IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Awad, Raed
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johann Bolinius, Dämien
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strandberg, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Jasmin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Adeoye Bello, Musbau
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Härnwall, Eva-Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gobelius, Laura
    PFAS in waste residuals from Swedish incineration plants: A systematic investigation2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration is the dominant treatment for residual waste in Sweden. It is desirable to reach complete thermal oxidation of chemical substances in the incineration process to destroy toxic substances contained in waste. Otherwise, there is a risk of toxic substances being released into the environment through incineration residuals. This project has investigated to which extent Swedish waste incineration plants emit PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) via bottom ash, fly ash and condensate water. 

    Of 38 incineration plants in Sweden, 27 (in total 31 furnaces) joined the project, answered questionnaires about operating parameters, and sampled incineration residuals. Five samples from each matrix, fly ash, bottom ash, or condensate water, were collected during a two-week period to compensate for the variation over time. 

    The collected samples of bottom ash, fly ash and condensate were analysed for 27 different PFAS according to a methodology developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, based on LC-MS / MS. Out of the 27 incineration plants in this project, five plants had no samples with PFAS-27 concentrations above the analytical limit of detection in any of the matrices. Generally, the results show low concentrations in the sampled matrices from most plants, with a few exceptions. No apparent relationships were found between the analysed concentrations of PFAS in the sampling matrices and the operational data.

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  • 2.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Siptex - Quality assurance report2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Siptex (Swedish Innovation Platform for Textile Sorting) is a research project funded by Sweden’s Innovation Agency's Challenge-driven innovation initiative. As a new step in the textile value chain, Siptex aims to create the conditions for increased profitability in the handling of the ever-increasing amounts of textile waste that are collected for material recycling and an increase in fibre-to-fibre recycling of textiles. 

    This report focuses on the work carried out in the work package called “Quality assurance”. There were two main goals within this work. The first goal was to enable the establishment of a range of quality assured products. The second goal was to increase the knowledge on hazardous chemicals in post-consumer textiles in general.

    Five different outbound products of specific fibre content have been developed based on market demand. The products are referred to as ReFab® by SYSAV and include Siptex sorted materials of different purities of cotton, polyester and acrylics. 

    For the quality assurance process, a method was developed to take representative textile samples from the bales of post-consumer materials, using a hay sampler and an extensive shredding process to product homogenous samples of shredded textile fibres. In the Siptex project, a total of 15 samples per bale was considered to be both practical as well as likely to give a good representation of the contents in a certain bale. This number is the result of a small pilot study which is described in this report. This method can be supplemented by a more routine analysis in which samples are taken by hand to monitor sorting efficiencies. 

    The increase the knowledge on hazardous chemicals in post-consumer textiles, the project investigated existing data on hazardous chemicals in post-consumer textiles and supplemented this with new data generated from chemical analyses on bales of Siptex sorted materials made of cotton, polyester, and acrylics. 

    The analysis of the literature data and the results from the chemical analysis of Siptex samples, indicate that compliance with REACH due to presence of hazardous chemicals, likely is not an issue in the sorted post-consumer textiles. Post-consumer textiles also seem to clear Oeko-tex and AFIRM requirements for the majority of the chemical substances on these restricted substance lists. But not all samples clear all the requirements from Oeko-tex or AFIRM. Bales with polyester materials were found to be most likely in breach of Oeoko-tex or AFIRM requirements. Three remaining challenges were identified and discussed in the report. These include the need for more standards, further development of the colour sorting process and a need for more analyses and data-sharing on hazardous substances in post-consumer textiles.

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  • 3.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Albertsson, Gustav Sandin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grahn Lydig, Sophie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Siptex Swedish Innovation Platform  for Textile Sorting -  A summary report from the final stage of the project2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Siptex, Swedish Innovation Platform for Textile Sorting, is the name of a research project and the name of the world’s first industrial-scale textile sorting plant.

    The aim of the Siptex project was to create conditions for high-quality textile recycling through the establishment of automated textile sorting.

    The Siptex plant, built during the project, uses near-infrared and visual spectroscopy (NIR/VIS) to sort textile waste in terms of fibre composition and colour.

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  • 4.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellström, Josefina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Riskbedömning av hälso- och/eller miljöskadliga ämnen i begagnade byggvaror - Slutrapport av delprojekt inom Grön Bostad Stockholm2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kompanjonen arbetar med återbrukade byggvaror och i den här rapporten har en metod tagits fram för att riskbedöma begagnade byggvaror som säljs av Kompanjonen, baserade på offentligt tillgängliga data. Bedömningarna är baserade på uppkomst av reglerade/farliga kemiska ämnen i en vara och har gjorts för innerdörrar, glaspartier, akustikplattor och textilplattor av olika ålder. Osäkerheter i bedömningen på grund av ofullständiga data diskuteras och även möjliga förbättringar föreslås. Projektet har utförts av IVL inom ramen för projektet Grön BoStad Stockholm, finansierat av den Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden.

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  • 5. Holmkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Jansson, Anna
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jonsdottir, Hafdis
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boberg, Nils
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekici, Saamet
    Smarta Loopar: En kartläggning av hinder och åtgärder för att ta fram smarta loopar för produkter av plast och textil, med fokus på policy och beteende2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett vanligt argument för att inte sortera plastavfall utan i stället slänga det i brännbar avfallsfraktion är att volymerna av plastavfall är för små för att det skulle betala sig ekonomiskt att återvinna dem. Lösningen på detta har hittills varit att försöka samla in så mycket som möjligt för att sedan sortera i olika plastfraktioner. Med detta projekt har det utvärderat om man istället kan ha en specifik insamling och få mindre, men renare flöden, s.k. ”smarta loopar” av material.

    I projektet har det gjorts en kartläggning vad som skulle kunna fungera/ inte fungera och hitta möjligheter för att nå smarta loopar. Fokus i projektet låg på att identifiera hinder och åtgärder/lösningar som adresserar beteende och policyfrågor och inte på tekniska lösningar.

    Kartläggningen i projektet har genomförts med hjälp av fyra fallstudier: 1) Pallsträckfilm, 2) Spännband och lyftslingor, 3) plastemballage av kläder och 3) sportartiklar för innebandy. I projektet har det kartlagts båda på individuella hinder och åtgärder, som mer allmänna hinder och åtgärder som verkar vara gemensamt i de loopar projektet har tittat på.

    Projektet har visat att det redans finns bra exempel på fungerande smarta loopar i Sverige och det finns ett stort intresse hos svenskt näringsliv att ta fram flera smarta loopar. Det finns dock flera utmaningar kopplat till detta som diskuteras i projektet. Nu när flera hinder och potentiella åtgärder har kartlagts, krävs det att looparna testas och utvärderas i en liten skala. För företag som vill komma igång har projektet tagit fram en handlingsplan bestående av ett antal punkter man bör undersöka innan man startar.

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  • 6.
    Johann Bolinius, Dämien
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellström, Josefina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Lars-Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wetterlin, Sussi
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Guidance document for handling criteria for endocrine disruptors in the construction industry2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe products are important for the building and construction industry as many of these products have a long lifetime and are used in large quantities. The building and construction industry is focused on the substitution of unwanted chemical substances and needs methods to apply the EU's developed definition of endocrine disruptors. The guidance document proposes a practical method using scientifically based criteria for evaluating endocrine disruptors. An evaluation flow chart with three main steps has been proposed to help optimize the adaptation of current knowledge and information about endocrine disruptors and to be prepared for new and updated information. The flow chart supports evaluation of all the relevant scientific data in a transparent and holistic way and enables a quality-assured flow of information. Proposed workflow: • Step A: Assessed and identified as endocrine disruptor (ED) • Step B: Other indications that the substance of interest can have ED properties • Step C: Evaluation of the ED assessment found in step B The main benefit of the proposed workflow is that it combines the strength of both regulatory assessments and non-regulatory lists while allowing for new scientific evidence to be included in case the criteria used in these lists become outdated or are refuted.

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  • 7.
    Jong, Annelise De
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boberg, Nils
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Welling, Sebastian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lewrén, Adam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Plastiloop - en marknadsplatform för plastspill2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har utforskat potentialen för utveckling av en digital plattform som möjliggör utbyte av plastspill som uppstår i produktionen. Rapporten innehåller analyser av mängder plastspill med potentiella miljövinster, samt rekommendationer för utveckling av plattformen.

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  • 8.
    Junestedt, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lassesson, Henric
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wanemark, Joel
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Förslag på utformning av ett livscykelbaserat system för kartläggning av flöden av omställningskritiska råmaterial  i den svenska teknosfären2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On March 24, 2021, the government commissioned the Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU) to work with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to increase opportunities for the sustainable extraction of minerals and metals from secondary raw materials (Näringsdepartementet, 2021). The assignment contains several tasks, one of which is about providing an overview of the flows of critical minerals and metals and proposing a system for how life cycle analysis and traceability can be designed to contribute to a circular economy. This report handles part of the task and describes the results of the work on proposing the requested system.

    Within the framework of this study, it was necessary to interpret and partially redefine some of the requested parts of the system. Emphasis was placed on the total quantities, distribution and use of raw materials, rather than through which value chains a certain partial flow of raw materials has flowed or what sustainability footprint that raw material flow has created. To clarify this demarcation, the system proposed in this study is referred to as a mapping system instead of a traceability system. A system for tracking or mapping critical raw materials with the aim of contributing to a circular economy should not begin by focusing on the collection of life-cycle data or development of new LCA studies, but instead on where different materials are located, in what quantities they occur and where in the life cycle (technosphere) they are located and when these can (if possible) become available for reuse or recycling. Therefore, in the construction phase of the proposed mapping system, it is a life cycle perspective that is needed rather than a system for life cycle analysis.

    The development and proposal of the mapping system included a description of existing data sources, how a calculation system could be designed and how data sources and calculations could be combined into a system that also considers existing initiatives on digital product passports, which is a part of the new Ecodesign Regulation proposed for implementation in the EU in the future.SMED recommends that a future life cycle-based mapping system for critical raw materials in the Swedish technosphere be developed with a so-called bottom-up approach. This means a more complex system that places greater demands on data collection than with a top-down approach. At the same time, it lays the foundation for a system that can endure over time and take full advantage of the dramatic increase in available product data that the digital product passports are likely to provide. The design and content of the product passports will be regulated in the legislative act for each product group. Limited access to product data has so far been the main argument for a top-down approach. The ongoing and socially pervasive transformation of the Swedish and European energy systems will mean a growing dependence on materials. SMED therefore believes that the mapping system will most likely be relevant for a long time to come, which justifies well a high initial level of ambition to develop a system that grows from the beginning. The system will necessarily be very data-intensive but is largely based on data collected centrally.

    As shown in several sections of this report, the mapping system was designed to be consistent with the initiatives that SMED deems to be the most important. Particular attention was paid to the Batteries Regulation and the Ecodesign Regulation's product passports at the EU level and the Swedish Waste Register at the national level.A success factor for the proposed mapping system will be to continuously monitor developments in the area both to ensure that Sweden's national system becomes consistent with the emerging systems at EU level, and to identify and exploit the opportunities for synergies between different systems and different actors that the mapping system will bring. Not least, it has the potential to alleviate the response burden on industry, as parts of the data that the mapping system needs are simultaneously requested and, in many cases, requested also for other purposes.

    All in all, SMED concludes that there is much to be said for moving forward with the development of a mapping system as recommended further in the report. If the digital product passports are implemented in the near future and can provide the data currently proposed, the development costs and reporting burdens would be significantly reduced. On the other hand, if data on the flows of critical raw materials will not be provided by the product passports for one reason or another, the value of a Swedish mapping system would increase even further, since there wouldn’t be (as far as can be predicted today) any as other system that could draw the necessary map

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  • 9.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bedömning av möjlighet till återanvändning av byggvaror med hänsyn till innehåll av kemiska ämnen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att öka kunskapen om bygg- och rivningsprodukter och -material som går att återanvända, för att på så sätt öka andelen material som cirkuleras. Rapporten sammanställer befintlig information och presenterar en enkel utvärdering av byggvarugrupper och deras återanvändbarhet baserat på ett ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Detta kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter i relation till deras farlighet under driftsfasen. Rapporten utvärderar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras kategoriserat utifrån husdelar. Ett byggåterbruksguiden har tagit fram baserad på rapporten som publiceras som ett separat dokument till rapporten.

    Rapporten och guiden omfattar följande produktgrupper:

    -        Takkonstruktion

    -        Fasader

    -        Fundament

    -        Dörrar och fönster

    -        Innertak och bjälklag

    -        Golv

    -        Badrumsmaterial

    -        Köksinredning

    -        Mark och trädgård

    -        Emballage

    -        Restpartier

    Följande ämnen inkluderas i utvärderingen

    -        Asbest

    -        Metaller: bly (Pb), kadmium (Cd), krom (Cr), koppar (Cu), nickel (Ni), zink (Zn), arsenik (As) och kvicksilver (Hg)

    -        Klorparaffiner, kortkedjiga (SCCP)

    -        PAH (polycykliska aromatiska kolväten)

    -        CFC / HCFC (klorfluorkarboner och vätefluorkolväten)

    -        Kolväten (C6 - C36, alifatiska kolväten)

    -        PCB (polyklorerade bifenyler, inkluderar 209 PCB-varianter)

    -        Bromerade flamskyddsmedel (hexabromcyklododekan)

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  • 10.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ByggÅterbruksGuiden: En vägledning för att underlätta återbruk av byggprodukter i bostäder2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna guide är att öka kunskapen om byggprodukter och byggmaterial som går att återanvända, så att den cirkulära användningen blir större. Guiden kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter.

    Guiden är riktad till privatpersoner som vill använda begagnade byggvaror eller som har äldre byggprodukter i sina bostäder och vill veta om de innehåller farliga ämnen innan de lämnar dem till återbruk. Den ger en enkel och lättavläst utvärdering av byggvaror och visar om de går att återanvända, baserat på ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Guiden omfattar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras utifrån husets delar. Den ger även tips på hur man känner igen farliga material och hur man sorterar avfallet. Här finns även en lista över aktörer i Sverige som arbetar med återbruk av byggvaror, dock inte fullständig – eftersom antalet aktörer inom detta område ökar stadigt.

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