IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Andersson, Tova
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandkvist, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekonomisk jämförelse av två system för fastighetsnära insamling av avfall2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fyrfack och optibag är två system för fastighetsnära insamling (FNI) av förpacknings- och tidningsavfall samt matavfall. De är olika uppbyggda och har olika för- och nackdelar, vilket beskrivits i ett flertal tidigare rapporter. Fyrfacksystemet finns idag i 30 svenska kommuner och har utvecklats där under knappt två decennier, medan optibag varit vanligare i till exempel Norge och bara finns i tre svenska kommuner. Statistik och erfarenheter från optibag-systemet har varit mindre tillgängliga än för fyrfacksystemet, vilket försvårat jämförelser.

    Denna rapport bygger till stor del på data från rapporten Beräkning av avfallshanteringskostnader i svenska kommuner från Avfall Sverige. Dock används även uppdaterade data från Eskilstuna kommun, den enda i Sverige med lång erfarenhet av optibag-systemet. Genom att basera beräkningar på faktiska förhållanden i Eskilstuna erbjuder denna rapport en mer verklighetsnära uppskattning av kostnaderna för optibag-systemet och utgör därmed ett värdefullt komplement till tidigare rapporter.

    Speciellt för denna rapport är att kostnader beräknas utifrån två fall. Fall A – initiering, efterliknar situationen i Eskilstuna där befintliga kärl och insamlingsfordon kunde användas för optibag, vilket inte hade varit möjligt för fyrfacksystemet. I Fall B – barmark, beräknas kostnader om all utrustning hade köpts in ny i bägge systemen. Fall A representerar sannolikt förhållandena i många svenska kommuner som överväger att inför någon form av fastighetsnära insamling av förpacknings- och tidningsavfall samt matavfall.

    Optibag-systemet framstår som ett billigare system än fyrfack, sett till både investeringar och årskostnader, framförallt om befintliga kärl och fordon kan användas. Kapitalkostnaderna skiljer sig kraftigt mellan de två systemen medan driftkostnaderna är snarlika. Vilka kostnader som dominerar varierar stort mellan systemen, sorteringsanläggning och påsar för optibag eller kärl, fordon (inklusive drift) och eventuellt omlastningsstation för fyrfack. Möjligheten att påverka de kostnaderna varierar vilket gör att totala kostnader skulle se annorlunda ut i andra kommuner, resultaten är alltså inte helt generella.

    Att optibag-systement normalt inte hanterar glasförpackningar verkar inte vara ett avgörande problem ur användarsynpunkt eller sett till sorteringsgrad. Baserat på tillgänglig statistik verkar det som att sorteringsgraden över lag är bättre för fyrfacksystemet, men skillnaderna är små och påverkas även av lokala förhållanden såsom anslutningsgrad.

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  • 2.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Report on the possibilities for re-use and recycling of the materials2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction sector in Europe is the largest user of material in the economy and the solid waste from the sector amounts to almost a third of all generated on the continent, not counting mining and quarrying. Much is landfilled, leading to unsustainable resource use.

    The OSIRYS project sets out to develop eco-innovative façade and inner partitioning products. They should improve indoor air quality, increase thermal and acoustic insulation and control breathability of the construction systems. Important constituents of the products are composites of natural fibres and bio-derived plastics, bio-composites. The objective of task 8.3 is to assess the reuse and recycling potential of OSIRYS products, both regarding design and necessary infrastructure. Recycling of bio-composites has been examined in lab studies and required reuse structures and recycling routes have been examined through literature studies and interviews. The conclusions in chapter 8 on how to enable reuse and recycling in a systems perspective are valid for many building products and should be considered in product development.

    Enabling reuse or recycling of building materials and products is a challenge. It put special requirements on product design as well as systems of services such as databases on product properties and quality assurance. There is a legal incentive to reuse and recycle through the European Construction Product Regulation and the Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste. Reuse of a product is usually preferable from an environmental point of view, but in some cases recycling may be more feasible from a practical and economical perspective.

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  • 3.
    Hultén, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandkvist, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fång, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Belleza, Elin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vukicevic, Sanita
    Potential för ökad återanvändning – fallstudie återvinningscentraler Återanvändbara produkter och farliga ämnen i avfall2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Plockanalys innebär en metodisk eftersortering av avfall. I projektet gjorde vi uppdelning i olika produktgrupper och utefter potential för återanvändning. Avfallet samlades in från två återvinningscentraler, höst och vår, från fyra olika insamlingsfraktioner.
    Mätning med XRF-skanner av drygt 300 produkter utfördes vid plockanalyserna, varav 30 produkter även analyserades på laboratorium. Farliga ämnen hittades i många produkter, men i små mängder.

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  • 4.
    Hultén, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Food Redistribution in the Nordic Region - Phase II: Identification of best practice models for enhanced food redistribution2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food waste reduction is an area of growing importance among the Nordic governments as well as at the EU level. The Nordic Council of Ministers has published several reports in recent years as part of the Green Growth Program, showing the amounts of food wasted and proposing technical and organizational solutions to the problems of food waste.

    Based on previous work done in the Nordic Food Redistribution Project, this report investigates best practice models among donors, receivers and authorities and proposes concrete steps towards safe and comprehensive systems for food redistribution through food banks and direct redistribution.

    This report summarizes results from phase II in the Nordic project on food redistribution through food banks and direct redistribution (referred to as the Nordic food redistribution project). The project is initiated by the Nordic Council of Ministers through the Green Growth program and financed by the Food and Agriculture program. The Green Growth program aims at greening the Nordic economies through eight prioritized areas, one of which is to develop techniques and methods for waste treatment. Viewing food redistribution as a method for reducing food waste, the food redistribution project falls within the scope of this prioritized area.

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  • 5.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been assigned to identify important sources of microplastics in the sea and to work for reducing the production and emission of microplastics from these sources. Within the scope of this governmental assignment, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has been funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to review the sources of microplastics and the pathways microplastics take to reach the sea.

    A range of potential sources for microplastics and the pathways by which microplastics can reach the sea were selected for the review. The sources included both intentionally produced plastic pellets and plastic particles formed from fragmentation of larger plastic items. The pathways were primarily stormwater, wastewater and atmospheric deposition. For sea-based sources particles are discharged directly to the sea. Information was collected from scientific articles, reports and through personal communication with experts in relevant areas. Where the available data allowed, calculations were done to quantify the amounts of microplastics.

    The most important emissions for microplastics were found to be from road wear and abrasion of tyres. Approximately 13 000 tons of microplastics are released from tyres every year. Since data on microplastic content in stormwater from roads is very scarce it is however uncertain how much of these particles that is transported to water recipients and how much that is permanently deposited in the ground close to the road. The same is true for artificial turfs where the estimated loss was 2 300-3 900 tons per year, but data on the load reaching the sea is completely lacking. Loss of industrially produced plastic pellets in connection to manufacture and handling was estimated to amount to between 300 and 530 tons per year, but also here the volumes discharged to the sea are unknown. For several sources suspected to contribute with large amounts of microplastics to the sea, data is so scarce that no estimations on emissions could be done. This is for example the case for important categories related to waste management, recycling and littering.

    In summary it can be concluded that Swedish coastal waters receive substantial amounts of microplastics from both land-based and sea-based sources. Quantitative data is often scarce or completely lacking and it is not possible to summarize the total Swedish discharge of microplastics to the sea. An attempt to rank the sources according to their contribution was made but it should be kept in mind that data suffers from a large degree of uncertainty. Additional studies are needed to improve the bases for further assessments, in particular on microplastics in stormwater from different surfaces and sources.

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