IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Aggarwal, Rahul
    et al.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Efstathios
    Peters, Gregory
    Influence of data selection on aquatic ecotoxicity characterization factors for selected persistent and mobile substances2023In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the lack of ecotoxicity characterization factors (CFs) for persistent and mobile (PM) chemicals in life cycle assessment. The specific aims are (1) to provide CFs for 64 selected chemicals and benchmark them against the USEtox database, (2) to propose an ecotoxicity data harmonization strategy, and (3) to analyze the influence of ecotoxicity data sources and data harmonization strategies.

  • 2.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Linus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Goicoechea Feldtmann, Melissa
    FIHM.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pütz, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dalahmeh, Sahar
    Uppsala University.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    SLU.
    PFAS – how can Swedish wastewater treatment plants meet the challenge? Compilation of knowledge and guidance for water/wastewater actors regarding PFAS2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are everywhere around us in society, found in commercial and industrial products, the atmosphere, waste, water (waste, surface, drinking, and ground), soil, plants, animals, and even in our bodies. The use and spread of PFAS is a global societal challenge, affecting even the most remote places on Earth. One of the reasons why PFAS has been an attractive component in many products and industrial applications is their extreme chemical and thermal stability. However, these same properties allow for the persistence of PFAS in the environment, whereby even low PFAS emissions over time can be accumulated and pose a high risk of negative health and environmental effects. Today there are thousands of known and unknown PFAS with widely varying properties and toxicity, which makes both risk assessments and management of this growing environmental problem difficult. According to a national mass balance for PFAS emissions from products and atmospheric deposition are the major sources of PFAS in Sweden.

    The amount of PFAS which are environmentally dispersed via wastewater and sewage sludge can be considered a minor part. However, due to the persistence of PFAS, measures to minimize their addition via these pathways may be necessary to reduce the total environmental load. Due to their toxicity and persistence, PFAS have recently become heavily regulated, with many regulatory agencies lowering the accepted PFAS environmental level ranges. Many PFAS have already been banned in Sweden or the EU and assessment grounds or action limits have been defined for various PFAS (e.g., surface water bodies, groundwater and drinking water) to initiate measures to reduce the spread of the substances. Already announced and stricter regulations will further increase the need for measures to minimize human exposure to PFAS and their dispersal in the environment.

    Regardless of which measures are implemented, PFAS will remain in the environment for a long time, even if a global ban of the chemicals is implemented. Long-term management of PFAS is thus necessary to removal from the cycle gradually. The focus of mitigation actions should primarily be on heavily contaminated land and landfill leachate. The review of existing data from Swedish wastewater treatment plants WWTP and receiving recipients shows that today’s treatment processes do not remove PFAS. At some WWTP, however, an effective separation of certain PFAS is observed, which should be investigated further. Perfluorooctanoic sulfonic acid (PFOS) levels in many of the investigated inland surface waters receiving effluent from treatment plants and PFAS from other sources/pathways exceed existing limits. In many cases, however, analysis limitations prevent an assessment.

    Ongoing activities around various treatment and destruction techniques for PFAS show that there are currently no techniques that achieve a far-reaching PFAS removal from municipal wastewater without significant resource consumption and related costs. For the continued use of sludge as a fertilizer, upstream mitigation is needed, with e.g., disconnection or treatment of PFAS-contaminated leachate. However, several ongoing projects indicate that a certain part of PFAS in wastewater can be removed as a side-effect of advanced treatment for pharmaceutical removal. This report provides guidance to stakeholders on how the PFAS problem can be tackled. It also demonstrates the need to improve and spread PFAS knowledge, particularly those involved with PFAS measurement data, treatment techniques and PFAS in sludge. 

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  • 3.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Linus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thorsén, Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Goicoechea Feldtmann, Melissa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winkens Pütz, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dalahmeh, Salar
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Ahrens, Lutz
    SLU.
    PFAS – Hur kan svenska avloppsreningsverk möta denna utmaning?: Kunskapssammanställning och vägledning för VA-aktörer kring PFAS2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS (Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances) are everywhere around us in society; in products, the atmosphere, waste, wastewater, surface water, drinking water, groundwater, soil, plants, animals and in our bodies. The use and spread of PFAS is a global societal challenge and even the most remote places on earth are no longer unaffected by PFAS substances. One of the reasons why PFAS has been attractive in many products and industrial applications is the substances' extreme chemical and thermal stability. However, the same properties create challenges in the environment as the persistence of PFAS implies that even low emissions over time can be accumulated in different environments with a high risk of negative health and environmental effects. Today there are thousands of known and unknown PFAS with widely varying properties and toxicity, which makes both risk assessments and management of this growing environmental problem difficult.

    A national mass balance for PFAS shows that emissions from products and atmospheric deposition are the major sources of PFAS to Sweden. The PFAS-amounts that are spread to the environment via wastewater and sewage sludge can be considered a minor part. However, due to the persistence of PFAS substances, measures to minimize the addition via these pathways may be relevant in order to reduce the total environmental load.

    Considering the toxicity and persistence of PFAS, their use has been heavily regulated in recent times and the levels that are considered acceptable in the environment have been lowered. Many PFAS have already been banned in Sweden or the EU and assessment grounds or action limits have been defined for various PFAS in e.g. surface water bodies, groundwater and drinking water to initiate measures to reduce the spread of the substances. Already announced and upcoming stricter regulations will further increase the need for measures to minimize human exposure to PFAS and their dispersal in the environment. Regardless of which measures that are implemented, PFAS will remain in the environment for a long time, even if a global ban of the chemicals is implemented. A long-term management of PFAS is thus necessary with a gradual removal from the cycle. The focus of mitigation actions should primarily be on heavily contaminated land and landfill leachate.The review of existing data at Swedish sewage treatment plants and receiving recipients shows that today's treatment processes do not remove PFAS even of some PFAS are removed and end up in the sludge. At some sewage treatment plants, however, an effective separation of certain PFAS is observed, which should be investigated further. PFOS levels in many of the investigated inland surface waters receiving effluent from treatment plants and PFAS from other sources/pathways exceed existing limits. In many cases, however, analysis limitations prevent an assessment.

    Ongoing activities around various treatment and destruction techniques for PFAS show that there are currently no techniques that achieve a far-reaching PFAS removal from municipal wastewater without significant resource consumption and related costs. For a continued use of sludge as a fertilizer, upstream mitigation is needed, with e.g. disconnection or treatment of PFAS-contaminated leachate. However, several ongoing projects indicate that a certain part of PFAS in wastewater can be removed as a side-effect of advanced treatment for pharmaceutical removal.The report also provides guidance to stakeholders on how the PFAS problem can be tackled. In addition, the report shows a great need to improve and spread knowledge about PFAS with, above all, measurement data and knowledge about treatment techniques and PFAS in sludge in order to be able to meet the PFAS challenge.

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    PFAS – hur kan svenska avloppsreningsverk möta utmaningen
  • 4.
    Bibi, Momina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jensen, Carl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vad vet vi om farliga ämnen vid materialåtervinning av plast?2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande projekt har en kartläggning utförts för att visa på vad som redan gjorts och det som pågår inom området farliga ämnen i plast som materialåtervinns, för att ge en överblick över den kunskap som finns tillgänglig. Projektet har utförts med litteraturstudier som har kompletterats med intervjuer av aktörer i återvinnings- och tillverkningsbranschen.Fokus i litteraturen ligger ofta på farliga ämnen i plastavfall från elektriska och elektroniska produkter, där kunskapsnivån tycks vara jämförelsevis god. De farliga ämnen som nämns i detta sammanhang var företrädesvis bromerade flamskyddsmedel och tungmetaller. För plastavfall från andra branscher såsom fordonsbranschen och byggbranschen är informationen mera bristfällig. Plastavfall från dessa branscher materialåtervinns dessutom inte i någon större omfattning i Sverige.Generellt är spårbarheten för plastkomponenter, och kopplat till detta även kunskapen om innehållet i plaster, relativt dålig. Inte minst har återvinnare svårigheter att känna till vad olika plast innehåller. Detta är av betydelse inte bara för förekomsten av farliga ämnen, utan också andra additiver m.m., t.ex. krita, då möjligheterna till materialåtervinning påverkas av detta. Slutligen identifierades ett antal områden där vidare studier bör prioriteras. Teknisk utveckling för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt identifiera vilket flamskyddsmedel plasten innehåller och även för att kunna separera flamskyddsmedlet från plasten skulle göra det möjligt att materialåtervinna mer plast och med bättre kvalitet från elektriskt och elektroniskt avfall. Huruvida andra organiska ämnen än bromerade flamskyddsmedel kan begränsa möjligheterna till materialåtervinning bör studeras vidare, liksom migrationsbeteende hos additiv i återvunnen plast. Studier av återvunnen plast från förpackningar för att identifiera, eller avskriva, eventuella risker på grund av innehåll av farliga ämnen, är relevanta eftersom detta är ett stort flöde av plast till materialåtervinning.  

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Andersson, Rolf
    Liljelind, Per
    Grabic, Roman
    Screening of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicyclohexylamine and benzotriazoles 20092012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicycyclohexylamine,and benzotriazoles has been carried out in the framework of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency´s screening program.The overall objective of a screening study is to determine the concentrations of the selected substances in a variety of media in the Swedish environment. Additional aims are to assess the possible emission sources and to highlight important transport pathways in the environment.This screening has been carried out in collaboration with the research program ChEmiTecs “Organic Chemicals Emitted from Technosphere Articles" (www.chemitecs.se, financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency). The aim of ChEmiTecs is to increase the scientific understanding of the magnitude of the problem regarding emissions of organic substances from articles with the objective to support policy development in Sweden and Europe.The benzothiazoles MBT, CBS, DBS and DBD were found in one or more of the sample matrices. The detection frequencies varied both among the substances and the different media. The distribution pattern was most likely affected both by substance properties, i.e. the chemical stability and the tendency of a substance to partition to a certain media, and the use and emission pattern. MBT had the highest detection frequency while the other benzothioazoles were more occasionally found. An important pathway of MBT to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products. The occurrence in storm water indicates traffic related emissions. MBT and the other benzothiazoles did mainly occur in the aquatic environment. Air transport seems to be of minor importance.The benzenediamine DPP was occasionally detected in some of the matrices e.g surface water, storm water and sludge. DCHA was widespread in the environment and it occurred in all sample types except crops. The findings of DCHA in air and deposition indicate that this substance is emitted to air and that atmospheric transport is an important pathway in the environment. The occurrence in storm water as well as in soil indicates that traffic related emissions are important. DCHA was however not found in crops collected in the vicinity to busy roads. Another important pathway for DCHA to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products.There is a widespread occurrence of benzotriazoles in the environment both at background and urban areas. The substances occurred in all the included environmental matrices, air, deposition, surface water, sediment, soil and biota.The results also showed that diffuse spreading through WWTPs, landfills and storm water may be important for the occurrence in the environment. This indicates that these substances are distributed via use of products. UVP is the benzotriazole with the highest usage volume followed by UV 328 and UV327. These substances were also most often found in the highest concentrations. In a brief risk assessment for the aquatic pelagic ecosystems no major risks were identified, i.e. concentrations were generally below the PNEC in surface water and effluents if dilution was considered. DPP did however occur in concentrations above its PNEC in River Viskan and concentrations of DPP and DCHA in the different effluents did at some occasions exceed the PNEC undiluted. No toxicity or ecotoxicity data has been found for any of the benzotriazole substances in the available literature. Any risk estimates have therefore not been carried out.

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  • 6.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Ghebremeskel, Mebrat
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Screening of unintentionally produced organic contaminants2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report considers the screening of unintentionally produced substances. Substance groups included in the screening program were oxygenated and nitrated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds. Polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD) and furans (PBDF), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDT) and dibenzotianthrenes (PCDTA) were also included in the study. PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as reference substances. The results of the screening showed that oxidized and nitrated forms of PAHs as well as heterocyclic analogues of PAHs were frequently found in background and urban areas and in most of the environmental matrices included in the study. PCDTs were found in most abiotic samples while PCDTA generally was below the limit-of-detection. The concentrations of PBDDs were generally below the limit-of-detection but were found in deposition, urban sediment, background sediment, and fish from Kvädöfjärden. The PBDF concentrations in air varied widely in time and space. OBDF occurred in similar concentrations as PCBs in air, deposition, sediment and soil.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cotgreave, Ian A
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Bignami, Francesco
    The application of a tiered life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to safe and sustainable chemistry in the development of smart solutions for water and air purification: The Mistra TerraClean case2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish research programme Mistra TerraClean a tiered approach for life cycle based environmental and human health assessment early in process development was introduced. In the project smart filters for water and air purification are under development. Innovative materials and devices are applied and evaluated with a systems perspective. In our tiered approach life cycle assessment (LCA), chemical safety assessment and applied eco and human toxicity assessments are combined, with a particular focus on the inclusion of toxicity potential impacts in LCA.

    To this end, the consensus model USEtox has been applied, complemented with the method ProScale, that focusses on human direct exposure. The life cycle-based approach has so far been applied to material development and a pilot scale case study. The case study focuses on water purification of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) for which we have a PFAS adapted life cycle impact assessment framework at hand. This tiered approach is relevant to process developers, people within the field of water and air treatment as well as the broader LCA community.  

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utveckling av påverkansanalysmodell miljögifter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AA

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  • 9.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Supply chain guide for identification of regulated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a deliverable from task 4.4 of the POPFREE project (stage 3). Based on the OECD Comprehensive Global Database of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) more than 4700 substances have been categorised for their current regulatory status in Sweden, the EU and globally.

    For example, more than 1000 substances were categorised as covered by the Regulation (EU) No 2019/1021 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) for Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds. The categorisations are associated with a high level of uncertainty due to the limited size of this project.

    Substance by substance evaluations have not been possible and all categorisations are based on group level criteria. Next steps forward are discussed, including the development of digital tools, to support the manufacture and use of products without PFAS. 

    This report is a deliverable from task 4.4 of the UDI stage 3 project “POPFREE – Promotion of PFAS-free alternatives. POPFREE is funded by Vinnova, the Swedish Innovations Agency and coordinated by RISE.

    Among the tasks is 4.4, which is led by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and executed in collaboration with Volvo Cars, RISE and the Swedish Chemicals Agency. The POPFREE project ran from 2020 to 2022.

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    POPFREE database D4.3
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    POPFREE Deliverable D4.3
  • 10.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lexén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emissioner och kvarvarande mängder CFC i Sverige2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket modellerat emissioner och kvarvarande mängder CFC (klorfluorokarboner, freoner) i det svenska samhället för perioden 2002-2020. För perioden 1990 till 2010 har beräkningar baserats på tillgänglig statistik medan data har prognosticerats för perioden 2011-2020. Resultaten visar att emissioner av CFC från kylmöbler och kylanläggningar minskar, samtidigt som isolermaterial står för en allt större andel av emissionerna. I framtiden, efter år 2016, förväntas isolermaterial vara den dominerande källan till emissioner av CFC i det svenska samhället. CFC antas finnas kvar i Sverige under en lång tid framöver, då de isolermaterial som innehåller CFC förväntas ha en lång livslängd.

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  • 11.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Self-declarations of environmental classification in www.fass.se2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AA

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  • 12.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roos, Sandra
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    Jönsson, Christina
    Peters, Gregory
    What difference can drop-in substitution actually make? A life cycle assessment of alternative water repellent chemicals2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 329, p. 129661-129661, article id 129661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS-related potential toxicity impacts as indicated by LCA results. Based on the results presented here, specific DWRs within the non-fluorinated DWR group could not be identified as preferable to others. This LCA does however provide a relevant starting point for more detailed studies on specific DWR systems and it supports moves to phase-out PFASs from non-essential DWR uses.

  • 13. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Jönsson, Anders
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bedömning av miljögiftspåverkan i vattenmiljö. Samordnad metodutveckling2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ett förslag till vägledning för att bedriva miljögiftsövervakning och för hur framtagna data skall kunna användas i vattenförvaltningen har inom denna studie tagits fram. Förslaget till vägledning syftar också till att ge underlag för en sammanhållen metodik för hur existerande datakällor på ett effektivt sätt skall kunna utnyttjas vid bedömning av miljögiftspåverkan i vattendirektivsarbetet. Förslag och rekommendationer har baserats på krav som ställs enligt EUs vattendirektiv och har kompletteras utifrån resultaten i föreliggande studie. En kritisk granskning av de översättningar mellan EQS för ytvatten, och motsvarande halter i sediment och biota, som tidigare har utförts med hjälp av jämviktsfördelningsmetodik och bioackumuleringsfaktorer enligt den metodik som beskrivs i TGD (Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment) (TGD, 2003) har utförts för att bedöma huruvida metoden är tillämplig i svenska förhållanden. Halter av miljögifter i sediment, biota och vatten har jämförts med gränsvärden, antingen beräknade med översättningsmetodik eller uppsatta i direktiv

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  • 14. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Chemical and biological monitoring of sewage effluent water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has conducted a study with the overall aim to present basic data for decision-making regarding a monitoring program for STP effluents. A program for chemical and biological monitoring in effluent water from municipal sewage treatment plants is important for the understanding on spreading of chemicals in the environment, to identify changes in the use or substitution of chemicals, to identify possible emissions of 'new' emerging substances to the environment, and also for the implementation and follow up of directives. The study consisted of several parts; a chemical characterization of STP effluents consisting of both the analysis of specific compounds but also the identification of 'unknown' compounds, measurements of estrogenic and androgenic activity with the bioassays YES and YAS, evaluation of seasonal variability in chemical composition, and chemical measurements in recipient water. Further, a literature survey of potential additional bioassays suitable for monitoring purposes was conducted. Based on the results a recommendation for a monitoring program for municipal STP effluent is given.

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