IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Almasi, Alexandra
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Komplettering 1 till rapport ’Kartläggning av plastflöden i Stockholm’2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en komplettering till IVL:s slutrapport Nr U 6352 Kartläggning av plastflöden i Stockholm, enligt tilläggsbeställning 3169001252 från Stockholms stad den 26 november 2020.

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  • 2.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Guide till upphandlare: Minska klimatpåverkan genom att ställa krav på insamling av plastgolv2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn har stor klimatpåverkan, men den kan minska genom ökad återvinning av avfallet. Plast är bland det byggavfall som återvinns minst. Det går att förändra genom att göra rätt redan vid upphandlingen. Denna guide är framtagen inom projektet Cirkulära plastgolv, som finansieras av Naturvårdsverket, och riktar sig till offentliga beställare. Den innehåller handfasta tips om hur man ställer krav vid upphandlingen av plastgolv för att spillet från installationen ska samlas in genom de återvinningssystem som finns.

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  • 3.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Var behövs plasten?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Plast är ett mångsidigt och bra material, men används sällan på ett hållbart sätt. Ibland används plast i onödan, under väldig korta perioder eller i materialkombinationer som försvårar materialåtervinningen. Denna rapport kartlägger inom vilka plast- och produktflöden det finns potential att skapa skiften för minskad resursanvändning, var den onödiga plasten finns, när plasten fyller en viktig funktion, alternativa lösningar och material, samt möjligheter för återanvändning och ökad livslängd. Rapporten baseras på en intervjustudie där 29 aktörer deltog. Studien avgränsades till tre branscher: förpackningar, bygg och inredning samt hälso- och sjukvård.  

    Följande fyra slutsatser har kunnat dras baserat på intervjustudien:• Samhällets konsumtionsvanor behöver ändras för att kunna bryta beroendet av plast.• Förpackningar är flödet med störst potential (och förmodligen enklast) att effektivisera.• Oro att tappa kunder hämmar utvecklingen bland företag.• Alternativa material och lösningar till plast finns, men plasten ses oftast som det säkra, kostnadseffektiva och enkla valet.

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  • 4.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cirkulära plastgolv2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar resultat från projektet Cirkulära plastgolv, som pågick från november 2019 till februari 2020. Syftet med projektet var att identifiera en möjlig avsättning för det plastmaterial som samlas in genom systemet GBR Golvåtervinning, men inte återvinns av golvtillverkare. Ett annat syfte har varit att öka medvetenheten bland offentliga aktörer om insamlingssystemet och hur de kan bidra till att det används i större utsträckning.

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  • 5.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Zhang, Yuqing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Separate collection and recycling of PVC flooring installation residue in Sweden - A system assessment2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling of construction and demolition (C&D) waste represents a major untapped potential in Sweden. There already exist a few separate collection systems for some of the C&D waste fractions, but they are only used to a limited extent. An example is the national system for separate collection and recycling of material residue from installation of plastic flooring.

    Separate collection and recycling of residual material from PVC flooring installation is possible in Sweden since 1998. However, only around a fifth of all the residue material generated per year is collected though the existing national joint system while the rest is collected as combustible waste on construction/renovation sites and is sent to incineration with energy recovery.

    The following opportunities and barriers for increased collection and recycling rates are discussed in the report:
    • Lack of awareness
    • No requirements from purchasers
    • Engagement from all manufacturers and recycling solution for all the material.
    • Standard practice within the industry.
    • User-friendliness.

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  • 6.
    Dahlbom, Maja
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wu, Alexandra
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Geidenmark Olofsson, Kristin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Closed Loops for Commercial and Industrial Plastic Packaging: A review of current business models and guidelines for further development.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic has many positive material characteristics, but it is used in unsustainable ways. It is perceived as cheap and disposable, and this has led to increa¬sing amounts of plastic waste which are difficult to recycle with current societal, business and cultural structures.

    To achieve a high-quality material recycling and have the possibility to use recycled plastic back into high quality products, there is a need to keep the different plastic types separate from each other and uncontaminated by other mate¬rials.

    This requires, among others, a thorough separate collection of diffe¬rent plastic waste fractions, as well as business models, infrastructure and logistic solutions which enable a better control over the different plastic flows.

    The report presents ten business models for managing industrial or commercial plastic packaging into closed or semi-closed loops through either material recycling or re-use.

    Based on the analysis of the ten business models, six guidelines have been formulated for companies which are interested to transition from a linear to a closed loop business model for the management of industrial and commercial plastic packaging.

    1) Commit long-term and invest in the future of your company,

    2) Understand the customer needs and design the packaging for circular use,

    3) Use Life Cycle Analysis as a tool to optimize your closed loop,

    4) Communicate efficiently to engage the customer,

    5) Build new strategic partnerships and 6) Educate and engage decision makers at all levels.

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    C780 Closed Loops for Commercial and Industrial Plastic Packaging
  • 7.
    Lätt, Ambjörn
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Maria Almasi, Alexandra
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gode, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Avfallets roll i framtidens energisystem2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste arises in all sectors of society and affects the environmental, climate and energy work in these sectors. It is therefore important to have a system perspective when dealing with waste management and energy recovery of waste.

    The intention of the project is for its results to form the basis for meeting the challenges that energy companies are facing regarding the energy recovery of waste, as well as providing new perspectives in the waste debate. The work is based on interviews, workshops and scenario analysis, in which the scenarios for future waste management and its role in the energy system are elaborated.

    The overall goal of the project is to investigate how the role of waste in the energy system may change in the future and how it can affect energy companies.

    To be able to answer this, we examined how much Swedish waste is available for energy recovery in the future. We did not examine how the energy system itself changes but instead focused on how much waste will be available. We also directed our efforts to investigating the responsibility and control that energy companies have regarding waste composition and also the perspective of district heating customers.

    From the energy and waste companies’ point of view, it is about policy and to put responsibility in the right part of the product chain, if one is to come further than today with petro-based plastic in household waste and to reach a fossil-free society. The district heating customers largely agree on this and emphasize that all actors in society have shared obligation and responsibility to reduce plastic use in society.

    Many district heating customers have targets like “fossil-free” or “climate neutrality” that do not align with combustion of petro based plastics for energy recovery. At the same time, they agree on that waste incineration is needed, and will be needed for a long time to come, in the Swedish energy system as part of the waste management system.

    Five scenarios for future waste quantities in Sweden have been developed in the project, based on forecasts done by The National Institute of Economic Research and the results of the workshop “Targets and barriers for energy recovery from waste 2030”, which was held with representatives from energy and waste companies. The analysis shows that the Swedish waste quantity will increase in all scenarios, but also that all cases, except one, will simultaneously lead to constant or reduced waste amounts for energy recovery, due to increased requirements for material recycling and expected high target fulfillment. Provided that the capacity for waste incineration in Sweden is kept constant until 2035 and is fully utilized, the need for imported waste as fuel will be reduced in only one scenario, where the future recycling requirements are not fulfilled.

    From the energy companies, it is stressed that the climate issue is an international one and that energy recovery of waste in Sweden can lead to great climate benefit by offering waste treatment services to countries with poorer conditions. The results of the project show that a transition from landfill in Europe to energy recovery gives great direct climate gains as emissions of landfill gas are reduced. Furthermore, the results show that it is less important if the waste is energy-recovered in Sweden or in another European country, the climate benefit is still great. However, it is a very complex issue how the international waste system is affected by trade in waste. In the short term, the question may be easier to answer, as one sees a direct benefit from avoiding methane emissions from landfills by exporting waste for energy recovery. In the long term, however, waste trade is likely to have more intricate consequences that are not as intuitive to foresee, for example, that the development of sorting and waste incineration in waste-exporting countries are affected because the incentives are changing.

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  • 8.
    Maria Almasi, Alexandra
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lätt, Ambjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gode, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Avfallets roll i framtidens energisystem -11 viktiga punkter om avfall2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avfall uppkommer i alla sektorer i samhället och påverkar miljö-, klimat- och energiarbetet i dessa. Att ha ett systemperspektiv när man belyser avfallshantering och energiåtervinning av avfall är därför viktigt.

    Projektet avser att dess resultat ska komma att utgöra underlag för att möta de utmaningar energibranschen står inför kring energiåtervinning av avfall samt ge nya perspektiv i avfallsdebatten. Arbetet baseras på intervjuer, workshops samt konsekvens- och scenarioanalys, i vilken scenarier för framtida avfallshantering och dess roll i energisystemet utarbetas.

    Projektets övergripande mål är att utreda hur avfallets roll i energisystemet kan komma att förändras i framtiden och vad det får för konsekvenser för energibranschen.

    För att kunna svara på detta undersöker vi hur mycket svenskt avfall som finns tillgängligt för energiåtervinning i framtiden. Vi har inte undersökt hur själva energisystemet förändras utan fokuserat på hur mycket avfall som kan vara tillgängligt. Vi har också ämnat utreda vad energibolagen egentligen har för rådighet över avfallets sammansättning och hur fjärrvärmekunderna ser på detta.

    Från energibranschen och avfallsbranschen menar man att det handlar mycket om en styrmedelsfråga och att lägga ansvar i rätt del av kedjan om man ska nå ett fossilfritt samhälle och komma längre än idag med fossil plast i hushållsavfallet. Fjärrvärmekunderna håller i stort med om detta och framhäver att samhällets alla aktörer har delad rådighet och skyldighet i att minska plastanvändningen i samhället.

    Många fjärrvärmekunder har mål om fossilfrihet eller klimatneutralitet som inte går i linje med förbränning av fossil plast för energiåtervinning. Samtidigt är man eniga om att avfallsförbränning behövs, och kommer behövas under lång tid framöver, i det svenska energisystemet som en del av avfallshanteringssystemet.

    Fem scenarier för framtida avfallsmängder i Sverige har tagits fram i projektet, med utgångspunkt i Konjunkturinstitutets framtidsprognos och i resultatet från workshopen Målbilder 2030 för energiutvinning ur av avfall och osäkerheter för nå dem, som hölls med representanter från energi- och avfallsbranschen. Analysen visar att den svenska avfallsmängden kommer att öka i samtliga scenarier, men att det i alla scenarier utom ett samtidigt kommer leda till konstanta eller minskade avfallsmängder till energiåtervinning, på grund av ökade krav på materialåtervinning och förväntat hög måluppfyllnad. Förutsatt att kapaciteten för avfallsförbränning i Sverige hålls konstant fram till 2035 och utnyttjas fullt ut kommer behovet av importerat avfall som bränsle minska i endast ett scenario, där de framtida återvinningskraven inte är uppfyllda.

    Från energibranschen trycker man på att det är en internationell klimatfråga och att energiåtervinning av avfall i Sverige kan leda till stor klimatnytta genom att erbjuda avfallsbehandlingstjänster till länder med sämre förutsättningar. Resultat från projektet visar att en övergång från deponering i Europa till energiåtervinning ger stora direkta klimatvinster då utsläpp av deponigas minskar. Vidare visar resultaten att det spelar mindre roll om avfallet energiåtervinns i Sverige eller i ett annat europeiskt land, klimatnyttan blir ändå stor. Det är dock en mycket komplex frågeställning hur det internationella avfallssystemet påverkas av handel med avfall. Kortsiktigt kan frågan vara enklare att besvara, då man ser en direkt nytta med att undvika metanutsläpp från deponier genom att exportera avfall för energiåtervinning. Långsiktigt har handel med avfall dock troligen mer intrikata konsekvenser som inte är lika intuitiva att förutse, till exempel att utveckling av sortering och avfallsförbränning i avfallsexporterande länder påverkas för att incitamenten förändras.

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  • 9.
    Maria Almasi, Alexandra
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ökad sortering av bygg- och rivningsavfall Åtgärder för kommunala avfallsanläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora mängder bygg- och rivningsavfall deponeras i dagsläget eller skickas till energiåtervinning. Rapporten fokuserer på följande sex avfallsfraktioner, som i hög utsträckning inte materialåtervinns: betong, gips, glasull, planglas, grovplast och förpackningar som finns kvar i brännbara och blandade avfallsfraktioner. Det presenteras en analys av insamling och hantering av de sex fraktioner och hur de omhändertas på kommunala avfallsanläggningar. Rapporten ger även exempel på hur kommunala avfallsaktörer kan öka materialåtervinningen genom ökad sortering och utsortering. Detta för att uppfylla krav som materialåtervinningsföretag ställer på mottagna avfallsslag för att möjliggöra materialåtervinning. Sist presenteras åtgärder för kommunala avfallsanläggningar.

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  • 10. Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    Fråne, Anna
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    Overview of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) waste management practices in the Nordic countries2021In: Cleaner Engineering and Technology, Vol. 4, p. 100246-100246, article id 100246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the situation with PVC waste management practices in the Nordic region (Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland). The region is known for high recycling rates and advanced environmental standards, but also a significant share of incineration.

    We found that the statistics on PVC waste management in the region is surprisingly poor. Estimates on PVC waste generation are sporadic and not reliable and formalized reporting systems are largely lacking. Except for Denmark and a few municipalities in other countries, there are no separate national collection and recycling systems for post-consumer PVC waste. Separate collection and recycling exists only for pre-consumers waste, but there are voluntary initiatives organised by some producers/importers of flooring and piping products. These systems collect a relatively small share of the total PVC waste. Much larger amounts of PVC end up with mixed waste and are eventually treated in waste-to-energy plants.

    Several factors influence this situation. The environmental impacts of PVC waste are still underexplored, which partly shape the existing national waste policies and management strategies. PVC waste consists of different types of materials of diverse origins, which makes it difficult to recycle due to high quality demands for the recycled material. Separate collection is costly and there are no economies of scale. Meanwhile, the existing overcapacity of incineration infrastructure and possibilities for high temperature treatment complying to high emissions standards, results in that energy recovery is the easiest option for PVC treatment. Increasing material recovery requires additional policy interventions, which could be considered analysed in future research.

  • 11.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Maria Almasi, Alexandra
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hwargård, Louise
    Återanvändning av bygg- och rivningsmaterial och produkter i kommuner2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten presenteras en beskrivning av existerande praxis i kommuner. I synnerhet ligger fokus på hur olika återanvändningslösningar skiljer sig åt när det gäller mängder och fraktioner av återvunnet material, logistik, kostnader för kommuner eller kommunala företag, samarbetsmodeller, rutiner kring hanteringen av giftiga eller oönskade material i återanvändningsprodukter. Även vilket byggmaterial som har den största återanvändningspotentialen belyses. Vi presenterar också insikter från andra intervjuade aktörer från bygg- och rivningsbranschen samt fastighetsägare. Vissa intervjupersoner på kommuner hade fokus på återanvändning av annat än bygg- och rivningsmaterial. Deras erfarenheter presenteras i bilagor i rapporten.

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  • 12.
    Strömberg, Emma
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Geidenmark Olofsson, Kristin
    Brännström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Design for recycling of products containing plastics: Pre-study: Towards a global standard which contributes to plastics circularity2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic materials are important within our society and are useful in many applications. However, plastics are rarely used in a sustainable or resource efficient way. The global production of plastics stands at a staggering 400 million tons, with projections indicating a tripling of this demand by 2060 unless substantial policy measures are taken. Presently, only 9% of plastic waste is being recycled, highlighting an evident inadequacy of circularity in the plastic lifecycle.

    The concept of design for recycling is frequently mentioned as a crucial step towards increased circularity of plastic materials. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the fate of plastic products at the end of the lifecycle or how the design choices can affect the recyclability of the product.One of the objectives of this project was to facilitate a dialogue between the design industry and the recycling industry in Sweden, establishing a knowledge sharing forum for different actors in the value chains. Furthermore, the project focused on identifying the challenges related to product design which inhibit the recycling of plastic material, and mapping of available guidelines that promote design for recycling concept.

    This was implemented to understand the gaps and suggest different focus areas where standardised criteria would facilitate the transition to circular management of plastic materials. To understand the challenges that the industry is facing, interviews were carried out both with different companies that use plastic materials in their products and with different recycling industries. The results from the interviews were discussed during a workshop and thereafter used to suggest design areas which can be refined into general design for recycling guidelines/criteria for plastic products, presented in this report.

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  • 13.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Emma
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Almasi, Alexandra Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Increasing the circularity of high barrier flexible plastic packaging - Results from WP1: Market analysis2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic packaging constitutes a large part of the total plastic use in Sweden. However, only a limited fraction of all packaging put on the Swedish market each year is recycled. One of the reasons for this is the complex design of many plastic packages, which contributes to challenges when sorting, disassembling, and recycling the collected material into high-value applications. Flexible plastic packaging, namely films, used for packaging groceries/food are especially challenging when it comes to mechanical recycling. This category includes countless multi-layered film structures which often include, for example, barriers and adhesives that may affect the sorting and recycling of the material. The aim of the first work package was to conduct an initial market analysis to map and quantify the current and future use of complex high barrier laminates, both multi-material structures and mono-materials structures, on the Swedish market. The market analysis was carried out by studying available literature, both scientific and grey literature, as well as through interviews with relevant stakeholders.

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