints of waste recycling in the Swedish context. Virgin resources replaced by recycling are in most cases assumed to be produced in Sweden or in Europe. In marginal cases global data are used depending on data availability and specific market. The results regarding climate impacts or benefits are generic and might not be representative for specific characteristics of a particular recyclers or customers. 

    The study should not be treated as a full-scale LCA analysis, but rather as a template-based evaluation illustrating the size and range of climate implications of recycling different materials.

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  • 4.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boltenstern, Mikaela
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluate the amounts and composition of lost angling gear in the Baltic2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) in aquatic environments contributes both to environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In nature, discarded fishing gear can release both macro- and microplastics as well as harmful chemicals and thereby contribute to pollution of water bodies and the degradation of habitats. This study is a further development of the project Quantification and environmental pollution aspects of lost fishing gear in the Nordic countries (Unsbo et al., 2022).

    The project intends to compile information from the HELCOM-countries on the quantity and composition of lost fishing gear, originating mainly from recreational fishing. The study also considers the occurrence of harmful chemicals associated with the lost fishing gear and the potential impact of these chemicals on the aquatic environment. Suggestions on how to prevent further losses and mitigate negative impact of lost fishing gear are also provided.

    The HELCOM-countries included in this report are Denmark, Estonia, Finland & Åland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden. This study is based on several methodological approaches to obtain and compare data from different sources. It includes a literature survey, a stakeholder dialogue, an analysis of sales statistics from retailers and producers of fishing gear and national import and export statistics. A web-based questionnaire specifically directed towards gaining information from recreational fishers was developed and disseminated. The data generated from the questionnaire was then compared with official national statistics. 

    The quantity and composition of lost fishing gear are difficult to estimate mainly due to the general lack of data within this area. In this study, estimations of lost gear such as fishing line, baits and sinkers were calculated. It is, however, important to recognise that estimates of lost fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries are rough and based on many assumptions, combined with a low response rate on the questionnaire.Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Estonia have national statistics on the number of recreational fishers available for the public. This group encompasses around 1.7 million persons in Sweden, 1.5 million in Finland, 0.3 million in Denmark as well as 68 000 in Estonia. The other countries do not have any national statistics on the number of recreational fishers.

    The following number of fishers were estimated for the other countries:  174 000 in Germany, 41 000 in Latvia, 60 000 in Lithuania, and 84 000 in Poland. The number of fishers were multiplied by the average amount of gear lost per person and year obtained from the questionnaire results. The estimated number of lost fishing gear by the HELCOM-countries thus amounts to 21 million baits, 9 million sinkers and 96 million metres of fishing line per year. The questionnaire generated 145 replies of which 94 respondents were from Sweden, 32 from Lithuania and 19 from Estonia.

    National statistics on imports, exports and industrial production do not specify the intended user of the specific fishing gear. However, due to the specificity in behaviours and equipment of the type of fisher, it can be assumed that some of the commodity codes are likely to correspond either to sport and recreational fishing or to commercial fishing. Based on this assumption, the project has estimated total annual losses in the Nordic countries of 337 tonnes fishhooks, 78 – 745 million meters fishing line. 

    Because of the large amount of fishing gear lost at sea, their presence is likely to have negative effects on aquatic ecosystems. Plastic additives and associated chemicals constitute a plethora of harmful substances that can leach from plastic materials. Fishing plummets made of lead are also problematic since lead is toxic. The use of lead in sinkers and plummets is already banned in Denmark and similar restrictions are likely to be introduced in all HELCOM-countries due to the possible coming proposal from the EU Commission (ECHA, 2022). 

    The most common types of plastic used in fishing gear are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyamide (PA or nylon). Some common additives in plastics are stabilizers, fillers, colorants, antioxidants, flame retardants and plasticizers. Even if harmful substances do exist in fishing gear it has not, within the framework of this study, been possible to quantify the annual amount released to the environment. The necessary information on additives and chemicals present in fishing gear has not been reported or has never been analysed.

    Producers and resellers of fishing gear, contacted in this study could not or were unwilling to share information about the chemical contents of their products even though REACH stipulates that suppliers should provide information about SVHC (substances of high concern) present in their products in concentrations over 0.1 % (weight by weight) within 45 days.  

    We suggest the following measures to reduce the occurrence and impacts of lost fishing gear; 1) municipalities and retailers should provide information on the topic to increase the awareness among fishers, 2) incitements to reuse, recycle or recover fishing gear should be improved, 3) better information on chemical substances present in fishing gear, 4) ban of harmful substances including lead in fishing gear and 5) conduct clean ups of hotspots which also will contribute to reduce new losses. Implementation of the EU Single-Use Plastics Directive and upcoming extended producer responsibility including fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries are important drivers supporting this positive development.

    In conclusion, the estimates presented here should be considered indicative of potential losses of fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries. By using two different and independent methods to collect data for estimating losses of fishing gear, we have aimed to shed light on the uncertainty in our estimates. Furthermore, we provide all assumptions and calculations for transparency. Even though the methods to some extent give similar results, the figures are overestimated due to our conservative assumptions based on the precautionary principle and better data is needed to provide more reliable decision support.  

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  • 5.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boltenstern, Mikaela
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification and environmental pollution aspects of lost fishing gear in the Nordic countries2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) in aquatic environments contributes both to environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In nature, discarded fishing gear contributes to pollution by macro- and microplastics and harmful chemicals as well as to the degradation of habitats. This study compiles information from the Nordic countries on the quantity and composition of lost fishing gear, originating mainly from sport- and recreational fishing activities. The study also considers the occurrence of harmful chemicals associated with the lost fishing gear and the potential impact of these chemicals on the aquatic environment. Suggestions on how to prevent further losses and mitigate negative impact of lost fishing gear are also provided. 

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  • 6.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lassesson, Henric
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Återvinning av smutsig sand från uttjänta kostgräsplaner: Hanterings- och behandlingsmetoder2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Då sanden från konstgräsplaner även innehåller rester av plast och gummi från infill och grässtrån så är sanden inte lämplig att återbruka exempelvis på golfbanor eller liknande, men det finns andra alternativa återvinningsmetoder. I det här projektet har olika hanteringsmetoder undersökts för att se hur väl de fungerar och de har även kartlagts för att se var dessa går att finna i närheten av de konstgräsplaner där problemet uppstår. Det har tagits fram ett antal rekommendationer för att få ett bättre resursutnyttjande och för att minska risken för spridning av mikroplast från sanden.

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  • 7.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Emma
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Increasing the circularity of high barrier flexible plastic packaging - Results from WP1: Market analysis2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic packaging constitutes a large part of the total plastic use in Sweden. However, only a limited fraction of all packaging put on the Swedish market each year is recycled. One of the reasons for this is the complex design of many plastic packages, which contributes to challenges when sorting, disassembling, and recycling the collected material into high-value applications. Flexible plastic packaging, namely films, used for packaging groceries/food are especially challenging when it comes to mechanical recycling. This category includes countless multi-layered film structures which often include, for example, barriers and adhesives that may affect the sorting and recycling of the material. The aim of the first work package was to conduct an initial market analysis to map and quantify the current and future use of complex high barrier laminates, both multi-material structures and mono-materials structures, on the Swedish market. The market analysis was carried out by studying available literature, both scientific and grey literature, as well as through interviews with relevant stakeholders.

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1 - 7 of 7
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