IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

ivl.se
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 52
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Andersson, Camilla
    et al.
    Ekman, Annica
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gruzieva, Olena
    Hansson, Hans-Christen
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lagner, Joakim
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Munthe, John
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Segersson, David
    Stockfelt, Leo
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Achievements and experiences from science–policy interaction in the field of air pollution: Synthesising 20 years of research and outreach,thinking about future needs2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For 20 years, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency together with the MISTRA research foundation have funded five air pollution research programmes with focus on producing knowledge that supports policy and emission control in national and international arenas. The research has been multidisciplinary and has included research on emissions, atmospheric transport and transformation processes, human health effects, ecosystem effects, and emission control strategies. Research has also been conducted on the interaction between air pollution and climate change.

    Over these years, the link between the research programmes and the development of emission control strategies and policies in Sweden, the EU, and the UNECE Air Convention has been of high importance. This report presents how the research programmes have created societal benefits through support for the development of air pollution policies and emission control measures. The report also identifies future research needs to ensure continued progress towards even better air quality for future generations.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Arnell, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Impact from policy instruments on use of industrial excess heat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing resource efficiency and reducing carbon emissions in manufacturing industry are prioritised objectives in both international and domestic policies. At the same time, Swedish industry is struggling to remain competitive in international markets. There is at the same time increasing internal competition for bio-based resources among sectors. Currently there are a number of taxes, restrictions and other policy instruments targeted with the goals to increase the use of renewable energy, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy efficiency. Excess heat from industry accounts for almost 5 TWh of the delivered heat to district heating in Sweden today but there is a potential for further recovery of excess heat. An increased utilization of industrial excess heat is desirable in terms both of improved energy efficiency and resource efficiency. This project describes the impact from existing policy instrument on one important solution to improve the energy- and resource efficiency of the energy system: the use of industrial excess or residual heat for district heating networks. There are several policy instruments with an impact but only a few that gives benefits for the use of industrial excess heat. The Regulated Access to the district heat implemented in the Swedish policy for district heating, put up guidance regarding under which conditions an industry can demand access, and point out that the cost should be taken by the industry part. The Energy Efficient Directive governs that a complete cost benefit analysis including existing industrial excess heat must be examined when planning a new process or plant. And the market-based support system for renewable electricity production, the electricity certificates. In the case of chemical industries in Stenungsund excess heat could be delivered to the district heating networks in Kungälv and/or Gothenburg. An optimisation in a regional cost minimising model of the energy system in Västra Götaland of Sweden shows the possibilities to deliver heat. In this report the consequence on the used amount of excess heat from electricity certificates are presented. The studied energy system of Västra Götaland will use more excess heat for district heating when there is no or low price on the certificates. This report is only available in English.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ökad återvinning av hushållens platsförpackningar2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie, som i huvudsak genomfördes år 2006-2007, syftar till att uppskatta den samhällsekonomiska kostnaden och nyttan av att nå 30% materialåtervinning av plastförpackningar genom ökad återvinning av förpackningar från hushållen. År 2007 återvanns uppskattningsvis 12 kton plastförpackningar från hushållen. För att nå 30% materialåtervinning totalt, behöver den mängden öka med 7,4 kton till 19,4 kton per år. Vi har studerat tre olika strategier för att nå dit: ökad insamling genom utbyggd fastighetsnära insamling (FNI), ökad insamling genom information till hushållen ökad insamling genom viktbaserad avfallstaxa. Ökad FNI leder till en ökad kostnad för själva insamlingen som uppskattas till 72 Mkr/år. Kostnaden för informationskampanjer uppskattas (eventuellt optimistiskt) till 12 Mkr/år. Viktbaserad avfalltaxa kräver ökad administration och ny utrustning. Vi uppskattar kostnaden för detta till 89 Mkr. Ökad plaståtervinning ger å andra sidan en miljövinst. Vi har uppskattat den med hjälp av livscykelanalyser och värderingsmetoderna NEXT och EPS. Värdet på miljövinsten är 7.5-8 eller knappt 85 Mkr/år, beroende på vilken metod som används för att värdera emissioner och resursförbrukning. Miljönyttan är dock ungefär lika stor för alla strategierna, så länge som de leder till samma återvinningsgrad. Med våra antaganden och data har miljövinsten och kostnaden för genomförandet av strategierna samma storleksordning. Det finns också många stora osäkerheter i beräkningarna. Det går därför inte att avgöra om ökad materialåtervinning av plastförpackningar från hushållen ger en samhällsekonomisk nytta eller ej. Det finns dock skäl att tro att samhällsnyttan blir större och tydligare i framtiden. En orsak är att det sannolikt finns en potential till förbättringar i dagens processer och system för plaståtervinning.  En annan är att plaståtervinning blir mer lönsam när priset på råolja och naturgas stiger.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Fridell, Erik
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Valuating environmental impacts from ship emissions - the marine perspective2020In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 282, article id 111958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping is an activity responsible for a range of different pressures affecting the marine environment, air quality and human welfare. The methodology on how ship emissions impact air quality and human health are comparatively well established and used in cost-benefit analysis of policy proposals. However, the knowledge base is not the same for impacts on the marine environment and a coherent environmental and socio-economic impact assessment of shipping has not yet been made. This risk policies to be biased towards air pollution whilst trading off impacts on the marine environment. The aim of the current study was to develop a comprehensive framework on how different pressures from shipping degrade marine ecosystems, air quality and human welfare. A secondary aim was to quantify the societal damage costs of shipping due to the degradation of human welfare in a Baltic Sea case study. By adding knowledge from marine ecotoxicology and life-cycle analysis to the existing knowledge from climate, air pollution and environmental economics we were able to establish a more comprehensive conceptual framework that allows for valuation of environmental impacts from shipping, but it still omits economic values for biological pollution, littering and underwater noise. The results for the Baltic Sea case showed the total annual damage costs of Baltic Sea shipping to be 2.9 billion €2010 (95% CI 2.0–3.9 billion €2010). The damage costs due to impacts on marine eutrophication (768 million €2010) and marine ecotoxicity (582 million €2010) were in the same range as the total damage costs associated with reduced air quality (816 million €2010) and climate change (737 million €2010). The framework and the results from the current study can be used in future socio-economic assessments of ship emissions to prioritize cost efficient measures. The framework can be used globally but the damage costs presented on the marine environment are restricted to emissions on the Baltic Sea and Kattegat region as they are based on willingness to pay studies conducted on citizens around the Baltic Sea where eutrophication and emissions of chemicals are particularly threats to the state of the Baltic Sea.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    MM Johansson, Emelie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, and estimated health impacts 20192022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish population exposure to concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was quantified for 2019, and the health and associated economic consequences were calculated. Most of the population was exposed to levels below the environmental standards. However, compared to the recently updated WHO 2021 Air Quality Guidelines, our calculations indicate that 82% of the population is exposed to unacceptable levels of PM2.5, and 11 % to unacceptable levels of NO2. We estimate a total of 6740 deaths per year. The health impacts can be estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~168 billion SEK. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tang, Lin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and estimated health impacts2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL and the Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine at Umeå University have, on behalf of the Swedish EPA, performed a health impact assessment (HIA) for the year 2015. The population exposure to annual mean concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 in ambient air has been quantified, and the health and associated economic consequences have been calculated based on these results.

    To allow application of known exposure-response functions for assessment of health effects this study exclusively focus on regional and urban background concentrations. Roadside concentrations are not addressed here. The results from this study show that background concentrations of the examined pollutants in 2015 were overall low, well below the environmental standards in most parts of the country. The background concentrations were also below the environmental objective for all examined pollutants, with the exception of a small stretch along the Swedish west coast and Skåne, where the particle concentrations were of the same magnitude as the environmental objective. It should be noted that a slight over-estimation of PM2.5 may occur in coastal regions due to the presence of sea salt which may affect the PM2.5/PM10 ratio used to calculate PM2.5 in this study.

    Nearly the entire Swedish population was exposed to concentrations below the environmental standards, and 97%, 78% and 77% was exposed to concentrations below the respective specifications of the environmental objective for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. Exposure to the highest concentrations was found in the most polluted central parts of our largest cities.

    Comparing the results from this study to the 2010 assessment shows a slight increase in mean population exposure to NO2 and PM. For NO2, we also find a slight increase in the percentage of the population exposed to concentrations above the environmental objective. For PM, exposure to concentrations above the environmental objective was instead found to have decreased with up to 5%. Particle concentrations show a decreasing trend in Sweden, resulting in reduced exposure to the highest PM concentrations and an increased exposure to concentrations just below the environmental objectives. The slight increase in mean population exposure to PM can be explained by a growing population and ongoing urbanization, resulting in more people exposed to relatively high PM concentrations in the urban centres. While the contribution of local sources is minor for the smallest PM, it makes up the major part of NO2 concentrations in urban areas. The slight increase indicated for NO2 exposure is thus primarily connected to increased local emissions of NO2, due to, for example, increasing traffic and use of diesel vehicles. This, in combination with the ongoing urbanization, results in a growing number of people living in areas with higher concentrations.

    Excess mortality is usually the main health indicator. We estimate approximately 3600 deaths per year associated with exposure to regional background (long-distance transported) concentrations of PM2.5. On average each premature death represents over 11 years of life lost. The total exposure to PM2.5 was recently in an EU report estimated to cause just over 3700 deaths per year in Sweden when no differences between sources and no threshold for effects were assumed. We assume that locally emitted particles (road dust, wood smoke and exhaust particles) have different effects on mortality, but face problems to find specific exposure-response functions. This is even more striking regarding effects on morbidity. Acknowledging the uncertainty, we estimate particles from local wood burning to cause more than 900 deaths per year, but here the exposure estimate is very uncertain. For road dust we calculate 215 deaths per year based on the exposure-response function from a Swedish study. We believe that the impact on mortality from locally emitted vehicle exhaust including particles is best indicated by exposure-response functions for within city gradients in NO2, which also could include effects of NO2 itself. We estimate approximately 2850 deaths per year from vehicle exhaust, but using alternative risk functions would result in 15-30% reduced estimates.

    The total number of excess deaths due to air pollution exposure was estimated up to 7600 in 2015. The increase in comparison to the 2010 estimate is not due to changes in estimated exposure, but resulting from a revision of assumed exposure-response relations. If we for 2010 had assumed the urban NO2 contribution to increase mortality without any cutoff, we would have estimated almost the same impact on mortality associated with NO2 as in 2015. Finally, the health impacts from exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 can be conservatively estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~56 billion Krona in 2015. Just absence from work and studies can be estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~0.4% of GDP in Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Orru, Hans
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 and estimated health impacts in Sweden 20102014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Befolkningens exponeringen både för partiklar (PM) och kvävedioxid (NO2) har minskat mellan 2005, då den föregående beräkningen genomfördes, och 2010. Knappt 10 procent av Sveriges befolkning utsätts för bakgrundshalter av PM10 (partiklar mindre än 10 µm) högre än 20 µg/m3 i den allmänna utomhusluften. Denna halt motsvarar miljömålet för år 2010, men nivån skall även klaras i mer belastade områden såsom gaturum. För mindre partiklar (PM2,5, partiklar mindre än 2,5 µm) visar motsvarande jämförelse med miljömålet (12 µg/m3 för år 2010) på att knappt 15 procent av landets invånare exponeras för halter över denna nivå. Om man utgår från att PM2.5 har samma farlighet oavsett ursprung så uppskattar vi att cirka 3 500 förtida dödsfall årligen inträffar i Sverige på grund av den totala exponeringen. Troligtvis är det inte tillräckligt att göra beräkningar utifrån den totala halten, eftersom partiklar av olika ursprung tycks ha olika farlighet. Med separata bedömningar för olika källor till PM uppskattar vi att det årligen rör sig om cirka 3 000 förtida dödsfall från partiklar som inte genererats lokalt. Förbränningspartiklar från vedeldning uppskattas orsaka ytterligare drygt 1 000 förtida dödsfall per år. Utöver dessa dödsfall uppskattar vi, utifrån exponeringen för NO2, att lokalt genererade avgaser leder till ytterligare minst 1 300 förtida dödsfall per år, samt vägdamm till ytterligare drygt 200 dödsfall orsakade av kortvarig exponering. Sammanfattningsvis kan antalet förtida dödsfall uppskattas till cirka 5 500 per år på grund av dessa exponeringar, när beräkningarna tar hänsyn till olika exponering-responsvärden för olika källor. De samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna (välfärdsförluster) relaterade till exponering för luftföroreningar mätt som NO2 beräknades både för effekter över 5 µg/m3 och utan tröskel. Resultaten tyder på att de hälsoeffekterna, relaterade till årsmedelhalten av NO2, kan värderas till mellan 7 och 25 miljarder kronor under 2010, beroende på om en tröskel på över 5 µg µg/m3 ingår eller ej. Resultaten från vår studie visar att negativa hälsoeffekter relaterade till förorenad luft med höga nivåer av PM kan värderas till årliga samhällsekonomiska kostnader (välfärdsförluster) på ca 35 miljarder svenska kronor under 2010. Ungefär 6,5 av dessa 35 miljarder utgörs av produktivitetsförluster i samhället. Detta motsvarar en förlust i antalet arbets- och studiedagar motsvarande drygt 0,3 procent av den totala mängden arbets- och studiedagar under 2010. Haltnivåerna av partiklar (PM) i omgivningsluften har fortfarande en betydande hälsopåverkan, trots att det under de senaste årtiondena har införts ett flertal åtgärder för att minska utsläppen. Miljökvalitetsnormerna för utomhusluft överskrids på många håll, och tidigare studier har uppskattat att höga partikelhalter orsakar upp till 5 000 förtida dödsfall i Sverige per år (Forsberg et al., 2005; Sjöberg et al., 2009). På uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket har IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet och Yrkes- och miljömedicin vid Umeå universitet kvantifierat den svenska befolkningens exponering för halter i luft av kvävedioxid (NO2), PM2,5 och PM10 för år 2010, beräknat som årsmedelkoncentrationer. Även de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av de uppskattade hälsoeffekterna har beräknats. This report is only available in English.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8. Hansson, H-C
    et al.
    Johansson, Christer
    Nyqvist, Gunnar
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldanova, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Black carbon — Possibilities to reduce emissions and potential effects2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report emerge from the Swedish EPA project ?Black carbon — possibilities to reduce emissions and potential effects? to obtain an overall assessment of the opportunities and costs for reducing emissions of "soot" (black carbon - BC) in Sweden and its effects on health, ecosystems and climate. The basic analytical methods and techniques are described and reviewed. Existing and upcoming standards are described. The national BC emission inventory has been evaluated through a thorough basic review of the underlying data and processes as well as comparison with other inventories. The report identifies scientific and technological needs (such as methods for emission estimates and emission measurement) needed to implement mitigation measures and assess its impact.The following major conclusions emerge from this report concerning BC and Organic Carbon (OC);Standardized sampling, measurement and analytic methods for BC and OC are underway. Some major networks have already developed standardized methods giving high quality data. A more general standardization will ensure comparability between networks. So future measurements will have less uncertainty and data should be comparable. However this also means that historic data always shall be used with caution. The total BC and OC emissions reported by different inventories agree fairly well, e.g. results from the GAINS scenario estimates and national inventory agree within 30 — 40 % but estimates of major source types can differ with more than a factor 2. This must be investigated as such errors can affect the mitigation policy. Investigations have been started.There is a great need for national projections for 2020 and 2030 for BC but also the other related climate forcing air pollutants.Other climate forcing air pollutants are besides BC and other particle components and ozone. Besides that they affect climate they have a short life time in the atmosphere, thus called Short Lived Climate Forcing compounds (SLCF). Included in the SLCFs are also methane as it affects ozone chemistry even though it has an intermediate atmospheric life time. Inventories and projections on national policy implementation plans have to be developed keeping in mind that climate and health effects depend not on one component only, e.g. soot but rather a mix of different components. The climate effects can be best reduced by a decrease of CO2 and SLCF, while health effects can be reduced by reduced emissions of particles and ozone precursors. The inventories thus have to include the emissions of all these components for all available reduction technologies to facilitate the development of the best abatement strategy. The analysis shows that all techniques involving combustion should be reviewed concerning emissions of all mentioned components.It is clearly shown that regulation of SLCF can give co-beneficial effects on climate, health and ecosystem. However it cannot replace the abatement of long-lived climate forcers but rather increase the climate response to the abatements. The reductions needed for 2050 and beyond have to be large. Combustion is the basic process in the major common sources 6 for CO2, O3-precursors and particles including BC. Combustion has to be questioned as a part of future sustainable transport systems, energy and heat production.The Swedish abatement costs for different SLCF abatement options varied strongly, in the hypothetical scenarios. However the same abatement options show up as the most cost effective in all scenarios. The three most cost effective options covered about 30% of the present emissions. The most cost effective measures found, e.g. decreasing BC emissions from power production and renewing of domestic fuel wood boilers, are found to be in the same range as CO2 ETS price projected for Sweden in 2020. The cost estimates were in line with other studies. Still, the measures studied represent only a very small fraction of all options available to reduce BC emissions. The cost effectiveness of more alternatives in both the mobile and stationary sectors should be assessed. Fuel efficiency improvements, fuel shifts, as well as scrapping schemes are all potentially interesting options. In conclusion, the options analyzed in this study are found to be effective complements, both from health and climate point of view.

  • 9.
    Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potentials for reducing the health and climate impacts of residential biomass combustion in the Nordic countries2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residential biomass combustion is a major source of PM2.5 and SLCP (Short Lived Climate Pollutants) emissions in the Nordic countries. SLCPs and PM2.5 have impact on climate, environment and health. To develop strategies for reducing emissions and the associated impacts, reliable information on current emissions and how they can be reduced by measures such as upgrading or exchange of combustion technologies is essential.

    There are uncertainties in the underlying data used in the emission inventories for residential biomass combustion. Detailed enough knowledge on the amount and moisture content of biomass fuel used in different combustion technologies is needed, as well as knowledge about user related factors such as combustion behaviour.

    There are similarities between Denmark, Finland and Sweden, but also some significant differences in national equipment and use patterns in addition to activity data collection procedures. Differences related to information on activity data are mainly in the status of knowledge and the type and sources of information available and/or used. In general for all three countries, procedures to regularly update information on technologies, user behaviour and fuel amounts combusted in each technology are needed to be able to prepare reliable emission inventories and to reflect future changes. As the current data collection procedures in the countries have evolved somewhat differently, but all with the same ultimate objective of good enough data for emission inventory purposes, lessons can be learnt from each other, as appropriate.

    The scenario results suggest that there is a realistic and technical potential to reduce the adverse health effects and, to some extent, the climate impact from future residential biomass combustion in Denmark, Finland and Sweden by reducing emissions of SLCPs and PM2.5. The level of used amounts of wood, penetration of modern technology in residential biomass combustion and the user behaviour in managing the combustion process all have significant impacts on the emission levels in the three Nordic countries. The amount of biomass fuel combusted was not investigated in this study and the total amount of biomass was kept constant in all scenarios. Find the result in the study in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Kindbom, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wisell, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjödin, Åke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kortlivade klimatpåverkande luftföroreningar (SLCP)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has on commission from the Swedish Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives (Miljömålsberedningen) compiled information on present and future emissions of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCP) in Sweden, as well as performed an analysis of further emission reduction potentials and associated costs in 2030. Main results from the study: According to the Swedish emission projections, which take current legislation into account, the national total emissions of all SLCPs will be lower in 2030 compared to today. The trend, however, is different for different sources. Emissions from road traffic are expected to decline significantly. From other mobile sources reductions are also expected, but to a lesser extent than from road traffic. Emissions from residential combustion of biomass are expected to remain at about the same level as at present, why these emissions in relative terms will increase in importance. Mobile sources and residential combustion, which produce emissions from combustion of fuels, emit all SLCPs except HFCs. The agricultural sector is the main emission source for CH4 both today and in the future. For NMVOC emissions from the “solvent and product use” sector is the dominating source. CH4 from the agricultural sector, as well as NMVOC from product and solvent use, are both reduced only slightly to 2030 according to the projections. Emissions of CH4 and NMVOC from other sources are projected be reduced to a greater extent. Agriculture will thus be of relatively greater importance for emissions of CH4 in the future, as will solvent and product use for NMVOC emissions. Emissions of HFCs are expected to decline significantly in the future and there is most likely no cost-effective potential for further reductions of HFC emissions. There is currently no comprehensive Swedish analysis available of cost-effective measures to reduce emissions of SLCP in Sweden 2030. Best available knowledge suggests that there will be technical emission reduction measures available, with a potential to reduce emissions in 2030 beyond currently projected emissions. This report is only available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Lindblad, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Belhaj, Mohammed
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lexén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Meta-analysis of damage costs related to health, the built environment and the ecosystem2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report addresses damage costs related to the negative effects that may occur on human health, the built environment, or the eco-system, when hazardous substances are released from the products they were originally contained in. More specifically, the report focuses on the external cost of damages. Here, three different models for monetary valuation of externalities have been studied in more detail; that is the EPS system, LIME and ExternE/NewExt/NEEDS. These models all assess costs of impacts to human health and ecosystem production capacity. The EPS system and LIME also addresses costs related to biodiversity while ExternE/NewExt/NEEDS is the model that focuses most on damages to the built environment. The monetary weighting factors presented in the different models are quite similar in size; most often the different models value the same externality within a factor of 10. A case study was also made to show how emissions can be linked to damage costs for a certain substance, here the substance lead. The main negative effect caused by emissions of lead was assessed to the IQ decrement. For the case of lead, damage costs are approximately 2680-5900 €/emitted kg Pb according to Spadaro & Rabl (2004) and 1.58-2910 €/emitted kg Pb according to Steen (1999b).Svensk sammanfattning...

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Lindblad, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Samhällsekonomisk konsekvensanalys för Sverige av ett reviderat Göteborgsprotokoll till år 20202013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket genomfört en samhällsekonomisk konsekvensanalys som syftar till att belysa effekter på svensk ekonomi av de scenarier som tagits fram till förhandlingarna inom FN:s Luftvårdskonvention (CLRTAP) angående en revision av Göteborgsprotokollet. Scenarierna analyserades i flera moment med olika fokus. Enkelt beskrivet analyserades: vilka tekniska åtgärder som inkluderades i scenarierna; hur åtgärdskostnader fördelades mellan sektorer; hur stor den monetariserade hälsonyttan skulle bli i scenarierna. Dessutom analyseras eventuell påverkan på Svenska sektorers internationella konkurrenskraft. Jämförelsen mellan de två huvudscenarier som analyserats, BL-scenariot och MID-scenariot, visade att de Europeiska utsläppsnivåerna i MID scenariot skulle innebära bland annat 300 färre antal luftföroreningsrelaterade dödsfall i Sverige år 2020. Detta och andra hälsoeffekter skulle innebära en årlig monetär samhällsnytta motsvarande ca 249 miljoner €2005. När dessa kostnader jämförs med skillnaden i åtgärdskostnad mellan BL- och MID-scenariot, 14 miljoner €2005 årligen, så ges en nettonytta på 235 miljoner €2005 per år för Sverige, och en nyttokostnadskvot på 18. De åtgärder som specificeras i MID-scenariot är endast riktade mot stationära källor och i stort sett endast utsläppsrening (viss förbränningsmodifikation tas hänsyn till). Det finns även andra åtgärder tillgängliga år 2020 som skulle kunna vara mer kostnadseffektiva än de åtgärder som ligger till grund för MID-scenariot, till exempel inom vägtransporter. Då de exportinriktade sektorerna i Sverige främst exporterar till andra CLRTAP-länder, bedömde vi att den internationella konkurrenskraften inte borde påverkas nämnvärt.    Denna rapport är en reviderad version av en rapport som ursprungligen skrevs under hösten 2011, och i rapporten betraktas därför hösten 2011 som nutid.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Källmark, Lovisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Styrmedelseffekter på utsläpp av luftföroreningar och växthusgaser - Nulägesanalys av åtta förbränningsanläggningar2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Styrmedel för utsläpp av luftföroreningar respektive växthusgaser kan ha en samverkande eller motverkande effekt. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket undersökt hur utsläpp av kväveoxider och partiklar från en förbränningsanläggning påverkas av klimatstyrmedel och hur utsläpp av växthusgaser påverkas av luftstyrmedel

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Munthe, John
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Arnell, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tekie, Haben
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatförändringen och miljömål2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forskningsprogrammet CLEO, Climate change and Environmental Objectives, startades 2010 efter en utlysning från Naturvårdsverket där man efterfrågade forskning med en övergripande målsättning att få: * En analys och kvantifiering av hur förändringar i klimatet, såsom temperatur, nederbörd och avrinning, påverkar förutsättningarna att nå de miljömål som påverkas av långväga transporterade luftföroreningar * En beskrivning och analys av synergier och målkonflikter av åtgärder, både nationellt och internationellt, för att minska utsläpp av växthusgaser och andra luftföroreningar för att nå uppsatta miljömål. * Förbättrad kunskap om grundläggande processer för att ta fram tillförlitliga prognoser och scenarier för utvecklingen mot miljömålen, förbättrade indata till existerande modeller samt bättre sammanlänkning av modeller för klimat, luft och ekosystem.

    Programmet har fokuserat på miljömålen Frisk luft, Bara Naturlig Försurning, Ingen övergödning och i viss mån Giftfri miljö. Då målsättningen var att ta fram resultat som är relevanta för pågående arbete med miljömålen och för långsiktiga överväganden så har CLEO arbetat med framtidsscenarier som både fokuserat på en relativt nära framtid (2030), och i vissa avseenden ett längre tidsperspektiv (2100).

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Munthe, John
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatförändringen och miljömålen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Munthe, John
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatförändringen och miljömålen - Sammanfattning och slutsatser2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Blomgren, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 in Sweden 20052009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air for the year 2005 has been quantified (annual and daily mean concentrations) and the health and associated economic consequences have been calculated based on these results. The PM10 urban background concentrations are found to be rather low compared to the environmental standard for the annual mean (40 µg/m3) in most of the country. However, in some parts, mainly in southern Sweden, the concentrations were of the same magnitude as the environmental objective (20 µg/m3 as an annual mean) for the year 2010. The majority of people, 90%, were exposed to annual mean concentrations of PM10 less than 20 µg/m3. Less than 1% of the Swedish inhabitants experienced exposure levels of PM10 above 25 µg/m3. The urban background concentrations of PM2.5 were in the same order of magnitude as the environmental objective (12 µg/m3 as an annual mean for the year 2010) in quite a large part of the country. About 50% of the population was exposed to PM2.5 annual mean concentrations less than 10 µg/m3, while less than 2% experienced levels above 15 µg/m3. Using a cut off at 5 µg/m3 of PM10 as the annual mean (roughly excluding natural PM) and source specific ER-functions, we estimate approximately 3 400 premature deaths per year. Together with 1 300 - 1 400 new cases of chronic bronchitis, around 1 400 hospital admissions and some 4.5-5 million RADs, the societal cost for health impacts is estimated at approximately 26 billion SEK per year. For PM2.5 we estimate somewhat lower numbers, approximately 3 100 premature deaths per year. The results suggest that the health effects related to high annual mean levels of PM can be valued to annual socio-economic costs (welfare losses) of ~26 billion Swedish crowns (SEK) during 2005. Approximately 1.4 of these 26 billion SEK consist of productivity losses for society. Furthermore, the amount of working and studying days lost constitutes some ~0.1% of the total amount of working and studying days in Sweden during 2005.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haeger-Eugensson, Marie
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tang, Lin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to nitrogen dioxide in Sweden 20052007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population exposure to NO2 in ambient air for the year 2005 has been quantified (annual and daily mean concentrations) and the health and associated economical consequences have been calculated based on these results. Almost 50% of the population were exposed to annual mean NO2 concentrations of less than 5 µg/m3. A further 30% were exposed to concentration levels between 5-10 µg NO2/m3, and only about 5% of the Swedish inhabitants experienced exposure levels above 15 NO2 µg/m3. Using 10 µg/m3 as a lower cut off for long-term exposure we estimate that concentations of NO2 in urban air resulted in more than 3200 excess deaths per year. Almost 600 of these could have been avoided if annual mean concentrations above the environmental goal 20 µg/m3 did not exist. Most excess deaths are estimated to occur due to annual levels in the range of 10-15 µg/m3. In addition we estimated more than 300 excess hospital admissions for all respiratory disease and almost 300 excess hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease due to the short-term effect of levels above 10 µg/m3. The results suggest that the health effects related to annual mean levels of NO2 higher than 10 µg/m3 can be valued to annual socio-economic costs of 18.5 billion Swedish crowns. These 18.5 billion Swedish crowns are to be considered as welfare losses. However, only 18 % of these costs are related to exceedance of the Swedish long term environmental objectives for NO2. The other 82 % of the costs are taken by the larger part of the Swedish population that are exposed to medium levels of NO2. This displacement in the distribution of the social costs indicates that the most cost effective abatement strategy for Sweden might be to reduce medium annual levels of NO2 rather than only focusing on abatement measures directed towards the highest annual mean levels.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Staffas, Louise
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tufvesson, Linda
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Torén, Johan
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    Alternative sources for products competing with forest based biofuel, a pre-study2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest biomass is used for many products including paper based products, sawn wood products and solid fuels. The production of forest derived liquid transportation fuels is currently limited  but predicted to increase. Biomass is a renewable resource and therefore of high interest for applications such as new innovative materials, liquid and gaseous fuels. The production of various biofuels for transportation is forecast to increase and Sweden has a goal of a fossil-independent transportation system by 2030. Other, non-material, uses of forest biomass include the so called eco system services biodiversity, fishing, hunting, recreation, berry picking etc. which are also competing for forest biomass. There is currently a net growth of forest in Sweden, which theoretically could allow for an increased use of this resource. However, the amount of forest biomass is not unlimited and its harvest should not exceed its growth. Therefore, forest biomass should be considered as a limited resource and its use should aim to maximize the environmental benefit compared to the use of fossil resources. For this reason, environmental impact evaluations of forest biomass based products should include alternative sources for products competing with this resource. The pre-study reported herein included: a review of Swedish forestry and the relationships between different types of forest biomass and fuels; a workshop in which the competition for forest biomass was discussed with experts in the area; a theoretical reasoning around indirect effects and biomass potentials; and two case studies in which the theoretical reasoning is applied. Traditional assessments of environmental impacts of products and processes do not include the aspect of resource scarcity or competition for raw materials. In the case of bioethanol this has been shown to affect the results of such evaluation andthe same thing applies also to other forest biomass based fuels. The main conclusion of the study is that alternative sources for products competing with forest biomass should be taken into account when assessing the environmental impacts of forest biomass derived products. This is, however, complex as indirect effects are difficult to predict and depend on numerous factors including market situations, financial instruments, legislation and policies etc. Nevertheless, the question is important for the development of biobased substitutes for fossil derived products .

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 20. Sternhufvud, Catarina
    et al.
    Belhaj, Mohammed
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The Features of Non Technical Measures and Their Importance in Cost Effective Abatement of Air Pollutant Emissions - Applied to Two Meta-Analyses2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of non-technical measures (NTM) and technical measures (TM). This requires an acceptable definition of NTM. There are two main questions discussed in this study in connection to the definition of NTM. Firstly, the distinction between technical measures and non-technical measures, and secondly the distinction between non-technical measures and policy instruments. In many studies policy instruments are frequently seen as NTM, but it is important to stress the difference between NTM and policy instruments. NTM relate to the actual emission reducing actions, while policy instruments relate to the means used to enforce abatement options, and may lead to both TM and NTM. The definition proposed in this study to separate TM from NTM, is based on the changes of input and output when incorporating a measure, instead of only focus on changes in emission factors and activity data. Based on the chosen definition of NTM, the project carried out two meta-analyses in the agricultural- and energy sectors. Since data on the shipping sector was not enough to allow a meta-analysis this sector was studied in a descriptive manner. The results of the meta regression for the agricultural and the energy sector included in this study give some insight on the cost effectiveness of NTM compared to TM. Depending on the nature of the subject i.e., a review of NTM, the data has been very scarce to allow consistent and representative results for all European countries; Most of the NTM studied have only one study as origin. Further, the reviewed studies are often related to the emissions of different pollutants, which have led to the use of different conversion factors in order run the meta regression

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21. Sternhufvud, Catarina
    et al.
    Belhaj, Mohammed
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The Features of Non Technical Measures and Their Importance in Cost Effective Abatement of Air Pollutant Emissions - Applied to Two Meta-Analyses2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of non-technical measures (NTM) and technical measures (TM). This requires an acceptable definition of NTM. There are two main questions discussed in this study in connection to the definition of NTM. Firstly, the distinction between technical measures and non-technical measures, and secondly the distinction between non-technical measures and policy instruments. In many studies policy instruments are frequently seen as NTM, but it is important to stress the difference between NTM and policy instruments. NTM relate to the actual emission reducing actions, while policy instruments relate to the means used to enforce abatement options, and may lead to both TM and NTM. The definition proposed in this study to separate TM from NTM, is based on the changes of input and output when incorporating a measure, instead of only focus on changes in emission factors and activity data. Based on the chosen definition of NTM, the project carried out two meta-analyses in the agricultural- and energy sectors. Since data on the shipping sector was not enough to allow a meta-analysis this sector was studied in a descriptive manner. The results of the meta regression for the agricultural and the energy sector included in this study give some insight on the cost effectiveness of NTM compared to TM. Depending on the nature of the subject i.e., a review of NTM, the data has been very scarce to allow consistent and representative results for all European countries; Most of the NTM studied have only one study as origin. Further, the reviewed studies are often related to the emissions of different pollutants, which have led to the use of different conversion factors in order run the meta regression

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 22. Sternhufvud, Catarina
    et al.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Feasibility study - a Swedish Integrated Assessment Model2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this feasibility study is to find out the interests in and requirements for the development of a Swedish Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) based on the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation model (RAINS) or the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model (GAINS). This study should also make clear the possibilities and constraints of a national model as well as discuss different applications of such a model. The purpose of this feasibility study is to find out the interests in and requirements for the development of a Swedish Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) based on the Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation model (RAINS) or the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model (GAINS). This study should also make clear the possibilities and constraints of a national model as well as discuss different applications of such a model.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23. Sternhufvud, Catarina
    et al.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Workshop on the importance of Non technical measures for reduction in emissions of air pollutants and how to consider them in Integrated Assessment Modelling. 7-8 December 2005.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the outcome of the workshop on the importance of Non technical measures for reduction in emissions of air pollutants and how to consider them in Integrated Assessment Modelling. The workshop was taking place in Göteborg in Sweden 7-8 December 2005.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24. Sternhufvud, Catarina
    et al.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Workshop on the importance of Non technical measures for reduction in emissions of air pollutants and how to consider them in Integrated Assessment Modelling. 7-8 December 2005.2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report compiles the outcome of the workshop on the importance of Non technical measures for reduction in emissions of air pollutants and how to consider them in Integrated Assessment Modelling. The workshop was taking place in Göteborg in Sweden 7-8 December 2005.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 25.
    Wisell, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjödin, Åke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jerksjö, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Black carbon från vägtrafik - Åtgärder för att minska exponering2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental assessment of Sweden-related LNG fleet in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to provide estimates of emissions from the liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled ships related to Sweden, and to outline benefits for society through reduced external costs of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from fuel shift from marine gasoil (MGO) to LNG. The total societal benefits from the Sweden-related LNG fleet in 2017 are estimated at 17.4 million €2010. This estimate includes reduced health and climate impacts and reduced crop damage.

    The largest contributor to the benefits is positive impact of emission reductions on population health. Lower emissions of primary particles (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from LNG vessels, compared to a reference fleet running on MGO, result in lower concentrations of primary and secondary PM2.5 and ground-level ozone, and subsequently reduced premature mortality. Differences in emissions of main air pollutants between the analysed LNG fleet of 12 ships and a reference MGO fleet in 2017 are calculated to 100 tonnes of SO2, 160 tonnes of PM2.5 and 3 200 tonnes of NOx. The reduced NOX emissions correspond to the emissions from 24 300 average heavy duty trucks with an average mileage on the Swedish roads during the same year. Emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalents) are modelled to be similar for the LNG fleet and the MGO fuelled reference fleet: emissions of CO2 equivalents from the MGO fleet are estimated to be 6 ktonnes higher in 2017.

    Estimated emissions for 2022 are calculated assuming that present and already ordered LNG ships run mainly on LNG. The difference in emissions between these ships and reference ships fuelled with MGO is then significantly larger and constitutes 385 tonnes of SO2, 540 tonnes of PM2.5 and 11 200 tonnes of NOx. Emissions of greenhouse gases in 2022 are estimated at 640 ktonnes CO2 equivalents for the LNG fleet and 660 ktonnes CO2 equivalents for the MGO fleet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Particle emissions in Belarus and in the Nordic countries - Emission inventories and integated assessment modelling of black carbon and PM2.52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall goal of the project is to stimulate decision-makers in Belarus to prioritize abatement measures aimed at black carbon in their efforts to reduce emissions of PM2.5, as encouraged in the Gothenburg protocol under the UNECE CLRTAP. To reach this purpose and in order to build up scientific basis necessary for further policy development, a comprehensive analysis of PM2.5 and BC emissions, emission reduction potentials and cost-effective abatement measures in Belarus has been conducted.

    The report presents two main parts of the conducted analysis: a part focused on the emission inventories, and a part summarizing the results of the integrated assessment modelling. The main focus is on analysis for Belarus; however, a range of modelling results have been obtained for the three participating Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland and Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cost-benefit analysis of NOX control for ships in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of air pollutants from shipping (NOx, SOx, and PM2.5) make a significant contribution to the total emissions in Europe and world-wide. According to the analysis by Brandt et al. (2013), shipping emissions cause about 50 thousand premature deaths per year in Europe. Significant share of the sulphur and nitrogen deposition that causes acidification and eutrophication emanates from ship emissions. NOx emissions contribute to formation of secondary particles and ozone, resulting in increased number of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases among the population, especially in coastal states.

    NOx emissions from anthropogenic sources reported by the 28 member countries of the European Union to the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) amounted to ∼7820 ktonnes in 2014 (CEIP, 2017) whereas emissions from international shipping in the European seas for the same year are estimated at 3186 ktonnes (EMEP, 2016). As more stringent NOx emission control is gradually enforced for stationary and mobile sources on land, the share of NOx emission reduction potential attributable to international shipping is expected to increase in the future.

    One instrument is a NOx emission control area (NECA) in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea; the other is a combination of NECA and a NOx levy with revenues going back to shipping companies as subsidy for NOx abatement uptake. Both instruments are assumed to be in force in 2021. In the analysis, we operate with three main scenarios: • Baseline (no additional policy instruments) • NECA • NECA+Levy&fund

    In the NECA scenario we assume that no extra use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is introduced and that the Tier III requirements for marine gasoil (MGO) fuelled vessels are fulfilled by installing selective catalytic reduction (SCR). In the NECA+Levy&fund scenario it is further assumed that Tier 0 vessels will not install SCR but pay levy instead, and that 75 per cent of Tier I and Tier II vessels will take up retrofit SCR, given that it is more profitable than paying the levy.

    Total abatement costs have been assessed from the socio-economic perspective, implying low interest rate and long investment lifetime at investment costs’ annualization. Health benefits have been estimated with the GAINS and the Alpha-RiskPoll models. The method for estimating health benefits is the same as applied in cost-benefit analyses supporting the European Commission’s work on the air pollution abatement strategies and the work of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 29.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jerksjö, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bäckström, Sebastian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Energy demand impacts of Long Heavy Duty Vehicles -Analysis of possible ways to introduce the effects of long vehicles into the GAINS model2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 30.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Enabling Russian use of air pollution policy models2013Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Estimating the potential of incremental behavioural changes to reduce Swedish emissions of NEC Directive air pollutants2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Following EU regulations, Sweden needs to reduce 2005 emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds, ammonia and fine particulate matter with 22, 66, 36, 17, and 19% by 2030, and largest efforts are needed to reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. However, since the targets are ambitious and the time frame is short, there is a risk that some of the already proposed efforts will be inadequate. It is therefore useful to estimate the emission reduction potential from an implementation of behavioral change measures.

    The analysis was done in several steps. From an overview of the literature 10 measures were selected for analysis. After this, the national potential of the measures was estimated through re-calculations of the emission scenarios supporting the official Swedish emission projections.

    The current data quality only allows for the results to be considered best available estimates. Given this caveat the analysis shows that the measures could contribute with 12-24% of the required additional nitrogen oxide emission reductions in 2030. If all measures would be implemented emissions of carbon dioxide (biogenic and fossil) could be reduced by 2-4 Mtonne. The report also presents several knowledge gaps that needs to be considered prior to any governmental action.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Identifying the total costs and benefits of products2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s it has become commonplace for companies to monitor and report environmental impacts of their activities. In parallel, the progress of the research discipline environmental economics has enabled better accessibility to cost estimates of environmental impacts (monetization). These developments lead to opportunities for companies to change product development and innovation patterns. This research programme aims to explore the requirements needed for realizing this specific opportunity.

    The purpose of this issue brief is to provide an overview of the current situation for key questions such as whether a corporation should invest time and money, already in the innovation and product development phase, to monetize environmental and social impacts associated with production of products and services. The issue brief doesn’t discuss whether data on environmental and social impacts should be produced or not, rather the sole focus is on whether monetization of these data should be performed at a company-level or not. With the help of available knowledge from existing literature and interviews performed by the project group we are, in this issue brief, presenting our view on the rationale for companies to already in their product innovation and development phase integrate environmental and social costs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potentiell påverkan på luftföroreningsutsläpp av Miljömålsberedningens klimatstrategi2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I juni 2016 publicerade Miljömålsberedningen ett förslag till en ny klimat- och luftvårdsstrategi (SOU 2016:47). Delar av denna strategi användes i juni 2017 som grund för ett svenskt ramverk för klimatpolitik, inklusive nya klimatmål och en ny klimatlagstiftning. I strategin lades det också fram förslag på styrmedel och åtgärder för att nå klimatmålen. Det klargjordes emellertid inte vilka potentiella effekter dessa mål och förslag skulle ge på utsläpp av de luftföroreningar som kan påverkas indirekt av klimatpolitik, såsom kväveoxider (NOx), små partiklar (PM2,5) och flyktiga organiska kolväten (NMVOC).

    I och med att klimatstrategin i många delar inte specificerar hur föreslagna klimatmål ska uppnås går det inte att ge några precisa svar på hur utsläppen av luftföroreningar påverkas. Effekten på utsläpp av luftföroreningar beror på vilken klimatpolitik som faktiskt kommer att genomföras, varför ett antal olika scenarier tagits fram. Dessa kvantifierar hur klimatstrategin kan påverka utsläpp av luftföroreningar utifrån olika antaganden om hur klimatstrategins mål och delmål nås, och beaktar att data över historiska utsläpp och utsläppsprognoser varierar. Basen för scenarierna är en förenklad dekompositionsanalys av de data som använts för att göra den svenska prognosen för luftföroreningar. Separata utsläppsscenarier skapades för sektorerna: el- och värmeproduktion (sex scenarier), industriell produktion (sju scenarier) och transporter (26 scenarier).

    Resultaten av scenarierna för år 2030 visar att genomförande av klimatstrategins åtgärder kan leda till minskade NOx-utsläpp med ca 1,5 – 3 kton/år, 0 – 0,2 kton/år i minskade PM2,5-utsläpp, samt att de riskerar höja utsläpp av NMVOC med ca 1 – 2 kton/år i jämförelse med prognosticerade utsläpp år 2030. De flesta klimatpolitiska åtgärderna leder till minskade utsläpp av luftföroreningar, men t.ex. kan en ökad andel bensin/el-hybrider leda till en viss ökning av NMVOC-utsläpp. Resultaten tydliggör också det gap som finns mellan transportsektorns övergripande klimatmål och strategins förslag till styrmedel och åtgärder för att nå detta mål. Ett hypotetiskt scenario – i vilket klimatmålet för transportsektorn skulle nås genom samma typ av åtgärder men mer långt gångna – visar att 2030 års utsläpp av NOx, PM2,5 och NMVOC skulle kunna minska med 4 - 6, 0,4 - 0,7 respektive 0,5 - 0,9 kton/år. Vidare kan utsläppsminskningar som sker i svenska verksamheter som omfattas av EU:s utsläppshandelssystem för växthusgaser minska utsläppen av luftföroreningar med upp till 1,5, 0,1 och 1 kton/år av NOx, PM2,5 och NMVOC.

    Resultaten tyder på att ett framgångsrikt genomförande av klimatstrategin kan hjälpa Sverige att nå mer än hälften av det NOx-krav som ställs på Sverige i NEC-direktivet, och därmed att dedikerade ansträngningar i luftföroreningspolitiken rimligtvis behövs. Även en del av de ytterligare kraven på utsläppsminskningar för PM2,5 och NMVOC torde fångas upp genom klimatstrategin. Studien klargör också behovet av fortsatt utveckling av klimatpolitiken inom transportsektorn, eftersom de specificerade åtgärderna är otillräckliga för att nå klimatstrategins slutliga mål. Den eventuella övergången till biobränslen i alla sektorer och ökad användning av bensindrivna hybridfordon riskerar båda att orsaka konflikter mellan klimatpolitik och luftföroreningspolitik i Sverige. För luftföroreningsmålen är det också viktigt att nationella utsläppsminskningar i EU-ETS-systemet realiseras som förväntat.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bäckström, Sebastian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jerksjö, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åtgärder för att minska utsläpp av utsläpp av NOx och PM2,5 från den svenska transportsektorn 2025 - potential och kostnader2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2013 är EU:s ”luftår”. Under detta år ser EU över den Tematiska Strategin för Luftföroreningar (TSAP) och reviderar inom detta EU:s utsläppstaksdirektiv (NEC). Denna rapport är framtagen för att ge svenskt underlag kring åtgärdspotential och åtgärdskostnader för utsläppsminskningar av NOx och PM2,5 i den svenska transportsektorn år 2025. Analyserna genomfördes genom att utgå från officiella prognoser för aktivitet och utsläpp från vägtransporter och arbetsmaskiner. Ur litteratur söktes sedan efter möjliga åtgärder som skulle kunna minska utsläpp ytterligare. Information om åtgärder och dess effekt på prognoserna kvantifierades och resulterande utsläpp samt åtgärdskostnader beräknades. Endast ett urval av åtgärder kunde analyseras inom den tillgängliga projekttiden. Analysens resultat byggde på några viktiga förutsättningar: utsläpp enligt utsläppskrav motsvarar faktiska utsläpp; förbättring av bränsleeffektivitet sker enligt prognos; analyserade åtgärder som medförde ändringar i fordons- och maskinbestånd minskar antalet gamla fordon mest; det är hypotetiskt möjligt att ändra utsläppskrav så att energieffektivisering kan följas av lägre NOx och PM2,5-utsläpp. Den åtgärd som föreföll mest lovande för utsläppsminskning av NOx var en föryngring av lastbilsflottan. Hybridisering av arbetsmaskiner var visserligen mer kostnadseffektivt men har till 2025 en mycket liten potential. Då nya personbilar antas bli mer energieffektiva än nuvarande, och dessutom ha lägre utsläpp av NOx och PM2,5 tydde analyserna på att det vore fördelaktigt med styrmedel som forcerar föryngring av personbilsflottan till 2025.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 35.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Estimating air pollution emission abatement potential in Sweden 20302013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AA

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hildén, Mikael
    Matthews, Bradley
    Elements in the policy landscape for action on black carbon in the Arctic: Supporting material to the EUA-BCA report Enhancing the reduction of black carbon emissions to protect the Arctic: Mapping the policy landscape of national, regional and international actions2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to summarise information about relevant policy actions to reduce black carbon emissions from key polluting sectors, as well as options to better monitor how different initiatives affect black carbon emissions and their environmental and health effects. Several relevant policy areas are identified – In situ observations of black carbon in the Arctic, black carbon emission inventories, Gas flaring, Small-scale domestic heating, Shipping, On-and off-road engines, and Open biomass burning. Within these areas, possible actions are described in detail and presented in terms of their time horizon, societal impact, jurisdictional scope and relevant policy fora. 

     The presented actions can act as a reference list of options for interested policymakers, synthesising existing knowledge about relevant policy actions rather than giving prescriptive recommendations on which of them to implement.

     This report serves as a background document to the EUA-BCA Policy landscape report that informs on possible ways to implement these actions in practice and clarify how enhanced international cooperation would contribute to actions in the key areas.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    J.A. Johansson, Daniel
    The choice of climate metric is of limited importance when ranking options for abatement of near-term climate forcers2019In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Daniel
    The choice of climate metric is of limited importance when ranking options for abatement of near-term climate forcers2019In: Climatic Change, ISSN 0165-0009, E-ISSN 1573-1480Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EUA-BCA   Stakeholder Analysis Report2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stakeholder analysis was done to identify which stakeholders would be important in the process to Increase coordination of Arctic black carbon policies and to some extent to Facilitate early emission reductions of black carbon affecting the Arctic. The analysis included 95 Arctic-relevant stakeholders, categorised in six groups: Intergovernmental organisations, National authorities, Indigenous people’s organisations, Expert and working groups, Non-governmental organisations, and Industry. 

     The analysis supporting the results above was made by quantitatively ranking each stakeholder over three dimensions: Power, Interest, and Network capacity. The stakeholder analysis indicates that there are some stakeholders that appear more important to include in the process to increase coordination of Arctic black carbon policies and to facilitate early emission reduction of black carbon affecting the Arctic.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Källmark, Lovisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    European and Central Asian Actions on Air Quality: A regional summary of emission trends, policies, and programs to reduce air pollution2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report provides detailed information on emission trends and European actions on air quality during 2016-2020, in support of the second UNEP global summary report of policies and programmes to reduce air pollution. The pollutants in focus are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, non-methane volatile organic compounds, ammonia, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). 

    Thanks to the continued strengthening of policies developed under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, EU policies and legislation, as well as national legislations, emissions of most monitored air pollutants have decreased. Since 2010, this trend has continued in Western, Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe. Emissions are however increasing in Central Asian countries. Looking at the entire European and Central Asian region covered in this report, there is one pollutant that stands out: ammonia. Ammonia emissions have in all sub-regions increased during 2010-2017, and there is no sign of decline.

    The EU member states and Norway, UK and Switzerland, with the largest past emission reductions, are also those with well-developed air quality monitoring and assessment infrastructure. In addition, these countries report the largest portfolio of further actions to reduce emissions in a cost-effective manner, including investments in energy efficiency improvements as well as in clean technologies. Awareness and progress in efforts to improve air quality assessment infrastructures in Eastern and South Eastern Europe as well as Central Asia are improving, and there are several examples of knowledge-sharing initiatives and capacity building efforts.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Källmark, Lovisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Меры по обеспечению качества воздуха в Европе и Центральной Азии: Региональный обзор трендов выбросов, стратегий и программ по снижению загрязнения воздуха2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [ru]

    В докладе представлена детальная информация относительно трендов выбросов и мер по обеспечению качества воздуха в Европе за период 2016-2020 в поддержку второго глобального обзора ЮНЕП стратегий и программ по снижению загрязнения воздуха. Рассматриваемые в докладе загрязнители – диоксид серы, оксиды азота, неметановые летучие органические соединения, аммиак и мелкодисперсные твердые частицы (PM2.5).

    Благодаря продолжающемуся усилению стратегий, разработанных в рамках Конвенции ЕЭК ООН о Трансграничном Загрязнении Воздуха на Большие Расстояния (КТЗВБР), стратегиям и законодательству ЕС, а также национальным законодательствам, выбросы большинства загрязнителей снизились. Этот тренд продолжается и после 2010 года в странах Западной, Центральной, Восточной и Юго-Восточной Европы. Выбросы однако растут в странах Центральной Азии. Во всем общеевропейском регионе, рассматриваемом в рамках данного доклада, можно выделить один загрязнитель, отличающийся трендом от остальных – аммиак. Выбросы аммиака в период 2010-2017 возросли во всех под-регионах, и признаков снижения пока не наблюдается. 

    Страны-члены ЕС, Норвегия, Великобритания и Швейцария, являясь странами с наиболее заметными снижениями выбросов в прошлом, обладают хорошо развитой инфраструктурой мониторинга и оценки качества воздуха. Кроме того, по результатам опроса, в этих странах наиболее разнообразно портфолио дальнейших мер по затратно-эффективному снижению выбросов, включая инвестиции в повышение энергоэффективности и в чистые технологии. В странах Юго-Восточной Европы, Восточной Европы и Центральной Азии наблюдается рост осведомленности и активизация усилий по улучшению инфраструктуры оценки качества воздуха; имеются хорошие примеры инициатив по обмену опытом и знаниями и укреплению потенциала.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kan Sverige uppfylla miljömålspreciseringar för försurning och övergödning - Indikationer från ambitiösa utsläppsscenarier i utvalda Europeiska länder2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from a study focusing on the paths forward for Sweden in order to achieve the Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives Natural acidification only and No eutrophication. The study had two main purposes: 1. To analyse the level of European emission reductions needed in order to achieve the environmental quality objectives by year 2030, at the latest. a. With regards to the objective Natural acidification only, the study considered the specification: ”Impact through atmospheric deposition” b. With regards to the objective No eutrophication, the study only considered the deposition of eutrophying nitrogen over forest areas. This consideration is most closely linked to the specification “Impact on land areas” 2. To analyse in which countries and in what sectors measures to reduce emissions of acidifying and eutrophying compounds would have the largest impact. Based on the most ambitious emission scenario available for EU countries, continued emission reduction scenarios were calculated for the most important sectors with regards to emissions of sulphur and nitrogen. These emission reductions were implemented in the European countries which in 2010 were most significant for acidifying and eutrophying deposition over Sweden. The emission reductions simulated for the years 2020 and 2030 were the results of hypothetical large changes in the energy system, in the transport system and in the agricultural sector. The impact on acidification and eutrophication in Sweden was thereafter calculated and discussed. Emissions scenarios available in reports supporting the ongoing revision of the EU thematic strategy on air pollution was analysed in order to identify in which sectors emission reductions would give the largest benefit for the Swedish environmental objectives. The analysis focused on the countries that can be considered as most important for the acidifying and eutrophying deposition over Sweden, and identified the sectors with the anticipated largest future potential for emission reductions. The overall impression from this study’s results is that it will not be possible to achieve the Swedish environmental objective Natural acidification only by reducing emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) by the year 2030, given current economic development trends. This is largely due to the fact that the catchment areas currently receiving acid deposition above critical loads are, to a relatively large share, consisting of areas with very high sensitivity to sulphur deposition. Also the criteria for estimating recovery in lakes from acidification, which are used when calculating levels for critical loads, are relatively strict compared to alternative ways to calculate acidification impacts. It can be motivated to further analyse which measures and indicators that should be used for analysis of acidification in the future. The results from this study indicate that it is potentially possible to achieve the Swedish environmental objective No Eutrophication by reducing European emissions, but this requires very large transitions of the European agricultural sector, both in terms of using emission reduction technologies and in terms of production within the agricultural sector. In the countries with large impact on sulphur deposition over Sweden the sectors with highest emission reduction potentials by the year 2020 and 2030 are Industrial combustion, Energy, and Household & Services. The Energy sector is anticipated to have the highest total emissions. The largest potential for emission reduction concerning emission reductions of NOx is found in the sectors Energy and Industrial combustion, if one disregards international shipping. Concerning NH3 it is emissions from the agricultural sector that continue to dominate in Europe.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Compilation of data for Sweden to the GAINS model2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with the project was to create a robust system for development of national emission scenarios in the GAINS model that are consistent with Swedish official emission inventories and emission projections. Such a system required a structured compilation of information sources as well as a systematic method for re-formatting data. The basis for the data compilation was the data used in the official Swedish emission inventory and emission projections. These data sometimes needed to be complemented for more detailed information from official sources such as the Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish Energy Agency, and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Following this a data conversion tool was developed. After introducing Swedish data and projections into the GAINS model we could compare and analyse differences between emissions in the Swedish scenario in the GAINS model and the emissions in the official Swedish national reporting. The results showed that emissions were suitably aligned for SO2, while NOx and PM2.5 emissions differed. All in all, this project describes the process of developing a scenario for Sweden in the GAINS model based on national data. Special attention, and a systematic approach, is needed in the re-aggregation and re-allocation of fuels and sectors from a Swedish format to a GAINS model format. Further development of the approach used during re-allocation and re-aggregation of data is needed, as well as increased national knowledge regarding the current and expected use of air pollution emission control technologies in Sweden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 44.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Särnholm, Erik
    Söderblom, Johan
    Energy efficiency improvements in the European Household and Service sector- data inventory to the GAINS model2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Further improvements in the energy performance of buildings and equipment are important to Europe as measures to reduce energy demand as well as greenhouse gas emissions. For both the residential sector and the service sector, energy needed for heating and ventilation, as well as air conditioning represents the largest share of all energy needs in these sectors, and there are large potentials for further improvements in the energy performance in the climate envelope of most European houses and buildings. The International Institute for Applied System Analysis has developed the Integrated Assessment Model GAINS. The GAINS models' most recent methodology updates allow for a detailed description of the residential and commercial sector with energy use, potential for energy demand reduction as well as energy demand reduction costs. To implement the new detailed methodology for the European version of the GAINS model, a data inventory is needed. In this study, detailed data on energy use, building stocks and control technologies have been compiled and converted into the format suitable for the GAINS model. Bottom-up projections have been calibrated with the EU energy projections currently used as a European baseline in the GAINS model for the EU-27 countries as well as Norway, Switzerland and Turkey.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lovisa Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kieseweeter, Gregor
    Schöpp, Wolfgang
    Sander, Robert
    Investment perspectives on costs for air pollution control affect the optimal use of emission control measures2019In: Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, ISSN 1618-954X, E-ISSN 1618-9558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Morozova, Irina
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    Ignateva, Yulia
    Volkova, Kristina
    Valiyaveetil, Semeena
    Tohka, Antti
    Heyes, Chris
    Cofala, Janusz
    Schöpp, Wolfgang
    Sander, Robert
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Capacity building on decision support for air pollution policies – results from Nordic-Russian co-operation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Merelli, Luca
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hult, Cecilia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Styrmedel för minskade NOX-utsläpp från vägtrafik, inrikes sjöfart och fiskefartyg: Utsläppseffekter, kostnader och nyttor år 20302022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt det senaste referensscenariot för Sveriges utsläpp av kväveoxider (NOX) till 2030 kommer Sverige överskrida taket i det andra NEC-direktivet om inte ytterligare åtgärder tas. Utsläppen från vägtrafik, inrikes sjöfart och fiske står enligt referensscenariot för en betydande del av Sveriges NOX-utsläpp år 2030, och här finns också potential för ytterligare utsläppsminskningar.

     

    Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka vilka styrmedel som är mest effektiva för att minska utsläppen av NOX från vägtrafik, inrikes sjöfart och fiskefartyg till år 2030 samt undersöka hur kostnadseffektiva styrmedlen är. Syftet var också att undersöka hur styrmedlen påverkar utsläppen av PM2.5 och CO2. Åtta styrmedel med syfte att minska utsläpp inom vägtrafiksektorn samt tre styrmedel med syfte att minska utsläpp inom inrikes sjöfart och från fiskefartyg studerades.

     

    Det styrmedel för vägtrafik som uppvisar lägst kostnad per reduktion av kg NOX samt god kostnadseffektivitet är införandet av skärpta CO2-krav på EU-nivå enligt det förslag som ligger. Detta styrmedel resulterar enligt studien även i betydande utsläppsminskningar av NOX och CO2. Övriga styrmedel för vägtrafik som är kostnadseffektiva är premien för etanolkonvertering, kilometerskatt för tunga fordon och miljödifferentierad trängselavgift. Inget av dessa styrmedel leder till betydande NOX-utsläppsminskningar. Det är osäkert om skrotningspremien, som resulterar i en utsläppsminskning av NOX på ca 400 ton, är kostnadseffektiv.

    Euro 7/VII-krav för lätta respektive tunga fordon resulterar visserligen i stora utsläppsminskningar av NOX år 2030, men detta styrmedel har höga enhetskostnader per reducerat kg NOX. Det är inte heller kostnadseffektivt då nytto/kostnadskvoten är långt under 1, dvs. kostnaderna överstiger nyttorna.

     

    För inrikes sjöfart och fiskefartyg visar studien att samtliga studerade styrmedel har potential att leda till betydande utsläppsminskningar till år 2030, med låga kostnader per kg minskad NOX och hög kostnadseffektivitet. Av de åtgärder som följer av respektive styrmedel har efterinstallation av SCR bäst effekt på NOX-utsläppen. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roth, Susanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wranne, Jonatan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jelse, Kristian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Food Consumption Choices and Climate Change2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results from an ENTWINED ( www.entwined.se ) analysis of the climate impact associated with food consumption choices, with special focus on locally produced food. The purpose of the analysis was to analyze and compare the relative climate benefits of locally grown food with other consumption choices available to food consumers, and to propose policies that would enable a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from food consumption. The results showed inter alia that a vegetarian and seasonally adjusted grocery bag had the lowest emissions of GHG of the bags studied. For non-vegetarian bags, the amount of beef in the bag was very influential for the level of GHG emissions. The impact of locally grown food choices was relatively small, and in one case of the sensitivity analysis negligible. Concluding results show that from a climate perspective it is more important to focus on what we eat rather than whether it is locally grown, has been transported a long distance, or how the food item was produced.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wisell, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roth, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Konsekvensanalys av utvalda åtgärder för att minska utsläpp till luft2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Miljömålsberedningen beräknat möjlig påverkan på utsläpp till luft och åtgärdskostnader av följande åtgärder.

    Vägtransport: 1. Höjd kvotplikt avseende biodrivmedel för vägtransporter (införande år 2019) 2. Bonus-malus-differentierad registreringsskatt för personbilar (införande år 2018) 3. Premie för lågutsläppande lastbil/buss (införande år 2018) 4. Analys av luftföroreningseffekten vid Trafikverkets klimatscenario (införande enligt Trafikverkets klimatscenario i FFF-utredningen)

    Arbetsmaskiner: 5. Arbetsmaskinspremie för inhandling av lågutsläppande arbetsmaskiner (införande år 2018)

    Småskalig vedeldning: 6. Tidigareläggande av EU:s ekodesignkrav för pannor och kaminer från 2020 resp. 2022 till 2017 resp. 2018 7. Förbud mot installation av eldningsutrustning som inte uppfyller EU:s ekodesignkrav (införande år 2017) 8. Skrotningspremie för pannor/kaminer med dåliga miljöegenskaper (införande år 2017) Åtgärderna analyserades med avseende på påverkan på utsläpp av luftföroreningar och koldioxid (CO2) samt påverkan på åtgärdskostnader för att minska utsläpp. Specifik metod, underlag och resultat varierade beroende på vilken åtgärd som analyserades. De luftföroreningar som var i fokus var kväveoxider (NOx), fina partiklar (PM2,5), kolmonoxid (CO) samt flyktiga organiska ämnen (NMVOC). Åtgärdskostnader och effekter på CO2 har inte analyserats för samtliga åtgärder.

    Huvudbudskapet från analyserna utförda inom ramen för detta uppdrag är att: • Bäst effekt gällande både klimat och luftföroreningar erhålls vid en större omställning av hela transportsystemet. En sådan omställning förutsätter då, i enlighet med Trafikverkets klimatscenario, en kombination av olika åtgärder, både med avseende på trafikminskande åtgärder och på rena teknikstimulerande reformer (såsom eldrivna fordon). • Elektrifiering kan komma ha påtaglig effekt på utsläpp av luftföroreningar. • Vissa klimatåtgärder, som biodrivmedel, kan ge små eller inga effekter med avseende på luftföroreningar. Gällande en eventuellt höjd kvotplikt är det dock en neutral åtgärd för stadsbudgeten. • En eventuell effekt av nyköpspremier för lastbilar och stora arbetsmaskiner på utsläpp år 2030 påverkas främst av hur många gamla fordon som kommer vara i bruk år 2030. Våra analyser tyder alltså på att skrotning av riktigt gamla lastbilar och maskiner är viktigare för utsläpp av luftföroreningar än att öka andelen nya fordon och maskiner. • Samma situation gäller för småskalig vedeldning, där en skrotning av mycket gamla enheter skulle få stor effekt på utsläpp av PM2,5 år 2030.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Åström, Stefan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Blomgren, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Compilation of emission factors for biofuels into the GAINS model script2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of ethanol and biodiesel in the transport sector is increasing in line with the latest legislation, stimulating use of biofuels in efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. At the same time, the aspect of effects from use of biofuel on air quality is a rather contradictory issue, which is currently being studied in many countries. The GAINS model, developed by the International Institute of Applied System Analysis (IIASA) and widely used to provide support to air quality policies, does not provide a possibility to consider emission factors for biofuels used in the transport sector (with exception for CO2).The objective of this study is to link the biofuel share in the transport sector to available emission factors for biofuels, to provide a new emission calculation equation based on this linkage (emissions as a function of biofuel use), to introduce the equation into the GAINS Sweden script, and to compare the results obtained for several scenarios for the Swedish transport sector with different assumed levels of biofuel use. An equation, taking into consideration lower emission factors for NOx and PM from ethanol-fuelled passenger cars, has been derived and successfully compiled into the GAINS Sweden script. A generic equation applicable to other pollutants has also been derived. Calculation results indicate that introducing emission factors for biofuels does not have a significant effect on air pollutant emissions from the transport sector in Sweden. Full replacement of gasoline with ethanol for passenger cars in 2020 reduces emissions of NOx by 1.48 kt and PM by 0.06 kt, according to the baseline scenario (2009). An important prerequisite for obtaining reliable emission results in the GIAINS model is properly quantified emission factors. Further research on emission factors for biofuels is needed since currently used factors are not commonly accepted. The study has been performed within the SCARP research program.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
12 1 - 50 of 52
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf