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  • 1.
    Albertsson, Gustav Sandin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Zetterberg, Therese Sahlén
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Tillgång på skogsråvara – sammanfattning och scenarier2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie sammanställer kunskap om tillgången på skogsråvara som skulle kunna utgöra råvarubas i ny produktion av kemikalier, material och bränslen i Västsverige.

    Resultatet indikerar att det med rätt förutsättningar finns goda möjligheter att öka uttaget av flera fraktioner av skogsråvara, exempelvis GROT, i tillräcklig omfattning för att de ska utgöra en relevant, framtida råvarubas. Resultatet synliggör också de osäkerheter som finns på grund av de många faktorer som påverkar framtida tillgång, t.ex. klimatförändringar, politiska beslut och konkurrens om råvaran.

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  • 2.
    Billstein, Tova
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Björklund, Anna
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Network Traffic: A Review of Challenges and Possible Solutions2021Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, nr 20, s. 11155-11155Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljöpåverkan av datatrafik har historiskt sett varit den minst studerade delen av ICT sektorn, och det finns för närvarande ingen konsensus kring hur man korrekt bedömer den. Resultaten från studien visar att det finns åtta viktiga utmaningar.

  • 3.
    Brännström, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Grahn Lydig, Sophie
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Strömberg, Emma
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Bioråvara till plast: nuläge och trender2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras möjliga bioråvaror som kan användas för att producera biobaserad plast och potentiella plastalternativ som är under utveckling eller redan finns tillgängliga på marknaden. Kartläggningen har utgjorts av litteraturgranskning samt intervjuer med olika aktörer inom området.

    Kartläggningen av bioråvarupotentialen hade fokus på råvara från skog, jordbruk, hav samt från biologiskt avfall. Generellt framgår att potentialen är störst för skogsbaserad råvara, följt av jordbruksbaserad råvara och biologiskt avfall, medan potentialen för havsbaserad råvara är minst. 

    Projektet har kartlagt vilken produktionskapacitet som finns tillgänglig för biobaserad plast, främst avseende drop-in-plaster, som är direkt utbytbara med etablerade plaster, men även ersättningsplaster. Globalt är idag endast cirka en procent av plastproduktionen biobaserad. En övervägande del av dagens petrokemibaserade plaster produceras helt eller delvis via krackning av nafta och av det följer att om man kan konvertera biomassa in i det flödet får man in biobaserad råvara i alla dessa plaster, således för polyeten (PE), liksom för polypropen (PP) och polyetentereftalat (PET), som är de tre mängdmässigt största plastsorterna. Biobaserade plaster med annan molekylstruktur än dagens högvolymplaster, här kallat ersättningsplaster, är ännu ganska sparsamt förekommande på marknaden. Det är främst polymjölksyra (PLA) som används, och produktionskapaciteten ökar globalt. 

    En slutsats som dras i studien är att det pågår lovande utveckling och en långsam men stadig ökning av biobaserad plast, men att det är först runt 2030, och därefter, som bioråvara till plast, och plast från bioråvara, kommer att vara tillgänglig i större mängder.

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  • 4.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Cotgreave, Ian A
    Nilsson, Charlotte
    Bignami, Francesco
    The application of a tiered life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to safe and sustainable chemistry in the development of smart solutions for water and air purification: The Mistra TerraClean case2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Swedish research programme Mistra TerraClean a tiered approach for life cycle based environmental and human health assessment early in process development was introduced. In the project smart filters for water and air purification are under development. Innovative materials and devices are applied and evaluated with a systems perspective. In our tiered approach life cycle assessment (LCA), chemical safety assessment and applied eco and human toxicity assessments are combined, with a particular focus on the inclusion of toxicity potential impacts in LCA.

    To this end, the consensus model USEtox has been applied, complemented with the method ProScale, that focusses on human direct exposure. The life cycle-based approach has so far been applied to material development and a pilot scale case study. The case study focuses on water purification of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) for which we have a PFAS adapted life cycle impact assessment framework at hand. This tiered approach is relevant to process developers, people within the field of water and air treatment as well as the broader LCA community.  

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  • 5.
    Danielsson, Lina
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EcoWater report - Comparing water footprint methods: The importance of a life cycle approach in assesing water footprint2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Today many people are suffering because of water scarcity, and still, water scarcity is supposed to be a growing problem. Water footprint is a tool developed to assess impact related to water use and consider both water consumption and degradation. This study aims to compare two such water footprint methods, the H2Oe-method and the WFN method, and identify the different hotspots for water use in a supply chain at Volvo Trucks. The overall result of the first method, the H2Oe-method, was 2.6 Mm³ H2Oe while the result for the second method, the WFN-method, was 13.1 Mm3. The largest contribution to water footprint for the first method was the degradative part, mainly from the background process of a precipitation chemical. The second method had the largest contribution from water consumption in the use electricity. The results show the importance of a life cycle perspective when calculating water footprint and the difficulties to compare water footprint calculated with different methods. This report is only available in English.

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  • 6.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Eriksson, Elin
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Renewable materials in the Circular Economy2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used definition of the Circular Economy (CE), that of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, distinguishes between technical and biological cycles. However, when addressing renewable (bio-based) materials it places a strong emphasis on their biodegradability. In doing so it tends to overlook the contribution that renewable feedstock and reuse and recycling of renewable materials can have on improving circularity and environmental performance.

    This report therefore aims to highlight the role and benefits of responsibly sourced renewable materials in products of the CE’s technical cycle. Renewable material and resources used in the technical cycle link the concepts of bioeconomy and CE. It is argued that given the importance of both concepts in the transition to a sustainable society, it is crucial that neither strategy ends up in the shadow of the other. The contribution of renewable materials to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals is also discussed with focus on goals 8, 12, 13 and 15.

    The report emphasises that the ongoing benefits and contribution of renewable materials to the technical cycle of the CE concept requires increased recognition for the following reasons: o Reuse and recycling of renewable materials within the technical cycle is environmentally beneficial. o There are inherent environmental benefits of renewable based products compared to fossil-based ones. o Renewable/bio-based materials are already used, reused and recycled in the technical cycle. o The potential of technological and societal innovations for new applications of renewables and increased cyclic use of renewables can be further emphasized.

    The primary message is that the field of CE should recognise more fully, in its approach and communication, that sustainability can be increased through the utilisation of renewables in the technical cycle. A major contribution is the reduction of climate change impacts, whilst other environmental impacts may require closer scrutiny depending on individual product circumstances. Finally, the bioeconomy and the CE are mutually supportive concepts, but this needs to be communicated more effectively to policy makers and a wider public, in order to facilitate the transition to a sustainable society.

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  • 7.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Comparison of integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems - economic and greenhouse gas emission implications2016Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, s. 272-294Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems producing synthetic natural gas, methanol and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels on the NAP (net annual profit), FPC (fuel production cost) and the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction potential are analysed. The considered integration options are heat deliveries to DH (district heating) systems or to nearby industries and integration with infrastructure for CO2 storage.

    The comparison is made to stand-alone configurations in which the excess heat is used for power production. The analysis considers future energy market scenarios and case studies in southwestern Sweden. The results show that integration with DH systems has small impacts on the NAP and the FPC and diverging (positive or negative) impacts on the GHG emissions. Integration with industries has positive effects on the economic and GHG performances in all scenarios. The FPCs are reduced by 7–8 percent in the methanol case and by 12–13 percent in the FT production case. The GHG emission reductions are strongly dependent on the reference power production. The storage of separated CO2 shows an increase in the GHG emission reduction potential of 70–100 percent for all systems, whereas the impacts on the economic performances are strongly dependent on the CO2e-charge.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Kristin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Halling, Maja
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Celebi, Merve
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    A comparative life cycle assessment and toxicity evaluation of impregnated railway sleepers2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) of impregnated wooden sleepers is presented in this report. The included impregnation oils are linseed oil and creosote, and the environmental aspects considered here are climate change, ecotoxicity, human toxicity and the use of fossil resources. 

    The results of the LCA indicate that the carbon footprint of the linseed oil sleeper is equal to or higher than the carbon footprint of creosote. The main contributors to the linseed oil’s carbon footprint are emissions of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide from the use of fertilizers on the farmland and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels used in tractors, lorries and for the production of steam and electricity used in the production process. 

    Considering the ecotoxicity and human toxicity, the results indicate that the creosote sleeper performs worse than the linseed oil sleeper, which might be expected. However, depending on how the environmental burdens of linseed oil, linseed cake and straw are allocated between them (mass or economical allocation) the results for the linseed oil sleeper vary to a large extent. 

    The results are associated with some uncertainties: for example, no full-scale production plant for linseed oil sleepers exist today meaning that the input data to some extents are based on estimations. To reduce the carbon footprint of sleepers impregnated with linseed oil, a few measures were identified.

    For example, by changing from diesel in tractors and trucks in the agriculture of linseed, as well as natural gas in the production process to renewable fuels. The carbon footprint can also be decreased by reusing the sleepers after their use phase. 

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    A comparative life cycle assessment and toxicity evaluation of impregnated railway sleepers
  • 9. Lexén, Jenny
    et al.
    Belleza, Elin
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Amann, N
    Aschford, P
    Bednarz, A
    Coërs, P
    Dornan, P
    Downes, R
    Enrici, MH
    Glöckner, M
    Gura, E
    de Hults, Q
    Karafilidis, C
    van Miert, E
    Saling, P
    Tiemersma, T
    Wathelet, A
    Wienbeck, X
    ProScale - A life cycle oriented method to assess toxicological potentials of product systems (2017): Guidance Document version 1.52021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    ProScale utvecklades i ett industriellt samarbetsprojekt med experter inom livscykelanalys och riskbedömningtoxikologi. ProScale är avsett att vara enkel att använda och omfatta bedömning av kemikalierisker för både människa och miljö. Hittills och i denna rapport omfattar metoden direktexponeringsrelaterad riskinformation för användning inom livscykelanalyser såsom i Europeiska Kommissionens metodik för produkters miljöavtryck (PEF).

    ProScale-metoden bygger på en kombination av faroklassning enligt det globala harmoniserade systemet (GHS), gränsvärden i arbetsmiljö, och en exponeringsdos baserat på ECETOC TRA (Tiered Risk Assessment). ProScale värden tas fram separat för oral exponering, hudexponering och inandning. Rapporten omfattar en kort bakgrundsbeskrivning och en guide för den som vill arbeta praktiskt med metoden.

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  • 10.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Larsson, Mathias
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Reviewing the environmental implications of increased consumption and trade of biofuels for transportation in Sweden2017Ingår i: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 175-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, a European leader in the consumption of biofuels, has surpassed targets set by the EU and is one of a few countries that has increased consumption of biofuels in recent years. Nonetheless, a large share of biofuels, and raw materials used to produce the fuels, are imported from regions outside Sweden.

    This paper reviews the environmental implications of consumption of biofuels in Sweden 2000–2014 to identify and provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impacts that imports of fuels have both in Sweden and abroad using life cycle assessment (LCA). The results suggest that while greenhouse gas emissions may have been reduced in Sweden by the use of biofuels, the origin of the emissions has shifted from Sweden to Europe and other countries abroad, due in part to an increased use of biofuels and raw materials from abroad. This has important implications for local impacts, as this may increase acidification and eutrophication potential and ecotoxicity created abroad.

    Thus, although policy has been designed to promote sustainable transportation fuels, in addition to the generation goals set by the Swedish Parliament, the implications on regions exporting fuels and raw materials for Swedish consumption should be reviewed and followed in further detail in order to avoid problem shifting.

  • 11.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Beräkning av klimatvinster med återanvändning och återvinning2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet har haft som mål att bedöma nuvarande och framtida potentiella årliga klimatvinster genom återvinning och återanvändning för ett antal olika avfallsflöden. Studien har varit avgränsad till att studera avfallsledet och vilka utsläppsminskningar som kan göras utifrån de avfallsmängder som uppkommer. Statistik och data från tidigare studier och från LCA-databaser har använts. Framtida avfallsflöden, återvinningsgrader samt återanvändningsgrader har uppskattats av IVL:s avfallsexperter i huvudsak med stöd av resultat från tidigare studier. Resultaten kan användas för att ge en uppfattning om storleksordningar och om vilka produktgrupper som är viktiga att prioritera när det gäller att öka återanvändning och återvinning. Genom att, som i denna rapport, visa på möjliga framtida scenarier vad gäller avfallsflöden, återvinning och återanvändning kan diskussioner kring möjliga styrmedel och deras effekter främjas. För att mer konkret kunna analysera olika specifika styrmedelseffekter krävs mer omfattande studier.

    Studien identifierar vilka produkt/avfallsflöden som har störst potential för minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom återvinning och återanvändning. I dagsläget och i de scenarier som studerats här är de potentiella klimatvinsterna som störst för förpackningar, textilier från hushåll, WEEE (elektriskt och elektroniskt avfall) och bilar, men även däck. Enbart en liten andel av de flöden som studerats går till återanvändning idag, det gäller textilier, däck och skor. Även i de framtida scenarierna antas andelen som går till återanvändning vara relativt liten. Potentialen för klimatvinster genom återanvändning av främst WEEE och textilier är tydlig. Det förutsätts då i beräkningen att nyproduktion kan ersättas. En övergripande slutsats som kan dras av studiens resultat är också att återvinning och återanvändning ger klimatvinster jämfört med förbränning i alla studerade scenarierna.

    I de scenarier där mer avfall genereras kan klimatvinsterna för återvinning och återanvändning bli större i och med att större mängder finns tillgängliga för avfallshantering. En minskad mängd avfall i samhället kan ge ytterligare potentiella klimatvinster som följd. Eventuella klimatvinster kopplade till minskad eller förändrad konsumtion eller ökad materialeffektivitet har inte studerats inom ramen för detta uppdrag.

    Det är komplicerat att resonera kring vilken produktion som ersätts, och om den faktiskt ersätts, när material återvinns och produkter återanvänds. I och med denna svårighet, och även begränsad tillgång till data gällande import och inhemsk produktion, är det svårt att avgöra vilka klimatvinster som sker inom Sveriges gränser. Inom ramen för studien har vi främst fört ett kvalitativt resonemang kring var klimatvinsterna kan tänkas ske.

    När det gäller avfallsstatistik finns idag begränsad kunskap om flöden av byggavfall, både vad gäller faktiska mängder och sammansättning och egenskaper. I studien har endast en begränsad del av byggavfall kunnat inkluderas. Det byggavfall som är med i studien är sådana fraktioner som är klimatrelevanta. Exempelvis är mineralavfall och schaktmassor som mest återvinns som anläggningsmaterial inte med. Data för återvinning av mer komplexa produkter som WEEE, bilar och batterier behöver egentligen utvecklas. Här kan det vara särskilt intressant att i kommande studier fokusera på kritiska metaller. Även genom återanvändning av bildelar och komponenter från WEEE kan det finnas ytterligare potential för klimatvinster, och det vore intressant för ytterligare studier. För de flesta studerade flöden saknas uppgifter om återanvändning i dag. Förutom att det finns begränsat med statistik finns även ett behov av metodutveckling när det gäller att studera miljöeffekter av återanvändning med ett livscykelperspektiv.

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  • 12.
    Munthe, John
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    An expanded conceptual framework for solution‑focused management of chemical pollution in European Waters2017Ingår i: Environmental Sciences Europe, ISSN 2190-4707, E-ISSN 2190-4715, Vol. 29, nr 13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The conceptual framework consists of four access points: Chemicals, Environment, Abatement and Society, representing different aspects and approaches to engaging in the issue of chemical contamination of surface waters. It widens the scope for assessment and management of chemicals in comparison to a traditional (mostly) perchemical risk assessment approaches by including abatement- and societal approaches as optional solutions. The solution-focused approach implies an identification of abatement- and policy options upfront in the risk assessment process.

    The conceptual framework was designed for use in current and future chemical pollution assessments for the aquatic environment, including the specific challenges encountered in prioritising individual chemicals and mixtures, and is applicable for the development of approaches for safe chemical management in a broader sense. The four access points of the conceptual framework are interlinked by four key topics representing the main scientific challenges that need to be addressed, i.e.: identifying and prioritising hazardous chemicals at different scales; selecting relevant and efficient abatement options; providing regulatory support for chemicals management; predicting and prioritising future chemical risks. The conceptual framework aligns current challenges in the safe production and use of chemicals. The current state of knowledge and implementation of these challenges is described.

    The use of the conceptual framework, and addressing the challenges, is intended to support: (1) forwarding sustainable use of chemicals, (2) identification of pollutants of priority concern for cost-effective management, (3) the selection of optimal abatement options and (4) the development and use of optimised legal and policy instruments.

  • 13.
    Neuwirth, Josefin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Gottfridsson, Marie
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hallberg, Elisabet
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    A ProScale case study on indoor wall paint2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    ProScale is a method to assess toxicity potentials for products in a life cycle perspective, in its current version covering direct human exposure related toxicity potential. It is designed to be useful on its own or alongside other impact categories in life cycle assessment (LCA). The study reported herein was conducted by examination of the ProScale model in a case study on indoor wall paint. The reason for choosing indoor wall paint was that the EU commission has paint as one of their pilots for Product Environmental Footprint (PEF), and a particular purpose of the case study was to showcase the applicability of ProScale in PEF. The ProScale assessment on indoor wall paint was simplified due to time limitation in scope. 

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  • 14.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EcoWater report - Cross-comparison of Case-study Outcomes2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EcoWater project developed a method for using eco-efficiency indicators to compare various improvement options with the baseline situation at the meso level, i.e. in a systemic approach. The meso-level focus analysed interactions among heterogeneous actors in water-use systems, both in the current situation and for the implementation of potential eco-innovations. The method was applied to eight case studies spanning three water use sectors (agricultural, urban and industrial). Each case made methodological judgements about numerous aspects of eco-efficiency assessments. Through such assessments, each case study facilitated multistakeholder discussions on improvement options, on factors influencing their adoption and on policy implications. This report compares those methods, judgements and their results across the case studies. As these comparisons reveal, improvement options are case-specific, e.g. dependent on the context, the environmentally weakest stage, the potential forsystem improvement and data availability. The general method was adapted to each case, especially so that the meso-level boundary and indicators encompass potentialeffects of the eco-innovations being evaluated. In this sense the step-wise method is iterative, sometimes reconsidering previous steps. The meso-level analysis adds information about effects beyond a micro-level focus on an organisation’s internal processes, sometimes reducing or complicating the apparent benefits at that level. In each case study, few options would be ‘win-win’ by improving all environmental indicators, increasing total value added (TVA) and financially benefiting all valuechain actors. Selecting the most eco-efficient options entails tensions and trade-offs among various objectives, thus complicating eco-innovation as a win-win strategy. The potential to optimise meso-level eco-efficiency, alongside various trade-offs, highlights the value of sharing stakeholders’ different understandings through mesolevel discussion, in ways appropriate to each specific context. As shown by comparisons among diverse cases, the general method was robustly applied – to assess options for eco-efficiency improvements, to evaluate their relative meso-level benefits, and to facilitate multi-stakeholder discussion on optimising the system. So the method has wider relevance to any meso-level water-service system. The report is structured as follows: Introduction to the methodology (section 1), results of the cross-case comparison with overall conclusions (section 2), in turn referring to results of each case study (sections 3-10), and documentary references. This report is only available in English.

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  • 15.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EcoWater report - Description of value chains for industrial water use2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Deliverable 4.1 presents the results of the first phase of EcoWater Industrial Case Study 5 (Textile Industries in Biella Region in Italy), Case Study 6 (Cogenera-tion of thermal energy and electricity using water from the Rhine Channel in Nether-lands), Case Study 7 (Dairy industry, Denmark) and Case Study 8 (Automotive in-dustry Sweden. The development of all industrial cases followed the same overall methodology for the system mapping; an initial assessment of the system boundary followed by an identification and mapping of the water supply chain with mapping of both the water services and stages and the water uses in the industrial processes and description of existing technologies, value chain mapping and identification of relevant actors. The methodologies developed for system mapping were applicable in the industrial Case Studies and it was possible to deal with challenges related to the system boundary, what was meant by meso-scale in the industrial cases and the complexity of the interaction between the water system and production system can be reduced. So in general the industry cases have identified the industrial sector level as the me-so-scale level. Up to now only the automotive case has set up their system in the SEAT model- while the other cases plan to do this by January 2013 with assistance from NTUA. This may be the time where options for reducing complexity can be further explored and systems streamlined. This report is only available in English.

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  • 16.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EcoWater - Results of the 2nd targeted event – Industry links2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the event organized by the EcoWater Project in Amsterdam in November 2013, addressing an industrial audience. The key objectives of the EcoWater side event were to present the EcoWater project to the water industry, communicating concepts and discussing results so far, and to develop contacts with industry. Due to the fact that a project alone is rarely able to attract a large external audience, EcoWater sought to develop a significant contribution to, and presence in, a major water technologies fair; the AquaTech Amsterdam Fair was selected for the purpose. The EcoWater project sought to develop three initiatives during AquaTech: 1. A booth in the Dutch pavilion of the fair; 2. AquaStages; 3. A breakfast event. The EcoWater Project has put significant effort into connecting to the world of technology providers, and this outreach activity has been quite successful. The Project team seized the opportunity to connect to a significant number of industry organizations through the Project booth and AquaStages, and these contacts have been kept informed on the subsequent EcoWater developments. The AquaTech Exhibition was held concurrently with the IWW (International Water Week) Conference, where EcoWater participants took the opportunity to present the project; two papers were presented: 1. Eco-efficient Innovation in Industrial Water-service Systems: Analysing Options, Drivers and Barriers by Les Levidow, Palle Lindgaard-Jorgensen, Åsa Nilsson, Sara Alongi Skenhall 2. Meso-level Eco-efficiency Indicators to Assess Technologies in Urban Water-use Sectors by Olga Steiger Overall, the EcoWater Industry Event achieved significant outreach and can be considered successful; it enabled both the dissemination of Project methods and outputs to a wider audience, and the development of new linkages to the industry community. It also provided valuable feedback towards the further enhancement of the EcoWater Tools for improving their usability and applicability in an industrial setting. This report is only available in English.

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  • 17.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EcoWater report - Results of the 3rd targeted event -Policy links2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 18.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sustainable recycling of flat panel displays2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    manufacturers of flat screen TVs and monitors, WEEE collection organization, WEEE recyclers, recycling equipment suppliers and environmental labeling organizations a better understanding is provided of the complex conditions influencing the life cycle of flat screens.

    This report presents selected findings made within the project. The results presented are specifically related to process for indium recovery from LCD glass, recovery and re-use of optical components and sustainability rating of different recycling scenarios involving mainly large-scale shredding, manual dismantling or semi-automated dismantling.

    A process has been developed by Chalmers for indium recovery from LCD glass. The process, which involves leaching of the indium-tin oxide layer, and then subsequent extraction, has been studied in terms of kinetics and yield with regards to choice of leachants, extractants and various process parameters. The best conditions identified in this study gave indium contents in the range 0.20-0.25 g/kg glass at a yield of nearly 90 percent. However, to achieve economical sustainability of the process relatively large volumes of LCD glass needs to be treated every year. The required volumes will not be available in the Swedish waste stream until 2015.

    In another work package of the project, we investigated ways of recovering a higher monetary value than currently from discarded flat screens. We found that recovery and re-use of LCD optical components in high-end applications would be a potential way of achieving economical sustainability of LCD recycling particularly for small to medium scale recyclers. As the main properties of many components are not significantly affected by their lifetime in a flat screen, they are well suited for re-use, generally not in LCD screens, but in other applications where their optical properties can improve current product performance. The main application in which we have evaluated recovered components is LED fittings for general illumination. Using the optical components of the LCD backlight unit, which constitute 25-30 weight percent of a 17 inch LCD monitor, enables energy-efficient flat LED luminaries to be produced at a favorable cost level. As a spin-off from the project, serial production of LED fittings has been initiated.

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  • 19.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Holmquist, H.
    Lexén, J.
    Sahlin, U.
    Grönholdt Palm, J.
    The potential to use QSAR to populate ecotoxicity characterisation factors for simplified LCIA and chemical prioritisation , Int J Life Cycle Assess. t2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 2018, nr 23, s. 2208–2216-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of QSAR estimated data as basis for calculation of characterisation factors, and the further use of thosefactors for ranking based on ecotoxicity potential, was assessed as a feasible way to gather substance data for large datasets.However, further research and development of the guidance on how to make use of estimated data is needed to achieveimprovement of the accuracy of the results (PDF) The potential to use QSAR to populate ecotoxicity characterisation factors for simplified LCIA and chemical prioritisation. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/324503117_The_potential_to_use_QSAR_to_populate_ecotoxicity_characterisation_factors_for_simplified_LCIA_and_chemical_prioritisation [accessed Jan 29 2019].

  • 20.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    EPS weighting factors - version 2020d2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EPS system was developed in its first versions in the 1990ies. EPS includes an impact assessment (characterisation and weighting) method for assigning a monetary value to emissions and use of natural resource. The results of the EPS impact assessment method are damage costs for emissions and use of natural resources expressed as ELU (Environmental Load Units). One ELU represents an externality corresponding to one Euro environmental damage cost. The system was aiming to be used for identifying environmental priority strategies in product design and in other situations where there is a need to include environmental aspects in analyses and decision, such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Later it has been used for other purposes like investments and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance (ESG). This report describes the 2020 default version, called EPS 2020d, and particularly its weighting factors, and is intended to replace the 2015d and 2015dx versions.

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  • 21.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Everyday Industry - Pragmatic approaches for integrating sustainability into industry decision making2017Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sustainability evaluation tools exist, but few are used on a day-to-day basis within the process industries to help project teams make better decisions regarding process and product improvements. This article presents collated experiences and views from the EU process sectors on the ‘state-of-the-art’ of sustainability evaluation tools, highlighting the differences between the practical use of such tools in an industrial setting versus simplified ideal-world case studies.

    The review was performed as part of an EU cross-sector project, ‘STYLE’, through formation of an international consortium, reviewing current practice, testing of sustainability evaluation tools in industry case studies, academic validation of tools’ functions and features, and stakeholder consultations. Consequently, a proposal is made regarding the high-level features and functions of a toolkit to address gaps and shortfalls in currently available tools and identification of useful features that could be implemented more widely.

    The proposed toolkit framework consists of a three-stage process:materiality setup, qualitative screening and semi-quantitative assessment. Recommendations are also made regarding further research and tool development needs, requiring collaboration between sustainability expertise and ‘soft’ sciences to address barriers to tools being used regularly and broadly across industry.

  • 22.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    SETAC LCA advisory groups silver jubilee: get involved and contribute to the next stage of LCA2017Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 293, nr 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) has been the cradle of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This year marks an important anniversary for the LCA community: the 25th jubilee of SETAC LCA thematic groups of Europe and North America. In 1991 the North American Advisory Group was formally recognized as a group within the SETAC. In August 1991 a SETAC Pellston Workshop® in Smuggler's Notch, USA, formalized the structure of a product LCA. LCA was born. The same year the first meeting of a regional LCA thematic group in Europe took place, the 'SETAC Europe Task Group on Life Cycle Analysis'. This European group, in those early days overlapping with the Steering Committee, organized a first SETAC Europe LCA workshop in Leiden (the Netherlands) on the 2nd and 3rd of December 1991.

    Today LCA is a mature and multidisciplinary tool and the LCA community has become much wider and more diverse compared to those early days. Therefore, not all LCA practitioners may know about the SETAC LCA AGs, their contribution to the development of LCA and the opportunities to get involved. The objective of this editorial is therefore twofold. First, in occasion of their silver jubilee, it intends to credit the work of the SETAC LCA groups and acknowledge their major achievements. Secondly, it intends to give forward momentum to the European Advisory Group (EU AG) activities, illustrating their functions and opportunities for participations.

  • 23.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Towards a common conceptual framework for chemical footprint bridging Risk Assessment and LCA2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A short review and conceptual analysis regarding ChF, and suggests a way forward towards a common science based Conceptual Framework for Chemical Footprinting methods, bridging Risk Assessment (RA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) science and methods.

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  • 24.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rosa M, de
    SETAC LCA advisory groups silver jubilee: get involved and contribute to the next stage of LCA2016Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 25.
    Storm, Benjamin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Mammen Parayil, Manuel
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Techno-economic and sustainability assessment: Circular cellulose to textile fiber production2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports the findings from the techno-economic and sustainability assessment done in the project Circular cellulose to textile fiber production. The aim of the project has been to develop resource efficient processes for alternative cellulose feedstocks from residual streams to increase value for dissolving pulp, for e.g., textile fiber production. In this report, a techno-economic feasibility study and an environmental impact assessment were done to give an indication of the market relevance and climate impact of wheat straw and oat husk as raw materials for the production of dissolving pulp.

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