IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Carotti, Laura
    et al.
    Pistillo, Alessandro
    Zauli, Ilaria
    Meneghello, Davide
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pennisi, Giuseppina
    Gianquinto, Giorgio
    Orsini, Francesco
    Improving water use efficiency in vertical farming: Effects of growing systems, far-red radiation and planting density on lettuce cultivation2023In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 285, p. 108365-108365, article id 108365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical farms (VFs) are innovative urban production facilities consisting of multi-level indoor systems equipped with artificial lighting in which all the environmental conditions are controlled independently from the external climate. VFs are generally provided with a closed loop fertigation system to optimize the use of water and nutrients. The objective of this study, performed within an experimental VF at the University of Bologna, was to quantify the water use efficiency (WUE, ratio between plant fresh weight and the volume of water used) for a lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) growth cycle obtained in two different growing systems: an ebb-and-flow substrate culture and a high pressure aeroponic system.

    Considering the total water consumed (water used for irrigation and climate management), WUE of ebb-and-flow and aeroponics was 28.1 and 52.9 g L−1 H2O, respectively. During the growing cycle, the contribution generated by the recovery of internal air moisture from the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, was quantified. Indeed, by recovering water from the dehumidifier, water use decreases dramatically (by 67 %), while WUE increased by 206 %. Further improvement of WUE in the ebb-and-flow system was obtained through ameliorated crop management strategies, in particular, by increasing planting densities (e.g., 153, 270 and 733 plants m−2) and by optimizing the light spectrum used for plant growth (e.g., adjusting the amount of far-red radiation in the spectrum). Strategies for efficient use of water in high-tech urban indoor growing systems are therefore proposed.

  • 2.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm, David
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Lina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Physical and environmental assessment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project DYNAMIX aims to identify and assess dynamic and robust policy mixes to shift the European Union (EU) onto a pathway to absolute decoupling of long-term economic growth from resource use and environmental impacts and to a sustainable future. To support this objective we established the following five targets for the year 2050: * Reduce the consumption of virgin metals by 80% * Limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 2 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita per year * Eliminate net demand of non-EU arable land * Reduce nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in the EU to levels that can be achieved by the best available techniques * Eliminate water stress in the EU

    Our results indicate that R&D, changes in diets and feebate systems have a large potential for resource efficiency and/or environmental improvements. We carried through a material pinch analysis to estimate how improved car dismantling can increase actual copper recycling and the maximum recycling of steel in the very long term. We assumed that an improved dismantling process can reduce the copper content in the steel scrap from cars by 75%. If such improved car dismantling is applied globally, the increase in copper recycling corresponds to 5-10% of the current use of virgin metals in the EU. Our results indicate that the long-term increase in maximum steel recycling is in the same order of magnitude. Spending on R&D on improved car dismantling alone could potentially give noticeable contributions to reducing the dependency on extraction of metal ores.

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  • 3. Elnour, Mugahid
    et al.
    Haller, Henrik
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessment of a retail store aquaponic system in a cold-weather region2023In: Frontiers in Sustainability, E-ISSN 2673-4524, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alternative food production technologies are being developed to meet the global increase in population and demand for a more sustainable food supply. Aquaponics, a combined method of vegetable and fish production, is an emerging technology that is widely regarded as sustainable. Yet, there has been limited research on its environmental performance, especially at a commercial scale. In this study, life cycle analysis (LCA) was used to assess the environmental impacts of food produced by an urban commercial aquaponic system located next to a retail store in a cold-weather region (Östersund, Sweden). The functional unit (FU) used is 1 kg of fresh produce, which includes cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), tomatoes ( Solanum Lycopersicum ), and Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ).

    The system boundary is set from cradle to farm or retailer's gate due to the proximity of the aquaponic system to the retail store. Results were reported employing eight environmental impact categories, including global warming potential (GWP), marine eutrophication (MEU), and cumulative energy demand (CED). According to contribution analysis, the main hotspots of the system are electricity, CO 2 enrichment, and heating. Potential areas to mitigate the impact of these parameters were highlighted in this study, including the establishment of symbiotic links to utilize urban waste and by-products. The impact per vegetable or fish produced was partitioned using energy and economic allocation and compared to other common cultivation methods. The yearly harvest from the aquaponic system was also compared to importing these food items from other European countries which showed lower annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the aquaponic system.

  • 4.
    Fagerström, Anton
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grahn, Desirée
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lundberg, Susanne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lewrén, Adam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anderson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hjort, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Large scale bio electro jet fuel production integration at CHP-plant in Östersund, Sweden2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports the findings of the project “Large scale bio electro jet fuel production integration at CHP-plant in Östersund, Sweden”. BEJF is an electrofuel produced in a synthesis process where biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is the main carbon source and hydrogen from electrolysis of water using renewable electricity is the main energy source. The project is a feasibility study for a factory for such fuel located at Jämtkraft's facility for CHP in Östersund. Thus, the aim of the project is to assess the feasibility for producing renewable aviation fuel at a specific location considering and evaluating e.g., different processes, operations and integrations, costs, environmental impact, business models and actors.

    IVL The Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Jämtkraft (JK), Chalmers University (CU), Lund University (LU), Nordic Initiative for Sustainable Aviation (NISA), and Fly Green Fund (FGF) have been the primary implementers in this project. Other project stakeholders (AFAB, and The Power Region), have provided relevant data to the various working groups. The project has included experimental work, modelling and calculations, as well as literature-based studies but not the construction of any facilities.

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  • 5.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Henrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bhasin, Aditi
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klugman, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strategic Roadmap for Gotland Industrial Symbiosis Park2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roadmap for the Gotland Industrial Symbiosis Park (GISP) is the culmination of the GISP project. IVL was approached by Tillväxt Gotland and Region Gotland with the desire to develop the park based on industrial symbiosis (IS). Industrial symbiosis is a captivating concept that seeks to emulate nature where waste resources or by-products are utilized by other entities. The aim was therefore to identify the most appropriate development strategy to maximise industrial symbiosis, resource efficient production and the sustainability outcomes of the park. The chosen site is 2 km north of Visby, adjacent to the main airport. This document summarises the research project and its findings before outlining a suggested Roadmap for GISP’s development. It also brings together the research reports conducted during the project (Appendices 1-3) that include a literature review, review of regional strengths and opportunities, and a sustainability assessment of potential scenarios. 

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    Appendix 3
  • 6.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Diener, D.
    Circularity for circularity's sake? Scoping review of assessment methods for environmental performance in the circular economy2021In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 26, p. 172-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Circular Economy (CE) concept is receiving increasing global attention and has captivated many disciplines, from sustainability through to business and economics. There is currently a strong drive by companies, academics and governments alike to implement the CE. Numerous “circularity indicators” have emerged that measure material flow or recirculated value of a system (e.g. product or nation). However, if its implementation is to improve environmental performance of society, the action must be based on scientific evidence and quantification or it may risk driving “circularity for circularity's sake”. This paper, therefore, aims to review the recent circular economy literature that focuses on assessing the environmental implications of circularity of products and services. To do this we divide the system levels into micro (product level), meso (industrial estate/symbiosis) and macro (national or city level). A scoping literature review explores the assessment methods and indicators at each level. The results suggest that few studies compare circularity indicators with environmental performance or link the circularity indicators between society levels (e.g. the micro and macro-levels). However, adequate tools exist at each level (e.g. life cycle assessment (LCA) at the micro-level and multi-regional input-output (MRIO) analysis at the macro-level) to provide the ability to adequately assess and track the CE performance if placed within a suitable framework. The challenge to connect the micro and macro-levels remains. This would help understand the link between changes at the micro-level at the macro-level, and the environmental consequences. At the meso-level, industrial symbiosis continues to grow in potential, but there is a need for further research on the assessment of its contribution to environmental improvement. In addition, there is limited understanding of the use phase. For example, national monitoring programmes do not have indicators on stocks of materials or the extent of the circular economy processes (such as the reuse economy, maintenance and spare parts) which already contribute to the CE. The societal needs/functions framework offers a promising meso-level link to bridge the micro and macro-levels for assessment, monitoring and setting thresholds.

  • 7.
    Henriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Volta Greentech’s Factory 022024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a Life Cycle Assessment of Volta Greentech’s upcoming algae production facility, Factory 02.

    It was performed within the AlgAIe project, with the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts of Factory 02 and to highlight  hotspots for potential improvement. 

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  • 8.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    A review of North American biofel production, policies and research2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a collaborative project within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3). Information for the report was collected through literature reviews and interviews with leading researchers in Canada and the US during a research trip to attend the Advanced Biofuels Symposium in Montreal.

    The production of biofuels has increased dramatically in North America in recent years. The United States (U.S.) is leading this development and has promoted biofuels through a number of policies and mandates through the Renewable Fuels Standard to drive production, research and innovation in the area. Canada has also intensified the promotion of biofuels in recent years through the Renewable Fuels Regulation, in addition to a number of provincial policies and mandates to promote biofuels. Ethanol is currently the dominant fuel in both countries, with blend rates in petrol between 5-10 percent, but with even higher blends in some areas in development, depending upon the region. The promotion and policies for ethanol fuels help to drastically increase their production and use in the past 10 years. The U.S. is currently the largest producer of ethanol in the world, with nearly 55 billion liters of ethanol produced in 2014. Canada has also seen a large increase in biofuel production during the last 10 years, with production increasing by a factor of 10. Currently Canada produces roughly 1.7 billion liters of ethanol per year. Other biofuels, such as biodiesel, have only marginal volumes in comparison, although roughly 300 million liters of biodiesel were produced in 2014 in Canada and 6 billion liters in the U.S.

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  • 9.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing the Environmental Implications of a Regional Industrial Symbiosis Network for Innovative Products2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS), where different entities collaborate over energy, utilities, materials or services to create value and lower cost and environmental impact, has been identified as an approach to improve resource efficiency. North of Norrköping, Sweden, an industrial symbiosis network of firms exists, which currently exchange by-products, wastes and energy. These include Econova, the paper and sawmill of Holmen, municipal waste actors and energy providers (i.e. Tekniska Verken). Through these synergies, several innovative products based on forest, paper, sawmill and energy by-products have been created.

    The focus of the project will highlight the environmental performance of the industrial symbiosis network and pay particular attention to the value of facilitation services by Econova to produce hard surfaces and soil products for the consumer and bulk market.

    The results suggest that there are significant benefits due to the exchanges of material and energy between the firms in the IS network. Large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and local impacts, namely eutrophication and acidification impacts are possible. Furthermore, large reductions in abiotic resource depletion are also possible. Overall, compared to a reference scenario, with no synergies, the IS network can annually reduce: • GHG emissions with roughly 170 million kg (170 000 tonnes) CO2-eq • Eutrophication impacts by roughly 750 tonnes PO4-eq • Acidification impacts by roughly 190 tonnes SO2-eq • Abiotic resource depletion with nearly 340 000 GJ-eq

    It was shown that all firms in the network benefit from the synergies involved. Replacing peat with fiber mulch led to significant environmental impact reductions for Econova, leading to reduced impacts for the main products, i.e. consumer and bulk soils. Furthermore, by providing fiber sludge to Econova, there are also benefits provided to Holmen Paper by reduced landfilling and being provided a share of the credits for replaced peat; and larger benefits in potential future scenarios where larger shares of fiber sludge are shared. Holmen Sawmill and Paper plants were also illustrated to receive large benefits from using heat supplied by Holmen Paper.

    Finally, all firms which install ECA surfaces showed significant improvements in comparison to surfaces produced with concrete and asphalt. Finally, the results point to the importance of the facilitation of by-products and wastes by Econova, and the significant value this creates in the region, with large potential to improve environmental performance of firms and their products.

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  • 10.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Consequential Life Cycle Assessment: What, How, and Why?2017In: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental SciencesArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents the main features of two alternative approaches used in LCA—attributional and consequential—and describes how consequential LCA can be performed consistently and appropriately, with an example provided to guide practitioners. It is argued that, despite its limitations, consequential LCA is a robust approach for estimating important indirect effects of products.

  • 11.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental assessment of the Sotenäs Industrial Symbiosis Network2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the west coast of Sweden, an evolving network of industrial actors is being developed to create green, local jobs while contributing to a sustainable future. Industrial symbiosis (IS) is being promoted by the Sotenäs Symbioscentrum (Sotenäs Symbiosis Center) to develop synergies between industrial actors involved in renewable energy, food production, aquaculture, algae production and marine technology in order to improve material and energy efficiency in the region. It is anticipated that the current, developing and future synergies will lead to environmental benefits for the region and ensure a sustainable seafood and marine industry in the region. Therefore, this study aims to assess and review the environmental implications of the IS network in the Sotenäs region by outlining the potential environmental benefits and impacts of the evolving IS network.

    In order to review the environmental implications of the Sotenäs IS network, life cycle assessment (LCA) was used and applied to the network. The assessment of the environmental impacts (and benefits) of the industrial symbiosis network follows the methodology outlined in Martin et al. (2015) for LCA of IS networks. Using this method allows for the review of both the impacts from the network (as a whole) and the benefit for individual firms in the network. The results of this study suggest that the Sotenäs IS network has potential to significantly reduce environmental impacts for the production system currently being developed, when compared to a reference system. Large reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and local impacts, namely eutrophication impacts are possible. Examples include large impact reductions from land based salmon production compared to conventional salmon farming and adding value to fish industry waste through biogas, and thereafter biofertilizer, production.

    The extent of the reductions include: • A reduction of nearly 60 million kg CO2-eq emissions • Eutrophication impact reductions of 388 thousand kg PO4-eq • Reduction of over 19 million tonne-km in transportation of wastes and other products

    All firms within the network were shown to benefit from the sharing of resources and energy, thus highlighting the importance of the IS network for improving the performance of the firms involved and the products being produced. In addition to reduced impacts, there is a significant potential for reduction in transportation from the firms due to integration.

    It is also important to note the significance of the nutrient recycling of the network by cascading wastes and wastewater to extract nutrients and reduce local impacts. With Sotenäs being a fishing community, the symbiotic network thus improves the use of sea-based resources and reduces the potential impacts to the aquatic and natural environment. Central to the system, the biogas plant act as an “upcycling tenant” in the IS network to further improve environmental benefits through wastewater and by-product handling in addition to replacing and supplying tradition forms of heat and fertilizer. Results from the project will be important to spread to further municipalities in order speed up their local work with facilitating industrial symbiosis and to understand how these networks can be assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively from a number of important aspects.

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  • 12.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental Consequences of Swedish Food Consumption and Dietary Choices2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 12, p. 2227-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a growing interest from consumers to know the origins and contents of foods has put alternative choices, such as organic foods and dietary changes, on the agenda. Dietary choices are important to address, as many studies find that activities related to food production account for nearly 20–30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Nonetheless, while GHG emissions are important, often other environmental impact categories are not considered in the assessment of the sustainability of different foods, diets and choices. This study aims to quantify the implications of dietary choices for Swedish food consumption on a broad range of environmental impact categories using life cycle assessment to provide insight into the impacts, and potential tradeoffs, associated with certain food products and dietary choices. Scenarios are used to assess the implications of diets with reduced meat, increased Swedish food consumption, increased organic foods, vegan and semi-vegetarian diets.

    The results indicate that tradeoffs could be possible with certain dietary choices. Increasing Swedish food production and consumption may lead to lower impacts for all impact categories by reducing imports, although limitations in growing season and availability of foods in Sweden allows only for minor increases. The results also indicate that large reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible by reducing meat consumption, i.e., by halving meat consumption and through vegan and vegetarian diets. Nonetheless, an increase in vegetable, legume and fruit products may lead to a potential increase in human and ecosystem toxicity. Diets based on nutritional guidelines, show reductions in all impact categories, as these guidelines call for an increase in vegetables and fruits and a reduction in meat consumption.

    An increase in organic foods showed no significant change in climate impact, although toxicity potential was reduced significantly. Increasing consumption of organic foods may also lead to a reduction in biodiversity damage potential, and if all food is produced organically, it risks increasing eutrophication and land use.

  • 13.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluating the environmental performance of producing soil and surfaces through industrial symbiosis2020In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS), where different entities collaborate in the management of energy, utilities, materials, or services, has been identified as an approach to improve resource efficiency and circularity in industry. This article assesses the environmental performance of an IS network with firms involved in waste management, soil, surfaces, paper, lumber, and energy. The aim is to highlight the environmental performance of an IS network and pay particular attention to the improved performance for products in the IS network. Life cycle assessment is used to compare the current IS network with a reference scenario and a potential future development. The results suggest that there are significant benefits from the IS network. Large reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and abiotic resource depletion were identified. Furthermore, large reductions in local impacts, namely eutrophication and acidification impacts are illustrated. It was shown that all firms in the network benefit from the synergies involved, with a large share of the benefits stemming from the facilitated exchanges with the waste management company. The replacement of conventional products and energy streams with bio‐based counterparts from within the network is of significant importance. Finally, the results point to the importance of the facilitation of by‐product synergies, and the significant value this creates in the region, with large potential to improve the environmental performance of firms and their products.

  • 14.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluating the environmental performance of producing soil and surfaces through industrial symbiosis.2019In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessment calculative practices in the Swedish biofuel sector: Governing biofuel sustainability by standards and numbers2018In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, no 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the introduction of the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive (RED), biofuel‐producing firms are required to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) based greenhouse gas accounting in order to fulfill part of directive's sustainability criteria. This paper adopts the concepts of “governing by standards” and “governing by numbers” to understand the LCA practices of biofuel‐producing firms and assess the critical moments of friction between these alternative modes of governance.

    We focus our analysis on the use of LCA in the Swedish biofuel industry, undertaking case studies on the use of LCA in four Swedish biofuel‐producing firms and semistructured interviews with industry associations and governmental bodies. Results indicated that the RED not only influences what biofuel sustainability entails but also structures the calculative practices used to measure it. At the same time, our results point to friction between achieving regulatory compliance and improving biofuel sustainability.

  • 16.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessments, carbon footprints and carbon visions: Analysing environmental systems analyses of transportation biofuels in Sweden2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, no 137, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the sustainable production and consumption of biofuels, an increasing body of scientific literature has become available in recent years focusing on the environmental impacts of biofuels. Whilst the climate change mitigation is perhaps the primary driver behind the promotion of biofuels, climate change is not the only crucial impact associated with biofuel production and consumption systems. This study aims at analysing the extent of the dominant focus on climate impacts in Swedish research applying environmental systems analysis (ESA) tools to investigate the environmental impacts of biofuels, and why this may exist.

    A systematic literature review of Swedish research applying ESA tools in the study of transportation biofuels between 2000 and 2015 was conducted; identifying 64 studies. The results indicate that studies using life cycle assessment include a range of impact categories in addition to climate impacts, e.g. acidification and eutrophication. However, when also considering environmental footprints (i.e., carbon and water footprints) and material flow analyses, the dominance of carbon footprints leads to an overly dominant focus on climate impacts at the expense of other impact categories. The consideration of environmental impacts other than those related to climate impacts is discussed in terms of the influence of the dominant science-policy framework in Sweden and study dependent variables, such as data uncertainty and methodological limitations. Whilst biofuel production is inextricably linked to climate policy, the environmental impacts of Swedish biofuel production and consumption should also consider the broader context of the Swedish National Environmental Objectives.

  • 17.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sharing services and environmental impacts: An assessment of selected services in the Hammarby Sjöstad region of Stockholm2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the unsustainable consumption of goods and services continues to increase globally, collaborative consumption, sharing services and the sharing economy have been identified and promoted as an important step in transforming current business models toward more sustainable practices. However, the environmental implications of sharing services are not always transparent and are often assumed to create large environmental benefits.

    This study aims to review the environmental performance, and potential, of different sharing services available in the Hammarby Sjöstad area of Stockholm. These include 1) the sharing platform provided by Hygglo.se, 2) package drop-off and pick-up services offered by QLocx and 3) sharing of cargo bikes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is used to identify the impacts and benefits of the sharing services, taking into account both current and future consumption patterns, product lifetime and use, potential replacements of conventional products and services, impacts from digital infrastructure and the implications these may have. Furthermore, the study outlines an approach to identify methodological considerations for assessing these systems using LCA and addressing the sensitivity of these choices.

    The results suggest that there is a significant potential for the sharing services reviewed to reduce environmental impacts. The Hygglo.se platform in particular offers large potential to reduce production impacts for new product purchases and reduce impacts even further if product purchases are avoided through the availability of the sharing service. The QLocx system can significantly reduce impacts from logistics services and transportation by reducing delivery attempts and providing increased availability for delivery and pick-up services. Finally, by replacing conventional modes of transportation, for e.g. shopping trips, the cargo bike sharing similarly can reduce impacts significantly, offering a low-carbon transportation method. The results also examine potential synergies of the services, i.e. combining QLocx services for product sharing through Hygglo.se. As such the impacts from the sharing products are further reduced. However, and as the discussion outlines, the results are dependent upon a number of assumptions and are sensitive to choices made, e.g. to transportation methods and the number of uses. The study thus outlines many of the potentially sensitive methodological choices and outlines improvements for reviewing the impacts of sharing services in the future.

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  • 18.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Summary Report: Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of GrowOff Modular Vertical Farm2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was developed together with Grönska Stadsodling 365. Grönska is vertical farming company that started in 2015 and has developed a large-scale vertical farm in Stockholm and modular vertical farms which are in place nationwide. Since the start, Grönska has worked to reduce the resource and energy demands in order to promote more sustainable food provisioning. This summary report provides a brief review of the environmental life cycle assessment conducted during 2022 with Grönska on their modular cabinet vertical farms, i.e. the GrowOff system. The work was conducted within the FORMAS project “Assessing and Improving the Sustainability of Urban Vertical farming Systems,” grant 2019-02049 in order to help Grönska identify hotspots and understand the sustainability of the offerings.

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  • 19.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akhtar, N.
    Saqib, Z.
    Khan, M.
    Atif, S.B.
    Zaman, M.H.
    A bibliometric analysis of contemporary research regarding industrial symbiosis: A path towards urban environmental resilience.2019In: Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, ISSN 1589-1623, E-ISSN 1785-0037, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 1159-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual framework of industrial symbiosis (IS) is gaining recognition for ensuring the conservation of natural resources and resilience of socio-ecological surroundings. Significant scholastic strides have been made for explaining the conceptual paradigm of IS. The current study relied upon the Bibliometric mapping technique to decipher the contemporary orientations in the recent publications (2007-2017). The findings revealed that China, UK and the USA are the pivot for promoting research interests in the field. The loci of IS research was observed more skewed in favour of economically developed and industrialized countries. The findings of this study also acknowledge a growing propensity towards research collaboration between and among nations.

  • 20.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akhtar, Nadia
    Saqib, Zafeer
    Irfan, Muhammad
    Atif Bokhari, Syed
    Zaman-ul-Hag, Muhammad
    A bibliometric analysis of contemporary research regarding industrial symbiosis: A path towards urban environmental resilience. (Accepted).2019In: Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, ISSN 1589-1623, E-ISSN 1785-0037Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    Carotti, Laura
    Orrestig, Kristin
    Orsini, Francesco
    Environmental assessment of greenhouse herb production: A case of longitudinal improvement options in Sweden2023In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 193, p. 106948-106948, article id 106948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The greenhouse sector has seen many advances to improve its resource demands, though little is known of the environmental impacts. This study aims to assess the environmental performance of a horticultural greenhouse in Sweden producing herbs. Life cycle assessment is employed to analyze different scenarios. These include previous measures, such as switching to organic fertilizers, a pellet burner, and reducing the packaging weight. Future scenarios are assessed, including increasing biofueled logistics, switching to LEDs, densifying production, and including recyclable packaging.

    The results suggest that GHG emissions were reduced by 32% per kg edible portion through past scenarios in current scenario. Additionally, densifying production and switching to LED lighting can lead to an additional 14% and 10% reduction in GHG emissions compared to the current system respectively, while also reducing other environmental impact categories. These results provide insights into the implications of environmental and resource improvement measures taken at greenhouses.

  • 22.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    Svegro.
    Orrestig, Kristin
    Svegro.
    Carotti, Laura
    University of Bologna.
    Orsini, Francesco
    University of Bologna.
    Summary Report: Assessing the environmental performance of improvement measures at Svegro2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the environmental performance of the progress and future possibilities for resource efficiency applied to a horticultural greenhouse in Sweden producing herbs and lettuce. The environmental implications of the development of a case study greenhouse are assessed by employing life cycle analysis and highlighting the environmental performance of different scenarios based on measures taken to improve resource efficiency. These scenarios include previous improvement measures to the greenhouse such as switching to organic fertilizers, switching to a bio-based pellet heating system, and reducing and altering the amount of plastics employed for the packaging. Future scenarios are also included to explore the implications of shifting toward more renewable transportation for product logistics, employing LEDs in place of high-pressure sodium lighting, densifying the production, and employing more recyclable fractions of plastic.

    Environmental performance indicators are provided for each scenario to show the greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification, resource consumption, and water resource depletion. The results from the scenarios suggest that measures developed for the greenhouse had large environmental performance improvements. For these past measures, switching to bio-based pellet burners and reducing the amount and type of plastics were identified to be the most beneficial to nearly all environmental impact categories. For future measures, the largest environmental performance benefits were found for switching the lighting to LEDs. On the product level, resource efficiency improvements from the greenhouse can nearly halve the GHG emissions per kilogram of edible product. Nonetheless, it was also highlighted that the results can also be sensitive to the methodological and dataset choices made in the modeling, above all the source and datasets used for electricity. The results provide insights on the implications of environmental performance improvement measures taken at greenhouses, especially the sourcing for fuels to meet heating demands, and the effect it has on the performance of the products, which are important for both producers and wholesalers of the products. The study also adds to the developing literature on the environmental performance of controlled environment agriculture, providing empirical evidence from a real case in Sweden.

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  • 23.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bustamante, Maria J.
    Growing-Service Systems: New Business Models for Modular Urban-Vertical Farming2021In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    o secure sustainable and resilient food systems, new approaches, innovations, techniques, and processes are needed. In recent years, urban farming firms have been developing and experimenting with innovative approaches to expand their offerings and connect with consumers in new ways. New business models are being developed to provide functions and services instead of traditional products to meet demands from consumers, retailers, and users. As such, modular growing systems are increasing in popularity to provide fresh produce, visual appeal, transparency, and other tailor-made functions and services in so-called “growing-service systems” (GSS).

    Using GSS approaches, firms are developing and providing modular and small-scale farms in restaurants, residential spaces, supermarkets, and other commercial spaces, often including a large degree of automation and optimization of digital solutions to remotely control their operation. Using qualitative methods, the aim of this study is to explore and analyze the development of these novel GSS systems, highlighting different strategies, business models, motivations, and challenges. The results illustrate the divergence in approaches to GSSs for vertical farming. This includes different scales of modular units and varying business models for capturing value from the combination of products and services.

    All of the systems include varying degrees of automation and digitalized solutions to ensure the services are monitored, which is done to improve growing conditions and improve the experience for the users. Business-to-business systems are being developed as both market expansion and awareness-building strategies, where modular units are provided as a rental or subscription model that includes a number of services. Business-to-consumer systems are being introduced as an alternative for consumers, particularly in urban areas, to have greater control and access over growing their own fresh produce. The modules are purchased by consumers, which includes a number of ongoing services from the GSS firms. By categorizing and exploring these systems, this article offers novel insights and a first endeavor to distinguish these new GSS systems in the growing segment of urban agriculture, controlled-environment agriculture, and product-service system literature.

  • 24.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Lina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental Implications of Dynamic Policies on Food Consumption and Waste Handling in the European Union2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    No summary is available. Download the proceeding below.

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  • 25.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life Cycle Sustainability Evaluations of Bio-based Value Chains:Reviewing the indicators from a Swedish Perspective2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 547-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policymakers worldwide are promoting the use of bio-based products as part of sustainable development. Nonetheless, there are concerns that the bio-based economy may undermine the sustainability of the transition, e.g., from the overexploitation of biomass resources and indirect impacts of land use. Adequate assessment methods with a broad systems perspective are thus required in order to ensure a transition to a sustainable, bio-based economy. We review the scientifically published life cycle studies of bio-based products in order to investigate the extent to which they include important sustainability indicators.

    To define which indicators are important, we refer to established frameworks for sustainability assessment, and include an Open Space workshop with academics and industrial experts. The results suggest that there is a discrepancy between the indicators that we found to be important, and the indicators that are frequently included in the studies. This indicates a need for the development and dissemination of improved methods in order to model several important environmental impacts, such as: water depletion, indirect land use change, and impacts on ecosystem quality and biological diversity.

    The small number of published social life cycle assessments (SLCAs) and life cycle sustainability assessments (LCSAs) indicate that these are still immature tools; as such, there is a need for improved methods and more case studies.

  • 26.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Elnour, Mugahid
    Siñol, Aina Cabrero
    Environmental life cycle assessment of a large-scale commercial vertical farm2023In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 40, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical farms are often claimed to have better environmental performance compared to conventional products on the market. However, there are few assessments of the environmental performance of vertical farms, in particular commercial systems. This study has aimed to analyze the environmental performance of a large commercial vertical farm in Sweden producing packaged lettuce. Life cycle assessment was employed to assess the environmental performance and compare it to conventional imported and domestically produced lettuce from a cradle-to-grave perspective. For conventional supply chains, the production, transportation to Sweden, washing, processing, packaging, and final distribution were all included.

    The results from the study suggest that the vertical farm has lower GHG emissions than conventionally sourced varieties. However, for other impact categories, the vertical farm may have larger environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective due primarily to the large electricity demand. The electricity use, packaging, infrastructure, and distribution of the products to retail were found to be the primary hotspots for the system. Finally, key performance indicators are also provided to compare the results of this study with other indoor farming studies. The results from the KPIs suggest that the vertical farm has better water use efficiency, GHG emissions, and energy use efficiency compared to other studies in the literature. The results of this study provide insights into the environmental performance and resource use of vertical farms, which can be used for comparisons and validation of claims in the industry, and to provide empirical evidence to this developing field.

  • 27.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing the aggregated environmental benefits from by-product and utility synergies in the Swedish biofuel industry2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels in Sweden has increased significantly in the past years in order to reduce fossil dependence and mitigate climate impacts. Nonetheless, current methodological guidelines for assessing the GHG savings from the use of biofuels do not fully account for benefits from by-products and other utilities (e.g. waste heat and electricity) from biofuel production.

    This study therefore reviews the aggregated environmental performance of these multi-functional biofuel systems by assessing impacts and benefits from relevant production processes in Sweden in order to improve the decision-base for biofuel producers and policy makers in the transition to a bio-based and circular economy. This was done by conducting (1) a mapping of the Swedish biofuel production portfolio, (2) developing future production scenarios, and (3) application of life cycle assessment methodology to assess the environmental performance of the production processes.

    Special focus was provided to review the potential benefits from replacing conventional products and services with by-products and utilities. The results provide evidence that failure to account for non-fuel related benefits from biofuel production leads to an underestimation of the contribution of biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts when replacing fossil fuels, showing the importance of the multi-functionality.

  • 28.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Prospecting the sustainability implications of an emerging industrial symbiosis network2018In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 138, p. 246–256-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to enable industrial symbiosis (IS) as an approach for regional sustainable development, it is important that stakeholders involved in facilitating symbiotic exchanges can measure and comprehend the potential benefits and impacts. However, previous assessments have been sporadic and limited to only a few indicators, primarily focused only on existing IS examples or networks and very few have examined potential developments.

    This study expands the assessment of IS networks by reviewing the environmental and socioeconomic implications of an emerging network on the west coast of Sweden using life cycle assessment and socioeconomic assessments to illustrate the implications for the firms of the network and regional sustainability. The results suggest that the IS network has the potential to make a positive contribution to the environmental performance of the industries and the socioeconomic status of the region. Of key importance is the potential to cascade the use of nutrients and avoid large eutrophication impacts to the neighboring sea in addition to the large greenhouse gas emissions reductions by avoiding and replacing conventional processes and products.

    The socioeconomic assessment illustrated that the IS network could make a substantial contribution to the region for job creation, revenues, local skills base, research and innovation and regional identity. The results provide insights on the potential of industrial symbiosis for regional sustainable development, which may be important for decision makers, firms involved in the network and municipalities, nationally and internationally to advance local efforts with facilitating industrial symbiosis and to understand how these networks can be assessed.

  • 29.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Heiska, Mirjami
    Björklund, Anna
    Environmental assessment of a product-service system for renting electric-powered tools2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 281, article id 125245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address increasing environmental sustainability concerns among consumers, many companies have developed approaches to provide functions, rather than products through product-service systems (PSS). This study evaluates a use-oriented tool rental service from Husqvarna, called ‘Tools for you,’ with the aim to identify critical processes to improve the sustainability of the offering. The environmental implications of the system are assessed using life cycle assessment for the annual service of one electric chainsaw and compared with a conventional sales alternative. The results suggest that rental service is influenced extensively by the location of the rental depot. Furthermore, while the impacts of the product and accessories, infrastructure, waste management, and use are reduced compared to the sales alternative, their contribution is only minor compared to environmental impacts from transportation. The results are also sensitive to the methodological choices, where the lifetime of the products, data choices, transportation assumptions, maintenance intervals, and other user-related variables for the use of the products have a significant influence on the results. The conclusions confirm and extend previous assertions on the challenges of applying LCA to PSS and add to the emerging literature on sustainable business models through empirical evidence from a case study. The findings also point to the holistic insights required to optimize the potential environmental sustainability of the services for Husqvarna and other retailers interested in adopting use-oriented business models. Future research could focus on the geographical differences of the rental lockers worldwide, models for optimizing their location, in addition to further input on user behavior, and the role of refurbishment and remanufacturing for more robust analyses of the sustainability of PSS offerings.

  • 30.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Herlaar, Sjoerd
    Environmental and social performance of valorizing waste wool for sweater production2021In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 25, p. 425-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clothing industry has been active in recent years to develop more sustainable and circular business models, with extensive attention to fossil fibers and cotton, although wool has received little academic attention. This study follows the valorization process of conventionally discarded wool from a sheep farm in Sweden to produce a wool sweater. The aim is to highlight important environmental and social hotspots for valorizing the waste wool in a new supply chain for the clothing company. The study employs life cycle assessment (LCA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA) with the PSILCA database to assess different supply chains. The LCA results illustrate that the supply chain valorizing waste wool significantly reduces environmental impacts compared to conventional supply chains of merino wool. The processing of the wool and sweater assembly contribute to the largest share of the environmental impacts and are sensitive to the choice of electricity mix employed for processing and manufacturing. The results from the SLCA suggest that the supply chains involving primarily European producers have fewer social risks than the conventional supply chains for wool. Large social risks are present in the shipping between production sites in Europe, and manufacturing facilities for the wool garments, pointing to the care required to ensure social responsibility along the supply chain. The SLCA results are sensitive to the cost assumptions made for activities along the supply chain. The results provide empirical evidence and highlight areas to improve the environmental and social implications for developing a new circular supply chain.

  • 31.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Larsson, Mathias
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reviewing the environmental implications of increased consumption and trade of biofuels for transportation in Sweden2017In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 175-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, a European leader in the consumption of biofuels, has surpassed targets set by the EU and is one of a few countries that has increased consumption of biofuels in recent years. Nonetheless, a large share of biofuels, and raw materials used to produce the fuels, are imported from regions outside Sweden.

    This paper reviews the environmental implications of consumption of biofuels in Sweden 2000–2014 to identify and provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts that imports of fuels have both in Sweden and abroad using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results suggest that while greenhouse gas emissions may have been reduced in Sweden by the use of biofuels, the origin of the emissions has shifted from Sweden to Europe and other countries abroad, due in part to an increased use of biofuels and raw materials from abroad. This has important implications for local impacts, as this may increase acidification and eutrophication potential and ecotoxicity created abroad.

    Thus, although policy has been designed to promote sustainable transportation fuels, in addition to the generation goals set by the Swedish Parliament, the implications on regions exporting fuels and raw materials for Swedish consumption should be reviewed and followed in further detail in order to avoid problem shifting.

  • 32.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lazarevic, D.
    Gullström, C.
    Assessing the Environmental Potential of Collaborative Consumption: Peer-to-Peer Product Sharing in Hammarby Sjöstad, Sweden.2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative consumption—through sharing services—has been promoted as an important step in transforming current consumption patterns toward more sustainable practices. Whilst there are high expectations for sharing services, there are few studies on the potential environmental benefits and impacts of sharing services. This study aims to analyze the potential environmental impacts of a peer-to-peer (P2P) product sharing platform and potential integration with a package drop-off/pick-up service in the urban district of Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden. A life cycle approach is adopted, taking into account product lifetime and use, the potential replacement of conventional products and services, impacts from digital infrastructure and their impacts on the environment. The results indicate that there is significant potential for these sharing services to reduce environmental impacts associated with production and consumption; primarily through avoiding production and reducing the production impacts of new product purchases. The results also illustrate potential synergies to integrate with the package drop-off/pick up service; where the impacts from shared products are further reduced by reducing transportation impacts through improved logistics. However, the results are dependent upon, and sensitive to, a number of methodological choices and assumptions; highlighting the need for greater knowledge on the use environmental assessments of sharing services.

  • 33.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lazarevic, David
    Gullström, Charlie
    Assessing the Environmental Potential of Collaborative Consumption: Peer-to-Peer Product Sharing in Hammarby Sjöstad, Sweden.2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing the energy and environmental performance of vertical hydroponic farming2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global population is increasing rapidly, and the amount of people living in urban areas are expected to almost double within 30 years. With a rising population, the demand for food and pressure on arable land is also increasing. Currently, about 26 % of the greenhouse gases emitted from Sweden come from agricultural activities, and with an increasing population, it is essential to aim to reduce the emissions from food supply.

    Vertical farming has seen increasing popularity as a way to reduce the need for arable land and grow crops where they are to be consumed. When farming indoors in a closed environment, the plants are protected from the weather, insects and pests. There are no leakages of nutrients in closed systems and the amount of water used is very limited in comparison to conventional farming. However, artificial lighting is needed in order for the crops to grow. Additionally, vertical farming is capital intensive and requires technical knowledge to be able to make use of the new techniques and equipment available.

    In this study, the sustainability of the vertical farming system at Grönska Stadsodling, hereafter referred to as Grönska, has been evaluated. Grönska is located in southern Stockholm and produces primarily basil in pots that are sold to retailers around the city using vertical-hydroponic techniques. The energy use and environmental impacts for the production of herbs (basil) were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) from a cradle-to-gate perspective. This included the materials (e.g. soil, fertilizers) and energy consumption used for growing basil plants. The use (consumption), waste management and transportation to and from the company were not included in this study.

    The results illustrated a large share of energy used for the manufacturing of gardening soil, which also resulted in the second largest environmental impact. The largest source of environmental impacts was the energy consumed for lighting, despite the use of LED lighting. There are possibilities to reduce these impacts by e.g. installing solar panels and optimizing the output of LEDs for the plant production. Furthermore, energy could be saved by changing the growing material, for something with less environmental impacts e.g. coir pith or by recycling the soil used. While extended transportation distances of food is one of the main arguments for urban agriculture, energy consumption and environmental impacts for transportation were found to be a minor part of the energy use and environmental impacts. Finally, the socio-economic implications of urban farming should be taken into account when reviewing sustainability aspects. This study only reviewed energy and environmental impacts, but the socio-economic benefits and resilience for the local community are important to highlight.

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  • 35.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental Assessment of an Urban Vertical Hydroponic Farming System in Sweden2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an expanding population and changing dynamics in global food markets, it is important to find solutions for more resilient food production methods closer to urban environments. Recently, vertical farming systems have emerged as a potential solution for urban farming. However, although there is an increasing body of literature reviewing the potential of urban and vertical farming systems, only a limited number of studies have reviewed the sustainability of these systems. The aim of this article was to understand the environmental impacts of vertical hydroponic farming in urban environments applied to a case study vertical hydroponic farm in Stockholm, Sweden. This was carried out by evaluating environmental performance using a life cycle perspective to assess the environmental impacts and comparing to potential scenarios for improvement options. The results suggest that important aspects for the vertical hydroponic system include the growing medium, pots, electricity demand, the transportation of raw materials and product deliveries. By replacing plastic pots with paper pots, large reductions in GHG emissions, acidification impacts, and abiotic resource depletion are possible. Replacing conventional gardening soil as the growing medium with coir also leads to large environmental impact reductions. However, in order to further reduce the impacts from the system, more resource-efficient steps will be needed to improve impacts from electricity demand, and there is potential to develop more symbiotic exchanges to employ urban wastes and by-products.

  • 36.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reviewing the energy and environmental performance of vertical farming systems in urban2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global population is increasing rapidly, and the amount of people living in urban areas are expected to almost double within 30 years. With a rising population, the demand for food and pressure on arable land is also increasing. Currently, about 25 % of the greenhouse gases emitted from Sweden come from agricultural activities. Thus with an increasing population, it is essential to aim to reduce the emissions from the food supply.

    Vertical farming has seen increasing popularity as a way to reduce the need for arable land and grow crops where they are to be consumed. When farming indoors in a closed environment, the plants are protected from the weather, insects and pests. There are no leakages of nutrients in closed systems and the amount of water used is very limited in comparison to conventional farming. However, artificial lighting is needed in order for the crops to grow. Additionally, vertical farming is capital intensive and requires technical knowledge to be able to make use of the new techniques and equipment available.

    In this study, the sustainability of the vertical farming system at Node Farm has been evaluated. Node Farm is located in southern Stockholm in an old refrigerated shipping container, and will start the production of cress during spring 2018. The energy use and environmental impacts for the production of hydroponic herbs (cress) were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) from a cradle-to-gate perspective. This included the materials (e.g. hempflux and plastic boxes) used for growing cress and the energy consumed for heating and lighting. The use (consumption), waste management and transports to and from the company were not included in this study.

    The results illustrated a large share of energy used for the manufacturing of the plastic box to package the cress. Also the largest source of negative environmental impacts was due to the manufacturing of the plastic box.

    There are possibilities to reduce the energy consumption and environmental impacts by choosing another material for packaging. While extended transportation distances of food is one of the main arguments for urban agriculture, energy consumption and environmental impacts for transportation were found to be a minor part of the energy use and environmental impacts. Finally, the socio-economic implications of urban farming should be taken into account in reviews of the sustainability. This study focuses on energy and environmental impacts, but the socio-economic benefits and resilience of the local community are important to highlight

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  • 37.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thornéus, Joakim
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental implications of Swedish food consumption and dietary choices2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a growing interest from consumers to know the origins and contents of foods has put alternative choices such as organic foods and dietary changes in the agenda. Dietary choices are important to address as many studies find that activities related to food production account for nearly 20-30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, while GHG emissions are important, often other environmental impact categories are not used to assess the sustainability of different foods, diets and choices. This study therefore aims to understand the implications of dietary choices for Swedish food consumption on a broad range of environmental impact categories to provide insight into the impacts associated with certain food products and dietary choices.

    The study reviews dietary choices based on Swedish consumption statistics and assesses the implications using a number of scenarios. These include scenarios related to increasing organic and regional food consumption in addition to reducing meat, vegetarian diets and eating based on nutritional guidelines. Life cycle methodology is used to review environmental impacts of Swedish food consumption (from both domestic and imported products) in the year 2015 and 2020.

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  • 38.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Orsini, Francesco
    Life cycle assessment of indoor vertical farms2023In: Advances in plant factories: New technologies in indoor vertical farming, ISSN 2059-6936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor vertical farms (IVF) have expanded rapidly in recent years as an approach to secure resilient food provisioning in urban areas. Sustainability is often promoted by IVFs, focusing primarily on farm-level metrics and information about work with packaging. However, there are few assessments of the implications IVFs have throughout their life cycle due in part to the novelty of the industry. This chapter aims to provide information and guidance on conducting an environmental sustainability assessment of an IVF employing life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Throughout the chapter, the different phases of an LCA are outlined, and guidance is provided for practitioners in order to aid their work, assumptions, and methodological choices. Furthermore, important processes and insights from previous research are provided to promote a more sustainable IVF industry.

  • 39.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Exploring the environmental performance of urban symbiosis for vertical hydroponic farming.2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Beräkning av klimatvinster med återanvändning och återvinning2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har haft som mål att bedöma nuvarande och framtida potentiella årliga klimatvinster genom återvinning och återanvändning för ett antal olika avfallsflöden. Studien har varit avgränsad till att studera avfallsledet och vilka utsläppsminskningar som kan göras utifrån de avfallsmängder som uppkommer. Statistik och data från tidigare studier och från LCA-databaser har använts. Framtida avfallsflöden, återvinningsgrader samt återanvändningsgrader har uppskattats av IVL:s avfallsexperter i huvudsak med stöd av resultat från tidigare studier. Resultaten kan användas för att ge en uppfattning om storleksordningar och om vilka produktgrupper som är viktiga att prioritera när det gäller att öka återanvändning och återvinning. Genom att, som i denna rapport, visa på möjliga framtida scenarier vad gäller avfallsflöden, återvinning och återanvändning kan diskussioner kring möjliga styrmedel och deras effekter främjas. För att mer konkret kunna analysera olika specifika styrmedelseffekter krävs mer omfattande studier.

    Studien identifierar vilka produkt/avfallsflöden som har störst potential för minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom återvinning och återanvändning. I dagsläget och i de scenarier som studerats här är de potentiella klimatvinsterna som störst för förpackningar, textilier från hushåll, WEEE (elektriskt och elektroniskt avfall) och bilar, men även däck. Enbart en liten andel av de flöden som studerats går till återanvändning idag, det gäller textilier, däck och skor. Även i de framtida scenarierna antas andelen som går till återanvändning vara relativt liten. Potentialen för klimatvinster genom återanvändning av främst WEEE och textilier är tydlig. Det förutsätts då i beräkningen att nyproduktion kan ersättas. En övergripande slutsats som kan dras av studiens resultat är också att återvinning och återanvändning ger klimatvinster jämfört med förbränning i alla studerade scenarierna.

    I de scenarier där mer avfall genereras kan klimatvinsterna för återvinning och återanvändning bli större i och med att större mängder finns tillgängliga för avfallshantering. En minskad mängd avfall i samhället kan ge ytterligare potentiella klimatvinster som följd. Eventuella klimatvinster kopplade till minskad eller förändrad konsumtion eller ökad materialeffektivitet har inte studerats inom ramen för detta uppdrag.

    Det är komplicerat att resonera kring vilken produktion som ersätts, och om den faktiskt ersätts, när material återvinns och produkter återanvänds. I och med denna svårighet, och även begränsad tillgång till data gällande import och inhemsk produktion, är det svårt att avgöra vilka klimatvinster som sker inom Sveriges gränser. Inom ramen för studien har vi främst fört ett kvalitativt resonemang kring var klimatvinsterna kan tänkas ske.

    När det gäller avfallsstatistik finns idag begränsad kunskap om flöden av byggavfall, både vad gäller faktiska mängder och sammansättning och egenskaper. I studien har endast en begränsad del av byggavfall kunnat inkluderas. Det byggavfall som är med i studien är sådana fraktioner som är klimatrelevanta. Exempelvis är mineralavfall och schaktmassor som mest återvinns som anläggningsmaterial inte med. Data för återvinning av mer komplexa produkter som WEEE, bilar och batterier behöver egentligen utvecklas. Här kan det vara särskilt intressant att i kommande studier fokusera på kritiska metaller. Även genom återanvändning av bildelar och komponenter från WEEE kan det finnas ytterligare potential för klimatvinster, och det vore intressant för ytterligare studier. För de flesta studerade flöden saknas uppgifter om återanvändning i dag. Förutom att det finns begränsat med statistik finns även ett behov av metodutveckling när det gäller att studera miljöeffekter av återanvändning med ett livscykelperspektiv.

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  • 41.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laurenti, R.
    Developing Adequate Communication of Waste Footprints of Products for a Circular Economy—A Stakeholder Consultation.2018In: Resources, E-ISSN 2079-9276, no 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relatively few consumers are conscious of the waste generated in the course of producing the goods that they consume, although most are aware of the amount of waste they dispose of. This article reports on a small-scale survey (N = 28) among stakeholders aimed at developing adequate communication of preconsumer waste footprints of consumer goods in the context of the circular economy. Life cycle assessment (LCA) practitioners and consumers assessed five methodological details of an approach for calculating and communicating a product waste footprint (PWF). Most of the respondents expressed that the guidelines described in the proposed PWF methodology are good enough for the purposes of differentiating waste and byproducts, and defining which material flow shall be accounted for. Some LCA practitioners declared that the proposed streamlined method may not be adequate for conveying the environmental significance of waste types. The respondents also expressed that the PWF concept would be primarily useful and/or needed for consumers and government, and in the contexts of improving environmental awareness of consumers, environmental policy making, visualizing waste flows in a circular economy, and improving resource efficiency in industry, and less useful/needed in a business-to-business context. The PWF has been successfully used by diverse stakeholder groups in Sweden mostly to promote sustainable production and consumption across society. A notable example is the ‘invisible waste’ (#invisiblewaste) campaign of the Swedish Waste Management Association (Avfall Sverige). The concerns of the LCA experts have therefore not held true. The symbolic power and parsimony of the PWF concept appears to be effective in sensitizing consumers towards waste issues so that circular economy strategies beyond recycling are possible to be fully realized.

  • 42.
    Moberg, Emma
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Källmark, Lovisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av svensk ull2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written within the Swedish Wool Initiative project, funded by Vinnova. The project aims at increasing the competitiveness for Swedish wool and contributing to a more sustainable and circular textile industry through developing circular products based on discarded Swedish wool. Apart from project leader Axfoundation, project partners include actors from the textile industry, supply chain as well as from research and innovation. The report describes the results of a working package focusing on the sustainability of Swedish wool.

    The study aimed at looking into methodological choices applied in sustainability assessments of sheep and wool production, as well as to investigate results of sustainability impact assessments of the production. Based on this, the study aimed to highlight potentially missing aspects in previous assessments as well as to compare the impacts of Swedish production in relation to production in other countries. 

    For studies assessing wool at farm-gate, a functional unit of per kg of greasy wool was found to be a common choice. Using such functional unit has been criticized for not relating to the function of the fiber which for comparison should be expanded to include its quality and durability. For the reviewed assessments of woolen garments, these were commonly assessed from a cradle to grave perspective, with a functional unit including a definition of a specific weight as well as lifetime, which is preferable as this makes it possible to compare the function of different garments. 

    Concerning handling multi-functionality of production systems, most studies were found to apply one or several allocation strategies to distribute the environmental burdens between the by-products. The choice of allocation factors was found to vary substantially between the reviewed studies which had large implications on overall results. Studies covering Swedish production were found to apply a low or no allocation to wool, due to the low economic revenues of wool. In comparison, studies covering the production in other countries were found to use higher economic allocation factors. This was explained by a higher level of specialization of wool production in combination with larger extent of wool takencare of, which increase its economic revenues and thus allocation factors. 

    On comparing the environmental impact categories and indicators recommendedby frameworks and the ones currently applied in the literature, large overlapswere found. Overall, all environmental impact categories recommended by the reviewed frameworks were found to be used in the studied literature, although no single study was found to cover all aspects in either of the frameworks. 

    The indicators recommended by the studied frameworks were not always applied by the reviewed studies. For example, the impact category of land use and land system change is commonly investigated through assessing overall land use, but is recommended to include indicators on soil health by e.g. the Product Environmental Footprint guidelines.

    In the workshop with actors from different parts of the supply-chain of Swedish wool, environmental perspectives given top priority included climate impact, chemical use in production, biodiversity and resource efficiency. Climate impact and resource use were found to be among the most applied indicators in the literature. Chemical use in production and biodiversity were on the other hand rarely assessed. Thus, future studies assessing the environmental sustainability of Swedish wool could ideally include these aspects. Few studies covering social and economic dimensions were found. The participants in the workshop highlighted animal welfare and profitability among top priorities of social and economic perspectives to be included in a sustainability assessment of Swedish wool. 

    No conclusions could be drawn on the climate impact of Swedish sheep or wool production systems compared to other countries, as the studies vary in analyzed production systems, as well as methodological choices, e.g. regarding the functional units and impact assessment method chosen. However, considering the low allocation factors assigned to Swedish wool in the identified studies, this result in substantially lower climate impact for wool up to farm-gate, compared to the results reported by other studies. 

    Swedish sheep farming has been highlighted to impact positively on several of the Swedish Environmental Objectives, e.g. through grazing animals sustaining biodiversity conservation of threatened species in Swedish semi-natural pastures. Another often lifted benefit for Swedish agriculture is the potential carbon sequestration due to grass ley production. However, several studies were found tohighlight the same attributes to sheep and wool production in other countries worldwide, as the farming systems to a large extent are extensive pastoral-based systems. Regarding other potential benefits often highlighted for Swedish production of sheep and wool, these include animal welfare regulations. On comparing Swedish regulations to legislation and literature for other production countries, potential added values from Swedish production compared to other countries were found, e.g. with regards to use of veterinary antibiotics and medical interventions. 

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  • 43. Nilsson, Johanna Nilsson
    et al.
    Nilsson, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av utvecklingsvägen ”starka sektorskopplingar” för att uppnå ett hundra procent förnybart elsystem: Delrapport i projektet "Hundra procent förnybart - hur många procent hållbart?" i samarbete med Mistra Carbon Exit2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report is a collaboration between the projects "One hundred percent renewable - how many percent sustainable?" and Mistra Carbon Exit (MCE). This initial analysis is a first step in identifying the most critical sustainability aspects (economic, ecological and social) that the further sustainability analysis in the project "One hundred percent renewable - how many percent sustainable" should focus on. 

    The focus of the report is the development of an analysis of the preliminary scenario “Strong sector connections” as a way to reach one hundred percent renewable electricity system. “Strong sector connections” refers to electricity production and the transport and industrial sectors in the form of heat storage, hydrogen storage, heating systems and flexible charging of electric vehicles.

    Three case studies (heat storage, hydrogen storage and flexible charging of electric vehicles) have been selected and studied in a workshop. At the workshop, the expert groups for the three case studies discussed the impact on the 17 global sustainability goals with the digital tool SDG Impact Assessment Tool. Conclusions from the workshop, both based on co-contribution to the forthcoming in-depth sustainability analysis and experiences of the methodology, have since been compiled. The SDG Impact Assessment Tool provides the opportunity to systematically go through all 17 sustainability goals for a case study and thereby avoid hand-picking the SDGs that at first glance could be seen as most relevant.

    The method provides a deep understanding of the motives and arguments for the analysis performed, where the results reflect the composition of the participating experts. The results are strategic in guiding the continued work to quantify the sustainability impact. It is necessary to clearly define the case study in advance in order to give the group a consensus on what is to be analyzed, and to enable the group on site to further specify the definition if necessary.In general, the expert groups have assessed that the goals that focus more on sustainability linked to social aspects are not affected to the same extent as those that are more clearly focused on environmental and economic sustainability. Sustainability goals, which in their description are more directly linked to the adjustment of the energy system (such as energy, climate, infrastructure and societal aspects) have also largely been assessed to have a more direct impact. Together, the groups' assessments show that the positive effects generally outweighed the negative and in two of the case studies no weighted assessment was made of the negative impact for any of the 17 SDGs. However, it is not said that there are no negative effects in the groups.  

    However, it is not said that there are no negative effects in the case studies. For example, it was discussed that material consumption and interventions in the construction of the various techniques can have a negative effect on sustainability goals. In addition, for example, a nationally positive impact on a target can also have a locally negative impact.Through the performed workshop, a first indication and identification has been made of which SDGs are affected for each case study. Although the case studies are of a different nature, in most cases similar tendencies and directions appear in the SDG assessments.

    This initial analysis provides a valuable basis for the project's next step, where indicators and analytical framework are defined, as a basis for the sustainability analysis, where goal conflicts are also to be analyzed.

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    Inledande hållbarhetsanalys
  • 44. Ran, Ylva
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Jonell, Malin
    Bergman, Kristina
    De Boer, Imke J M
    Einarsson, Rasmus
    Karlsson, Johan
    Potter, Hanna Karlsson
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Metson, Geneviève S
    Nemecek, Thomas
    Nicholas, Kimberly A
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Van der Werf, Hayo
    Vanham, Davy
    Van Zanten, Hannah H E
    Verones, Francesca
    Röös, Elin
    Environmental assessment of diets: overview and guidance on indicator choice2024In: The Lancet Planetary Health, ISSN 2542-5196, Vol. 8, no 3, p. e172-e187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive but interpretable assessment of the environmental performance of diets involves choosing a set of appropriate indicators. Current knowledge and data gaps on the origin of dietary foodstuffs restrict use of indicators relying on site-specific information.

    This Personal View summarises commonly used indicators for assessing the environmental performance of diets, briefly outlines their benefits and drawbacks, and provides recommendations on indicator choices for actors across multiple fields involved in activities that include the environmental assessment of diets.

    We then provide recommendations on indicator choices for actors across multiple fields involved in activities that use environmental assessments, such as health and nutrition experts, policy makers, decision makers, and private-sector and public-sector sustainability officers. We recommend that environmental assessment of diets should include indicators for at least the five following areas: climate change, biosphere integrity, blue water consumption, novel entities, and impacts on natural resources (especially wild fish stocks), to capture important environmental trade-offs.

    If more indicators can be handled in the assessment, indicators to capture impacts related to land use quantity and quality and green water consumption should be used. For ambitious assessments, indicators related to biogeochemical flows, stratospheric ozone depletion, and energy use can be added.

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