IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Bibi, Momina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in Swedish preschool dust in relation to children's exposure2017In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children are exposed to a wide range of chemicals in their everyday environments, including the preschool. In this study, we evaluated the levels of phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers and bisphenols in dust from 100 Swedish preschools and identified important exposure factors in the indoor environment. In addition, children's total exposure to these chemicals was determined by urine analysis to investigate their relation with dust exposure, and to explore the time trends by comparing with children who provided urine fifteen years earlier.

    The most abundant plasticizers in preschool dust were the phthalates di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) with geometric mean levels of 450 and 266 μg/g dust, respectively, and the nonphthalate plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHT) and diisononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DiNCH) found at 105 and 73 μg/g dust, respectively. The levels of several substitute plasticizers were higher in newer preschools, whereas the levels of the strictly regulated phthalate di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) were higher in older preschools. The presence of foammattresses and PVC flooring in the sampling roomwere associated with higher levels of DiNP in dust.

    Children's exposure frompreschool dust ingestionwas belowestablished health based reference values and the estimated exposure to different phthalates and BPA via preschool dust ingestion accounted for 2–27% of the total exposure.Wefound significantly lower urinary levels of BPA and metabolites of strictly regulated phthalates, but higher levels of DiNP metabolites, in urine from the children in this study compared to the children who provided urine samples fifteen years earlier.

  • 2.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 112, p. 115–126-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters are substances mainly used as plasticizers in various applications. Some have been restricted and phased out due to their adverse health effects and ubiquitous presence, leading to the introduction of alternative plasticizers, such as DINCH. Using a comprehensive dataset from a Norwegian study population, human exposure to DMP, DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzP, DEHP, DINP, DIDP, DPHP and DINCH was assessed by measuring their presence in external exposure media, allowing an estimation of the total intake, as well as the relative importance of different uptake pathways.

    Intake via different uptake routes, in particular inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral uptake was estimated and total intake based on all uptake pathways was compared to the calculated intake from biomonitoring data. Hand wipe results were used to determine dermal uptake and compared to other exposure sources such as air, dust and personal care products. Results showed that the calculated total intakes were similar, but slightly higher than those based on biomonitoring methods by 1.1 to 3 times (median), indicating a good understanding of important uptake pathways. The relative importance of different uptake pathways was comparable to other studies, where inhalation was important for lower molecular weight phthalates, and negligible for the higher molecular weight phthalates and DINCH.

    Dietary intake was the predominant exposure route for all analyzed substances. Dermal uptake based on hand wipes was much lower (median up to 2000 times) than the total dermal uptake via air, dust and personal care products. Still, dermal uptake is not a well-studied exposure pathway and several research gaps (e.g. absorption fractions) remain. Based on calculated intakes, the exposure for the Norwegian participants to the phthalates and DINCH was lower than health based limit values. Nevertheless, exposure to alternative plasticizers, such as DPHP and DINCH, is expected to increase in the future and continuous monitoring is required.

  • 3.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anh Nguyen, Minh
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Arwidsson, Maria
    Lagerqvist, Anne
    Reduction of hazardous chemicals in Swedish preschool dust through article substitution actions2019In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    In Vitro Inhalation Bioaccessibility of Phthalate Esters and Alternative Plasticizers Present in Indoor Dust Using Artificial Lung Fluids2018In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) are used as plasticizers in consumer products. Their low migration stability has resulted in the classification of PEs as major indoor contaminants. Because of PE’s ubiquity and adverse health effects on humans and especially children, non-phthalate alternative plasticizers have been introduced into the market.

    This is the first study of in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs (e.g., DMP, DEP, and DEHP) and alternative plasticizers (e.g., DEHT and DINCH) via indoor dust to assess inhalation as an alternative route of exposure. Two artificial lung fluids were used, mimicking two distinctively different pulmonary environments: (1) artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF, pH 4.5) representing the intracellular acidic lung fluid inhaled particle contact after phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and (2) Gamble’s solution (pH 7.4), the extracellular healthy fluid for deep lung deposition of dust. DMP and DEP were highly bioaccessible (>75%), whereas highly hydrophobic compounds such as DEHP, DINCH, and DEHT were <5% bioaccessible via both artificial lung fluids.

    Our findings show that the inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs is primarily governed by their hydrophobicity and water solubility. Further research is necessary to develop unified and biologically relevant inhalation bioaccessibility tests, employed as part of human risk assessment of volatile and semivolatile organic pollutants.

  • 5.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluation of exposure to phthalate esters and DINCH in urine and nails from a Norwegian study population2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, no 151, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) used as additives innumerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment, leading to subsequenthuman exposure which might cause adverse health effects. The human biomonitoring approach allows thedetection of PEs and DINCH in specific populations, by taking into account all possible routes of exposure(e.g. inhalation, transdermal and oral) and all relevant sources (e.g. air, dust, personal care products, diet).

    We have investigated the presence of nine PE and two DINCH metabolites and their exposure determi-nants in 61 adult residents of the Oslo area (Norway). Three urine spots andfingernails were collectedfrom each participant according to established sampling protocols. Metabolite analysis was performed byLC-MS/MS. Metabolite levels in urine were used to back-calculate the total exposure to their correspondingparent compound. The primary monoesters, such as monomethyl phthalate (MMP, geometric mean89.7 ng/g), monoethyl phthalate (MEP, 104.8 ng/g) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, 89.3 ng/g) wereobserved in higher levels in nails, whereas the secondary bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DINCHoxidative metabolites were more abundant in urine (detection frequency 84–100%). The estimated daily intakes of PEs and DINCH for this Norwegian population did not exceed the established tolerable dailyintake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers withsimilar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population.

    We found a moderatepositive correlation between MEP levels in 3 urine spots and nails (range: 0.56–0.68). Higher frequency ofpersonal care products use was associated with greater MEP concentrations in both urine and nail samples.Increased age, smoking, wearing plastic gloves during house cleaning, consuming food with plasticpackaging and eating with hands were associated with higher levels in urine and nails for some of themetabolites. In contrast, frequent hair and hand washing was associated with lower urinary levels ofmonoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), respectively.

  • 6.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poothong, S.
    A. Sánchez, J.
    Papadopoulou, E.
    Thomsen, C.
    Haug, L.S.
    Hand Wipes: A Useful Tool for Assessing Human Exposure to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) through Hand/to-Mouth and Dermal Contacts2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poothong, Somrutai
    Antonio Padilla-Sanchez, Juan
    Papadopoulou, Eleni
    Thomsen, Cathrine
    Haug, Line
    Hand Wipes: A Useful Tool for Assessing Human Exposure to Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) through Hand-to-Mouth and Dermal Contacts2019In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor environment contributes considerably to human exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). This study estimated the human exposure to PFASs from the indoor environment through hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts using hand wipes. An analytical method was developed to determine 25 PFASs in hand wipe samples collected as a composite sample from both hands of 60 adults. Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) were the predominant PFASs in the hand wipe samples (medians between 0.21 and 0.54 ng per sample). Positive and significant correlations were observed between PAPs, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in hand wipes. Low frequency of daily hand washing (≤8 times day–1) was associated with 30–50% higher concentrations of PFOS, PFOA, and 8:2diPAP in hand wipes. Further, significant correlations between paired hand wipes and house dust samples were observed for PFOS, PFOA, and 6:2diPAP. Also, a significant correlation between PFOS in hand wipes and EtFOSE in indoor air was found. This finding indicates either a common source of exposure or a transformation of EtFOSE to PFOS in the environment or on the hands. The contributions of direct and indirect exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) showed that PFOA contributed the highest exposure to adults via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts, followed by PFOS. The median of estimated daily intakes via hand-to-mouth and dermal contacts (for hands only) for PFOA were 0.83 and 0.50 pg·kg bw–1·day–1, respectively. This study gives a first indication that PFAS concentrations in hand wipes can be used as a proxy for the exposure to PFASs from indoor environments, but further studies are needed to confirm this.

  • 8.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms–Implications for indoor exposure.2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, no 119, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winkens, K
    Koponen, J
    Berger, U
    Karvonen, AM
    Pekkanen, J
    Kiviranta, H
    Cousins, IT
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms - Implications for indoor exposure,2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 119, p. 493-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed floor dust samples from 65 children's bedrooms in Finland collected in 2014/2015 for 62 different per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) with a simple and highly efficient method. Validation results from the analysis of standard reference material (SRM) 2585 were in good agreement with literature data, while 24 PFASs were quantified for the first time. In the dust samples from children's bedrooms, five perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were detected in more than half of the samples with the highest median concentration of 5.26 ng/g for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). However, the dust samples were dominated by polyfluoroalkyl phosphoric acid esters (PAPs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) (highest medians: 53.9 ng/g for 6:2 diPAP and 45.7 ng/g for 8:2 FTOH). Several significant and strong correlations (up to ρ = 0.95) were found among different PFASs in dust as well as between PFASs in dust and air samples (previously published) from the same rooms. The logarithm of dust to air concentrations (log Kdust/air) plotted against the logarithm of the octanol-air partition coefficient (log Koa) resulted in a significant linear regression line with R2 > 0.88. Higher dust levels of PFOS were detected in rooms with plastic flooring material in comparison to wood (p < 0.05). Total estimated daily intakes via dust (EDIdust) and air (EDIair) of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA), including biotransformation of precursors to PFAAs, were calculated for 10.5-year-old children. The total EDIdust for PFOA and PFOS were estimated to be 0.007 ng/kg bw/day and 0.006 ng/kg bw/day, respectively, in an intermediate exposure scenario. The sum of the total EDIs for all PFAAs was slightly higher for dust than air (0.027 and 0.019 ng/kg bw/day). Precursor biotransformation was generally important for total PFOS intake, while for the PFCAs, FTOH biotransformation was estimated to be important for air, but not for dust exposure.

  • 10.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Göteborg Sweden.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    Department of Environmental Science Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Fäldt, Jenny
    City of Stockholm Environment and Health Administration Environmental Analysis Stockholm Sweden.
    Karlson, Linnéa
    City of Stockholm Environment and Health Administration Environmental Analysis Stockholm Sweden.
    The effect of reduction measures on concentrations of hazardous semivolatile organic compounds in indoor air and dust of Swedish preschools2021In: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young children spend a substantial part of their waking time in preschools. It is therefore important to reduce the load of hazardous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in the preschools’ indoor environment. The presence and levels of five SVOC groups were evaluated (1) in a newly built preschool, (2) before and after renovation of a preschool, and (3) in a preschool where SVOC-containing articles were removed. The new building and therenovation were performed using construction materials that were approved with respect to content of restricted chemicals. SVOC substance groups were measured in indoor air and settled dust and included phthalates and alternative plasticizers, organophosphate esters (OPEs), brominated flame retardants, and bisphenols.

    The most abundant substance groups in both indoor air and dust were phthalates and alternative plasticizers and OPEs. SVOC concentrations were lower or of the same order of magnitude as those reported in comparable studies. The relative Cumulative Hazard Quotient (HQcum) was used to assess the effects of the different reduction measures on children's SVOC exposure from indoor air and dust in the preschools. HQcum values were low (1.0–6.1%)in all three preschools and decreased further after renovation and article substitution. The SVOCs concentrationsdecreased significantly more in the preschool renovated with the approved building materials than in the preschool where the SVOC-containing articles were removed.

  • 11.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kemikaliesmart förskola - Kemikaliebelastning i tre förskolors innemiljö2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Kemikaliesmarta åtgärder i förskola” har kartlagt och bedömt förändring i förekomsten av farliga kemikalier i förskolemiljö. Tre kemikaliesmarta tillvägagångssätt har tillämpats: nybyggnation enligt fastighetsägarens miljöstyrningsrutiner som bland annat innefattar val av byggmaterial som är godkända enlig Byggvarubedömningen, ombyggnation med tillämpning av samma rutiner samt genomförandet av kemikaliesmarta åtgärder på nivå 1 i enlighet med dokumentet Vägledning för kemikaliesmart förskola som innebär utfasning av föremål som misstänkt innehålla de farliga kemikalierna från förskolan innemiljö.

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  • 12.
    Nerentorp, Michelle
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Atmospheric concentrations of organophosphates - At background stations in Sweden (Råö, Norunda) and Finland (Pallas)2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers, anti-foaming agents and as additives in lubricants and hydraulic fluids. They can be found for example in air, deposition and snow, both near and far from emission sources. In this study, OPEs were analyzed in air samples from two stations in Sweden (Råö, Norunda) and one in Finland (Pallas) for one year (2018). For TCEP and EHDPP, a geographical variation could be distinguished with highest concentrations in the north and lowest in the south. Seasonal variations were observed for TCPP and TCEP at Råö, where higher levels were measured during the summer. TEP, which is reported to be produced in large quantities, was not detected in high concentrations in air at any of the stations. Results in this study were comparable with literature data. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that the existing network of measurement stations, monitoring frequency, sampling and analysis procedures used within the national environmental monitoring (EMEP), can be used to measure OPEs in air as well.

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  • 13.
    Selin, Erica
    et al.
    Department of Biomedical Science and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svensson, Kettil
    Risk Benefit Assessment Department, Swedish Food Agency, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gravenfors, Erik
    Development of Legislation and Other Instruments, Swedish Chemical Agency, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    Environmental Intelligence Unit, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Iida, Mitsura
    Hiyoshi Corporation, HIRO Biotech, Tokushima, Japan.
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    Department of Biomedical Science and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Johan
    Department of Biomedical Science and Veterinary Public Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Food contact materials: an effect-based evaluation of the presence of hazardous chemicals in paper and cardboard packaging2021In: Food Additives & Contaminants, ISSN 1944-0049, E-ISSN 1944-0057, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 1594-1607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food contact materials (FCMs) can contain hazardous chemicals that may have the potential to migrate into food and pose a health hazard for humans.

    Previous studies have mainly focused on plastic materials, while data on packaging materials made from paper and cardboard are limited.

    We used a panel of cell-based bioassays to investigate the presence and impact of bioactive chemicals on human relevant endpoints like oxidative stress, genotoxicity, inflammation, xenobiotic metabolism and endocrine system effects in extracts made from paper and cardboard.

    In total, 23 methanol extracts of commonly used paper and cardboard available on the Swedish market were extracted as a whole product using methanol to retrieve polar substances, and tested at concentrations 0.3–10 mg/mL and 0.2–6 mg/mL. At the highest concentration bioactivities were observed in a high proportion of the samples: oxidative stress (52%), genotoxicity (100%), xenobiotic metabolism (74%), antiandrogenic- (52%) and antioestrogenic receptor (39%).

    Packages of potential concern included cake/pastry boxes/mats, boxes for infant formula/skimmed milk, pizza boxes, pizza slice trays and bag of cookies.

    It should be noted that the extraction for packages like cake/pastry boxes can be considered exaggerated, as the exposure usually is shorter. It can be hypothesised that the observed responses may be explained by inks, coatings, contaminants and/or naturally occurring compounds within the material.

    To summarise, an effect-based approach enables hazard identification of chemicals within FCMs, which is a valuable tool for ensuring safe use of FCMs.

  • 14. Selin, Erica
    et al.
    Wänn, Mimmi
    Svensson, Kettil
    Gravenfors, Erik
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oskarsson, Agneta
    Lundqvist, Johan
    Hazardous chemicals in non‑polar extracts from paper and cardboard food packaging: an effect‑based evaluation2022In: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 34, no 1, article id 85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Food contact articles are used in our everyday life and information regarding the potential health hazards of migrating chemicals for humans is scarce. In this study, an effect-based evaluation of non-polar extracts of food contact articles made of paper and board was conducted with a panel of eight bioassay endpoints. These, health-relevant endpoints, included oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, xenobiotic metabolism and hormone receptor effects.

    Results: In total, 62 food contact articles were pooled into 19 groups, in which articles intended to be used for similar types of food item(s) were pooled, and extracted with acetone:n-hexane (1:4). These were then tested in the effectbased bioassays. Bioactivities were detected for multiple materials in six out of eight assays, the two assays showing no effects were NFκB and androgen receptor agonistic response. In essence, the detection rates of the tested non-polar extracts were 72% for antagonistic effects on the estrogen receptor, 72% for antagonistic effects on the androgen receptor, 47% for oxidative stress, 28% for agonistic effects on the estrogen receptor and 33% for genotoxicity. The bioequivalent concentrations ranges in extracts of 10 mg food contact article/mL cell culture media were: for oxidative stress from 2.45 to 5.64 μM tBHQ equivalents, estrogen receptor agonistic activity from 1.66 to 6.33 ρM estradiol equivalents, estrogen receptor antagonistic activity from 1.21 × 10–3 to 4.20 × 10–3 μM raloxifene equivalents and androgen antagonistic activity 0.08–0.46 μM hydroxyflutamide equivalents.

    The extracts that were bioactive in multiple assays were: baking moulds, boxes for popcorn, infant formula/skimmed milk, porridge/flour mixes, pizza, fries’ and hamburgers as well as packages for frozen food.Conclusion: Non-polar extracts of food contact articles contain compounds that can activate molecular initiating events in toxicity pathways of high relevance to human health. These events included endocrine-disruptive activities, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. Effect-based methods proved to be a valuable tool for evaluating food package articles, as they can detect potentially hazardous effects of both known and unknown chemicals as well as potentialcocktail effects.

  • 15.
    Strandberg, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Odour and ecotoxicity in water from fuels of varying content of non-fossil components: Odour threshold values, predictive modelling and ecotox data2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition of vehicle fuels has changed since 2018 due to the reduction obligation, which requires that an increasing proportion of bio-based content is mixed into fossil fuels. Since properties such as odour and ecotoxicity are complex and depend on the composition of substances' mixtures, information based on older studies is not applicable. Odour properties are essential for drinking water producers, and ecotoxicity is vital for prioritising remediation efforts in the event of spillage.

    The objectives of this study have therefore been to 1) quantify the composition of standard diesel and petrol fuels sold in Sweden, 2) quantify odour thresholds for these fuels in drinking water, 3) investigate the ecotoxicity from HVO (hydrogenated vegetable oil) and diesel with RME additive (rapeseed methyl ester), and 4) investigate whether it is possible to predict odour in water based on concentrations in a fuel/water mixture.In the study, a total of eight fuels were tested, of which four were diesel fuels (HVO 100, MK1 diesel with HVO, MK1 diesel with RME and MK1 diesel) and four contained petrol/ethanol to varying degrees (E85, E05, E10 with bio-petrol and E10). HVO 100 and MK1 diesel with RME were used for ecotox tests on alga, bacteria, and crustaceans, as well as for degradation tests.Petrol/ethanol fuels were more efficiently dissolved in water than diesel fuels. This is because they contain a higher proportion of more water-soluble substances, such as ethers and light aromatic compounds, and the mixture of ethanol in the fuels. The E85 fuel resulted in the highest concentrations of hydrocarbons in the water mixture, even though the proportion of petrol is only 15%. A similar effect on solubility could be observed for RME in diesel fuels, although not to the same extent.The amounts of dissolved ether determined the odour properties of fuels in water.

    The 98 octane E05 fuel had the highest ether concentration in the fuel product, while the ether content of E85 was most effectively dissolved in water due to the high ethanol content. The odour thresholds were at 0.0017% in a water/fuel mixture for the E05 fuel and 0.0042% for E85. The ethers so dominated the odour that the methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentration could accurately predict the smell in an aqueous solution.Overall, the ecotoxicological tests showed mild or no effect from the fuels on the tested organisms. The exception was for the reproduction of crustaceans that were disturbed by MK1 diesel with RME. The low solubility of the two tested diesel fuels in water resulted in too low concentrations of hydrocarbons in the fuel/water mixture for valid degradation tests. 

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  • 16.
    Vestergren, Robin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winkens, K.
    Koponen, J.
    Berger, U.
    M. Karvonen, A.
    Cousins, I.T.
    Perfluoroalkyl acids and their precursors in floor dust of children's bedrooms–Implications for indoor exposure.2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, no 119, p. 493-502.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    indoor exposure to contaminants

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