IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Andersson, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fagerström, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lihammar, Richard
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hannerz, Nils
    Klimatsmarta kemikalier med svensk industri: Forsknings och utvecklingsplan för svensk kemi- och kemirelaterad industri, dess användare och konsumenter över hela världen.2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna agenda är framtagen under 2019 och 2020. Utgångspunkten för agendan och de områden som lyfts upp baseras på de behov som IKEMs Forsknings- och Innovationskommité identifierat.

    Agendan har därefter utvecklats ytterligare tillsammans med representanter från industrin och forskning vid tre tematiska workshops under hösten 2019. I agendan lyfts tre fokusområden; cirkuläritet av plast, processutveckling för specialkemikalier från klimatsmarta råvaror samt användning av klimatsmarta material och kemikalier i infrastruktur och samhällsbyggnad. Då IKEM har 1400 medlemsföretag varav en handfull sitter i kommittén kan det så klart inte omfatta alla områden som är relevanta. Nya områden kan därför komma att läggas till på sikt.

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  • 2.
    Fagerström, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dispatchable electricity production in the North Harbour area in Malmö via renewable gases2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this project has been to identify and discuss a concept for the North Harbor area in Malmö on how increased dispatchable electricity production and Power-to-gas is made possible through sector coupling of existing and additional infrastructure. This has meant that a cluster of relevant stakeholders has been created, both those who have activities in the area and others who in one way or another are considered important for the main purpose.

    The report describes challenges in the electricity supply in Malmö and the North Harbor area. Background is given around the concept of sector coupling, types of sector couplings, the concept Power-to-X and other related projects and efforts. The current situation is described based on Malmö's and the port's history and continues with a description of the current infrastructure and mass and energy flows. From there, possible sector couplings and future access to power and electricity are prepared. The question - why sector coupling of the electricity grid will be needed is seen in the Malmö context and how an increase in electricity demand can result in periods of low and high electricity prices is described.

    A possible transformation of the area is depicted for 2030 and 2045 with additional sector couplings in place and active, both for a high and low electricity price. Finally, the report concludes with a look at further optimization of the system and how the results from the project can continue on a larger scale.

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  • 3.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The contribution of Advanced Renewable Transport Fuels to transport decarbonization in Sweden - 2030 and beyond2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report will be part of the contribution from Sweden to a joint IEA Bioenergy and IEA Alternative Motor Fuels project called “The contribution of Advanced Renewable Transport Fuels to transport decarbonisation in 2030 and beyond” aiming to showcase the role of advanced renewable transport fuels, considering all transport modes.

    This report concludes that Sweden has the potential of reaching the targets set for 2030 and 2045 but it requires substantial investments in production, infrastructure and policy, linked to increased ART-fuel implementation.

    The policy system to be used for this implementation needs to be applied long term. The system also needs to be transparent and predictable both for the market and for the consumers. If the goal is to also promote more novel solutions efforts towards this needs to be included in the design of the instruments. Instruments must be put in a context where (at least) vehicles, infrastructure and fuel usage are included - and how it should be phased out. Moreover, the cost-effectiveness of the instruments needs to be compared and considered before implementation so that the efforts are put where that can have the strongest effect.

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  • 4.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    LCC - Biogas at a food production plant2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of LCC-results can be used to determine which option is the most financially preferred from the company’s standpoint. The results are clear and show that the biogas-option is favorable and a profitable option of investment for the company.

    To determine how various parameters and factors influence the results, an extensive sensitivity analysis was also included in this study where several parameters were altered. The Net Present Value of Investment is influenced by all parameters in the following order: i) biomethane price of the grid, ii) revenue from fiber sludge, iii) calculation period, iv) interest rate, v) investment cost sewage treatment plant, vi) revenues biofertilizer, vii) investment cost biogas plant, viii) electricity price, and ix) sludge revenue/cost. This is a measure of how important the individual parameters are for the company’s decision on how to proceed with their investment plans.

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  • 5.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grahn, Desirée
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Susanne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lewrén, Adam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hjort, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Large scale bio electro jet fuel production integration at CHP-plant in Östersund, Sweden2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports the findings of the project “Large scale bio electro jet fuel production integration at CHP-plant in Östersund, Sweden”. BEJF is an electrofuel produced in a synthesis process where biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main carbon source and hydrogen from electrolysis of water using renewable electricity is the main energy source. The project is a feasibility study for a factory for such fuel located at Jämtkraft's facility for CHP in Östersund. Thus, the aim of the project is to assess the feasibility for producing renewable aviation fuel at a specific location considering and evaluating e.g., different processes, operations and integrations, costs, environmental impact, business models and actors.

    IVL The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Jämtkraft (JK), Chalmers University (CU), Lund University (LU), Nordic Initiative for Sustainable Aviation (NISA), and Fly Green Fund (FGF) have been the primary implementers in this project. Other project stakeholders (AFAB, and The Power Region), have provided relevant data to the various working groups. The project has included experimental work, modelling and calculations, as well as literature-based studies but not the construction of any facilities.

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  • 6.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klugman, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Theo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hernández Leal, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Kristin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    BeKind - Circularity and climate benefit of a bio- and electro-based chemical industry - effects of transitions in petrochemical value chains2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports the finding from the project BeKind: Circularity and climate benefit of a Bio- and Electro-based Chemical Industry - effects of transitions in petrochemical value chains. The aim of the BeKind-project has been to identify challenges for transition to a circular and climate-neutral petrochemical industry, to develop proposals for remedial activities for these obstacles and challenges, and to quantify the benefits such a transition can have for circularity, climate and social sustainability. The focus of the project has been on industrial production of liquid fuels and plastics. 

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  • 7.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klugman, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Biojet Östersund – Supplementary studies and international cooperation - Supplementary studies to the project: Large scale Bio-Electro-Jet fuel production integration at CHP-plant in Östersund, Sweden2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was performed with the ambition to clarify some of the findings from the previous project and also to address the possible hurdles and possibilities that exists for the implementation of an industrial BEJF production facility at the Lugnvik site in Östersund, Sweden. Also, the development of a roadmap for implementation of the concept is included in this study. The study reports on the establishment of international consortia for both continued research and the realization of the full-scale facility. Hence, two parallel paths are described (research and full-scale) and a roadmap depicting possible ways forward for those paths during the upcoming 5 years is presented. One important conclusion is that funding should be sourced separate for the two paths to prevent the implementation of the full-scale plant being dependent on research funding. However, the research path has great potential to provide valuable, knowledge also for the full-scale case. As a general next step, it is proposed that the roadmap developed within this project is followed for the upcoming five years. As a more specific next step, a follow up detailed pre-study is proposed that would enhance the possibility to go deeper into the concept.

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  • 8.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapssyntes: Samhällsekonomisk analys av förnybara drivmedel och drivlinor2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammantaget har projektet identifierat 7 huvudsakliga kunskapsluckor där kompletterande material behöver tas fram för att en mer rättvisande bedömning ska kunna göras mellan olika drivmedelsalternativ.

    Kunskapssyntesen visar tydligt att resultatet i en samhällsekonomisk analys beror på hur systemgränserna sätts från början. Vidare så ses i analysen att det är möjligt att styra utfallet av en jämförande bedömning mot ett visst resultat genom de aspekter som ingår. Det går att säga att ett mer korrekt resultat fås fram ju fler parametrar som ingår, ju bredare systemgränserna sätts och ju fler aspekter som vägs in.

    Å andra sidan så använder de jämförda studierna så pass olika metodik att det är svårt att dra några slutsatser mellan dessa och utfallet i de olika studiernas ranking. För vissa av aspekterna används mer standardiserade och/eller etablerade metoder för värdering av eventuell nytta. Generellt för biodrivmedel saknas kunskap, forskningsunderlag och metoder för att i kronor värdera ett stort antal nyttor som är viktiga för vårt samhälle.

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  • 9.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydstedt, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hästgödsel och hampapellets för energiutvinning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Hästgödsel och hampapellets för energiutvinning är en kartläggningsstudie för att genomlysa möjligheter och hinder med energiutvinning från pellets av hästgödsel och hampa. För att säkerställa att det är möjligt att erbjuda hästbönder en hållbar lösning på deras gödselproblematik och samtidigt bidra till att lösa Ekstas behov av pellets för fjärrvärme i framtiden så har detta projekt besvarat en rad frågeställningar. 

    Rapporten inleds med en utförlig bakgrund kring hästgödsel och relaterade problem, en beskrivning av växten hampa och dess användningsområden, cirkularitet som koncept och dess implementering relaterat till denna studie, samt tidigare försök med hästgödsel och hampa för förbränning. En betydande del av projektet har handlat om att försöka bringa klarhet kring regelverket och vilken offentlig instans som äger rådighet i frågor avgörande för genomförande energiutvinning från hästgödsel och hampapellets. Utförarna till projektet har i samråd med myndigheter lyckats räta ut de frågetecken som finns och berett vägen framåt för konceptet med hästgödsel och hampapallets för energiutvinning.

    I rapporten läggs också stor vikt vid tekniska frågor kring konceptet. Dessa innefattar detaljer kring hampa som råvara, viktiga överväganden vid förbränning av hästgödsel, energiutvinning ur gödsel, hampa och pellets, frågor relaterade till aska samt en erfarenhetssammanställning från tidigare försök med liknande koncept. Rapportens avslutande stycke innehåller en beskrivning av hur ett cirkulärt system baserat på konceptet hade kunnat se ut och vilka fördelar detta hade fört med sig.

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  • 10.
    Lundberg, Susanne
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fagerström, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Kristin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Gasification-based Fischer-Tropsch Bio Jet Fuel production2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jet-fuels can be produced through alternative pathways in the future. Bioshare AB investigates the possibility to produce renewable jet-fuels through a gasification-based production process of biofuels in an existing combined heat and power plant. The process results in three products; heat, electricity and Fischer Tropsch (FT)-fuel. The latter is assessed in the present study with regards to Global Warming Potential (GWP) excluding biogenic carbon, Eutrophication and Acidification potential through a life cycle perspective. All inflows and outflows from the production process are taken into account, without separating potential environmental impact from each unit operation.

    The result from this study showed that based on the defined system boundaries and assumptions, the transports to and from the production facility contribute the most to GWP, followed by biomass production and the electricity consumption. The highest contribution to the result for eutrophication and acidification potential originates from the consumption of scrubber oil for gas purification. However, these results are sensitive for the biofuel used and to some extent also for the assumed load scenario.

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  • 11.
    Nyberg, Theo
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klugman, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Särnbratt, Mirjam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hjort, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Persson, Emelie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fagerström, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lönnqvist, Tobias
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bioenergianläggning Otterbäcken2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Transportsektorns efterfrågan på biodrivmedel ökar när klimatomställningen ska omsättas i praktik. Sverige har goda förutsättningar att producera dessa drivmedel och det finns flertalet orter runt om i landet där förutsättningarna för biodrivmedelsproduktion är goda. Gullspångs kommun har under de senaste tio åren fört en dialog med Västra Götalandsregionen om möjligheten att etablera en bioenergikombinatanläggning i Otterbäcken för att nyttja de goda förutsättningar som finns med tillgång på råvara samt goda logistiska förutsättningar med bland annat djuphamnen. I detta projekt har en utredning gjorts för att ta fram kommersiellt relevanta investeringskoncept för en bioenergikombinatanläggning i Otterbäcken, och resultaten pekar på intressanta förutsättningar för en anläggning för produktion av flytande biometan (Liquified biogas, LBG).

    Projektet har utgått från en äldre förstudie där förutsättningarna för en bioenergikombinat-anläggning som producerar torrefierad biomassa undersöktes. Kunskaperna från denna tidigare studie har kompletterats med nya kartläggningar av relevanta tekniker och lokala råvaror som kan ingå i ett investeringskoncept för en anläggning som producerar biodrivmedel som kan användas i befintliga tunga lastbilar. Kartläggningen omfattade sju olika tekniker som utifrån de uppdaterade kartläggningarna kondenserades ned till två investeringskoncept för djupare undersökning av investeringskoncept. Det ena konceptet var en anläggning för produktion av pyrolysolja från skogsrester och det andra konceptet var en anläggning för produktion av LBG, men på grund av en högre teknologisk mognadsgrad samt större intresse från referensgruppen för det senare konceptet (LBG) så fick detta ett större fokus i projektet.

    De två fördjupade investeringskoncepten inkluderade teknikbeskrivning, skiss på affärsmodell med hjälp av referensgruppen, ekonomisk bedömning av lönsamheten i investeringen samt en beräkning av klimatpåverkan för drivmedlet (endast för LBG-konceptet).

    Resultaten visar att det ser ut att finnas både råvaror för, teknik till och förutsättningar för en god ekonomi i en anläggning för produktion av LBG. Råvarusituationen behöver bekräftas genom kontakter med råvaruleverantörer, tekniken kan behöva viss utvärdering för att hitta etablerade teknikleverantörer med pålitlig teknik och de ekonomiska förutsättningarna är beroende av investerings- och produktionsstöd för att kunna vara kommersiellt intressanta. Trots dessa osäkerheter är den samlade bedömningen att det kan vara aktuellt för en aktör eller grupp av aktörer med intresse av att äga och driva en biogasanläggning att ta vid där projektet slutar för att på sikt gå vidare med en investering i en anläggning.

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  • 12. Trinh, Jenny
    et al.
    Harahap, Fumi
    Fagerström, Anton
    Hansson, Julia
    What Are the Policy Impacts on Renewable Jet Fuel in Sweden?2021In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 14, no 21, p. 7194-7194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aviation industry’s contribution to global human-induced CO2-emissions is expected to increase to 3% by 2050 as demand for aviation grows. An essential component for a carbon-neutral growth is low-carbon, sustainable aviation fuels, for example alternative drop-in fuels with biobased components.

     

    This study aims at answering how combining different policies for the aviation sector can support the production of renewable jet fuel (RJF) in Sweden while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The results demonstrate the importance of implementing policy instruments to promote the production of RJF in Sweden.

     

    The current level of the penalty fee is not sufficient to support the fuel switch to RJF. A higher blending mandate and carbon price will accelerate the transition towards renewable and sustainable fuels for the aviation industry.

  • 13. Trinh, Jenny
    et al.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hernández Leal, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fagerström, Anton
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Särnbratt, Mirjam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fossilfri Flygräddning 20452022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the Swedish climate target of net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2045, it has become more and more urgent for the aviation sector to reduce its climate footprint. However, this represents a challenge for the non-commercial part of the aviation sector such as the air borne search-and-rescue services, as their activities cannot be compromised by the climate target. Increased use of sustainable aviation fuels (SAF) is a way to achieve the climate target, while still not compromising the mission for this part of aviation. 

    However, due to a high demand on SAF, their availability and possibility to supply the aviation sector in Sweden as well as their environmental impact in relation to the climate target is still somewhat uncertain.

    This report aims to increase the understanding in these issues by first reviewing the domestic feedstock availability and calculating the SAF production potential within Sweden. Thereafter, an assessment was done on how the aviation fuel market could vary in Sweden by 2045 due to the strength of the GHG reduction mandate and the dependence or independence of fuel from outside Sweden.

    This was done through 4 different future scenarios based on a mathematical model. Finally, the environmental impact of selected SAFs was evaluated by life cycle assessment (LCA) following the method described in the recast of the Renewable Energy Directive (REDII). The assessment was done based on the currently available data. Thus, the future change in the technology and other circumstances were not taken into account. 

    The current and future (2045) Swedish production potential of jet fuel was investigated via 4 different pathways, i.e., Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) from biogenic waste oils, Gasification-based Fischer-Tropsch (G-FT) from forest residues, Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) from forest residues and Power-to-Liquid (PtL) from biogenic captured CO2 and H2 from electrolysis via Fischer-Tropsh (FT).

    The pathways, of the assessed ones, having the highest current and future potential considering feedstock supply are G-FT and HTL. The results were however considerably affected by the assumptions made on process yield. The production potential of PtL was not as high as the other pathways due to low availability of feedstock. Finally, HEFA was the pathway with the lowest potential due to the low availability of domestic raw material.

    Based on the scenario analysis, the future of fossil free jet fuel is highly dependent of the price of fuel as well as the maximum allowed blending ratio of fossil free jet fuel. In this particular scenario analysis, domestic ATJ and HEFA was favored by the model thanks to their low production costs and avoided import costs, since the fuel is produced in Sweden. However, although the production plants used in the model will be constructed within Swedish borders, it is unlikely that domestic HEFA feedstock would be sufficient to supply them and there would likely be an import of waste oils to meet the demand of the plants. 

    The environmental assessment was done on UCO-based HEFA and PtL. HEFA was assessed as it is the fuel that the Search and Rescue fleet used during the pilot phase of this project. PtL was assessed for the sake of comparison and also because most data for PtL production was already available. Both HEFA and PtL show the potential of reducing the fossil GHG emissions up to 70 and 77%, respectively. However, with the technical and legislative limitations, it is not yet possible to use pure SAF in the aviation sector. This leads to the potential emission reduction of the greenhouse gases being lower than 42%. SAF production and transportation of feedstock are one of the main contributors to the emissions.

    In general, HEFA production has higher climate impact than the production of PtL. In addition, UCO which is the feedstock for HEFA was assumed to be collected in China. This gives a significantly higher impact compared to the PtL-process where all activities were assumed to take place in Sweden. This implies that the climate impact of HEFA can be reduced if the UCO can be collected domestically. However, as the assessment shows, the climate target will be difficult to achieve when using HEFA or PtL.

    The challenge lies on the upstream processes of these two SAF which currently are still fossil-based. For HEFA, it is common that H2 is produced from natural gas while for PtL, the production of raw materials used in electrolysis and carbon capture process such as chemicals and catalysts contribute to fossil emissions.  

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