IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Andersson, Sofia Lovisa
    et al.
    Andersson, Sofia
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Fujikawa, Mayumi Narongin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Carranza Muno, Andrea
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Långtidsförsök med membranbioreaktor för förbättrad avloppsvattenrening i kombination med kompakt slambehandling2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Henriksdal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Stockholm is currently being extended and rebuilt for increased capacity (from 0.8 to 1.6 million PE) and enhanced treatment efficiency (6 mg TN/L, 0.20 mg TP/L, 5 mg BOD7/L).

    The reconstruction includes retrofitting of the existing conventional activated sludge (CAS) tanks with a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) process containing 1.6 million m2 of membrane area. It also includes extended pretreatment and a new treatment step for thickening of primary sludge. Digestion of thick sludge (~6 % TS) will be done at thermophilic conditions, unlike today’s mesophilic operation, with high organic load and relatively short retention time.

    To increase the knowledge of MBRs in Nordic conditions, Stockholm Vatten och Avfall (SVOA) and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute have conducted long-term MBR studies in pilot scale at the R&D-facility Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, located on the premises of the Henriksdal WWTP. The MBR-pilot was taken into operation in 2013 and was reconstructed to its current configuration in 2016. In 2017 the MBR pilot was supplemented with a sludge treatment line to study different aspects of sludge digestion. 

    During 2021, the MBR-pilot was operated at a fixed inflow of 4.1 m3/h, which is 37 % higher than the design average flow, with externally provided glycerol as well as internally produced VFA as carbon source for post-denitrification. Aluminum (PAX) was used instead of Ferric (PIX) as complement to Ferrous (FeSO4) for phosphorous precipitation. This was done to test the operational strategy for the first MBR line in Henriksdal WWTP. The average effluent concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus was 3.9 mg TN/L and 0.07 mg TP/L, respectively, which means that the effluent requirements were met also this year. To achieve this, 8.6 g Fe2+/m3 and 0.9 g Al3+/m3 was required.

    During flux enhancer trials a total of 17.8 g iron (Fe2+ + Fe3+)/m3 was added. The glycerol dose was equivalent to 17.3 g COD/m3 and for internally produced VFA the dose equivalent was 15.5 g COD/m3. The slightly higher consumption of phosphorus precipitation chemicals compared to 2020, 1.29 mole metal per mole of phosphorus removed, was mainly due to a lower enhanced biological phospho¬rus removal (EBPR) activity in 2021. In 2021 the phosphorous release rates were low during the spring and showed < 1 g PO4-P/kg VSS,h in June but recovered in the summer with 5.5 g PO4-P/kg VSS,h in July after the defoaming agent dosing was stopped.

    The iron and aluminum content in the activated sludge was 6.2 and 0.7 %, respectively. Average total sludge age during 2021 was 17.2 days and average aerated sludge age was 7 days. Nitrification was always complete with ammonia concentrations below 2 mg/L except week 25. Test with use of internally produced VFA as carbon source showed that the specific COD consumption was almost the same as for glycerol when comparing the yearly average from 2021 and 2020. Effluent nitrate and total nitrogen removal was similar during the trial with VFA as the rest of the year, when glycerol was used.

     Like previous years, the membranes in membrane tank 1 (MT1) was cleaned with oxalic acid and the membranes in MT2 with citric acid. Both membranes were also cleaned with sodium hypochlorite. The membranes were operated with an average net flux around 21 to 25 L/(m2·h) but starting from week 25, the flux was increased to 30 L/(m2·h) which is the design net max flux of the full scale MBR in Henriksdal and was tested in the pilot for 25 weeks.

    The net TMP varied between 49 and 218 mbar for MT1 and between 51 and 146 mbar for MT2. TMP was reduced after each recovery cleaning (RC) with hypochlorite, but the effect did not last long. The permeability was generally above 200 L/(m2·h·bar) throughout 2021-2022 for both membranes. Recovery cleanings were done twice with hypochlorite and once with acids during 2021. During 2022 a final RC, first with hypochlorite then with acids was carried out.

    The first RC for MT1 resulted in a clear increase in permeability after cleaning. For MT2 the major increase in permeability was the result of a citric acid MC (one week after the hypochlorite RC). The RCs at the end of 2021 and in March 2022 had clear but smaller positive impact on permeability. Prior to the first RCs, permeability was higher for MT1 (cleaned with oxalic acid) compared to MT2 (cleaned with citric acid). After the first RCs, both membranes had similar permeability. As a result of the tough operational strategy from week 25 2021, permeability decreased quite quickly after RCs. MT2 reached a stable level around 250-300 L/(m2·h·bar) while MT1 decreased even more, to as low as around 200 L/(m2·h·bar). 

    Emission of chlorinated compounds in the off-gas ventilation were measured during the final sodium hypochlorite recovery cleaning. The emission process was slower than expected and generally no clear sign of attenuation of emissions was observed during the 21 hours of sampling. Although composite samples of several hours during the night are not providing enough details, it was concluded that the emissions can be harmful during the entire RC process from an exposure perspective. Trichloramine peaked at 36 times the recommended limit, chlorine gas at 73 % of the short-term exposure limit (15 min exposure), and chloroform at 9 % of the occupational exposure limit (8-hour workday average).To follow up previous measurements of greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), a new campaign was performed during several months in 2021. Generally, emissions observed in 2021 were significantly higher than in previous campaigns in the pilot and especially high N2O-emissions from the membrane-tank could be identified.

    No clear reason could be identified but the increased incoming load with a maintained effluent quality and a “better” sampling setup may partly be an explanation.In collaboration with Kemira, tests with a flux enhancer product were performed in 2021. However, no obvious positive or negative change in permeability due to dosing of flux enhancer was possible to identify based on continuously monitored process parameters and commonly observed variations in permeability and effect of membrane cleaning.  As the formation of foam is a common phenomenon in MBR plants, tests with an antifoaming agent were done by dosing in batches and continuously to the biological treatment during the period of heavy foaming (March-June).

    Even if foaming was not avoided, a good reduction and control of foaming could be achieved. An optimal effect was achieved with continuous dosages of > 10 ppm. However, even though the product has shown to have a positive effect in the MBR-pilot, a permanent use in full-scale may not be economically feasible due to the high consumption.Test with a reduced RAS flow from the design value of 4×Qin to 2×Qin was done with the aim to reduce energy consumption for pumping. A reduced RAS flow would however imply an increased sludge concentration in the membrane tanks, which may have negative effects on the membrane performance with more clogging and consequently increased aeration for membrane scouring and need for more frequent membrane cleaning.

    However, no negative effects of the reduced RAS-flow could be seen on the membrane performance.    During 2021, tests with a transition from mesophilic to thermophilic anaerobic digestion, dewatering of digested sludge after mesophilic and thermophilic digestion, and thermophilic digestion at high organic loading rate (OLR) and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) were performed in the sludge pilot. Results show that the transition from mesophilic to thermophilic digestion can be done without any major problems if the load was reduced during the most critical temperatures and that stable operation was achieved after 10-12 days. Evaluating the dewatering of mesophilically and thermophilically digested sludge was more difficult and no clear differences could be observed. However, it was concluded that used methods for determining dewaterability or optimal polymer dose are not reliable.

    Trials with high organic loading rate at thermophilic digestion showed that the digester performance could be maintained up to an OLR of around 4 kg VS/m3, d and an HRT of 12 d. When the load is further increased and HRT decreased, the performance in terms of VS reduction and biogas-/methane production decreased although the reactor operation was still stable.   The overall resource consumption in the pilot showed that the consumption of glycerol was the same as for the future Henriksdal design, even though the nitrogen load in the pilot was 21 % higher and the average effluent total nitrogen concentration was 3.9 mg TN/L compared to the design of 6 mg TN/L.

    Also, the iron/metal consumption was 73 % of the future Henriksdal design, although the phosphorus load to the pilot was about 50 % higher compared to design values and effluent phosphate concentrations were below the target concentration. This is mainly explained by the EBPR activity in the pilot. Also, the consumption of cleaning chemicals was lower than the future Henriksdal design although the inflow to the pilot was 30 % higher than design.

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    pH2040 årsrapport 2021 2022
  • 2.
    Andersson, Sofia Lovisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    Andersson, Sofia
    Karlsson, Jesper
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Narongin, Mayumi
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Carranza Munoz, Andrea
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Long term trials with membrane bioreactor for enhanced wastewater treatment coupled with compact sludge treatment -pilot Henriksdal 2040, results from 20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm’s wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in is currently retrofitting from a conventional activated sludge process to a new membrane bioreactor (MBR) process. It also includes new treatment steps for sludge handling. Stockholm Vatten och Avfall (SVOA) and IVL have since 2014 conducted long-term MBR studies in pilot scale at the R&D facility Hammarby Sjöstadsverk. This report present results from the pilot operation during 2020. 

    The MBR-pilot was continuously operated at a higher inflow than the design average flow. The average effluent concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus met the effluent requirements of the future WWTP also this year. A low consumption of phosphorus precipitation chemicals could be achieved mainly due to a high Bio-P activity. The pilot showed that glycerol can be a good temporary carbon source at Henriksdal WWTP during startup. 

    Like previous years, the membranes in membrane tank 1 (MT1) was cleaned with oxalic acid and the membranes in MT2 with citric acid. Several tests to optimize the chemical consumption for membrane cleaning were performed. Recovery cleanings (RC) of the membranes were performed twice in 2020.

    In the sludge pilot, a thermophilic and a mesophilic hydraulic retention time (HRT) crash test showed stable performance down to 4 days HRT. 

    The overall resource consumption in the pilot showed that the optimization of phosphorus precipitation and membrane cleaning chemicals resulted in a significantly lower dosing than design values for the future Henriksdal WWTP. 

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    fulltext
  • 3.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Sofia Lovisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Linus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Resultat från FoU-samarbete Syvab-IVL: Årsredovisning för 2020 - 20212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens reningsverk står inför flera utmaningar såsom ökad belastning, skärpta reningskrav, ett förändrat klimat, krav på ökad resurseffektivitet, en mer hållbar slamhantering och minskad miljöpåverkan från verksamheten. I en strävan att nå mer hållbara lösningar för avloppsvattenrening och slamhantering har IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet och Syvab haft ett långsiktigt forskningssamarbete. Under 2020 och 2021 har olika aktiviteter inom områdena klimat- och miljöpåverkan, slamhantering och processoptimering genomförts. Några av de aktiviteter som redovisas i denna rapport är fortfarande under genomförande och fortsätter även under 2022.  

    Några resultat från 2020/21 års arbete är följande: 

    - En simulering av framtida Himmerfjärdsverket 2030 med olika realistiska inflöden där infiltration och snabb avrinning varierats visar att mängden tillskottsvatten i inflödet påverkar reningsverkets miljöpåverkan. Framför allt en förändrad infiltration som ger ett minskat inflöde resulterar i en kraftig minskning av övergödningspotentialen, förbrukning av fossila resurser, klimatpåverkan, försurningspotential och förbrukningen av materialresurser.

    - Lutsgasmätningarna i den nya rejektvattenbehandlingen indikerade att 0,3 % av inkommande totalkväve emitterades som lustgas vilket är en total årlig lustgasemission från processen på ca 330 kg N2O/år eller 117,5 ton koldioxidekvivalenter årligen. Dessa emissioner är mycket lägre jämfört med mätningar i den tidigare deammonifikationsprocessen. Vid periodvisa problem i demonprocessen uppgår lustgasemissionerna dock till samma storleksordning som från den tidigare deammonifikationsprocessen.

    - Emissionsmätningar i huvudlinjen visade en genomsnittlig N2O-emissionsfaktor på ca 0,42 % (N2O-N/NH4-N-belastning). Vid en delvis hämning av nitrifikationen under mätperioden v41 kunde högre utsläpp av lustgas (1 % N2O-N/NH4-N-belastning) observeras. Vid en mer stabil nitrifikation minskar även lustgasemissioner igen till en emissionsfaktor på <0,4 %.

    - Mätningar för att kvantifiera växthusgasemissioner gjordes även i MBR-pilotanläggningen och ett medelvärde för lustgasemissionsfaktorn på ca 0,36 % N2O-N/NH4-N-belastning med ett högsta värde på 1,33 % beräknades. Även om det på grund av saknande data för luftflödet till membrantanken inte går att dra några slutsatser än så tyder dessa initiala mätningar ändå på högre lustgasemissioner från MBR-piloten jämfört med mätningar i IVLs MBR-pilot vid Hammarby Sjöstadsverk samt jämfört med nuvarande reningsprocess vid Himmerfjärdsverket.

    - Resultaten för rening av läkemedelsrester och PFAS för de två MBR-GAK-pilotlinjerna visar en fortsatt bra reningseffektivitet även om en förväntat avtagande effekt med ökade antal behandlade bäddvolymer observerades. Ett kolbyte har fortfarande inte behövts och PFOS-reningen sker fortfarande främst i MBR-processen. Medan första pilotlinjen bekräftar principförslaget så visar den andra pilotlinjen och övergripande resultat att signifikanta resurs- och kostnadsbesparingar kan åstadkommas jämfört med konventionell design om resultaten från pilotförsöken läggs som grund för en framtida fullskaleimplementering.

    - Olika åtgärder som rekommenderades i en genomförd utredning för att minska skumproblemet i piloten och för att undersöka en möjlig hantering i framtida Himmerfjärdsverket visar ett minskat skumtäcke i piloten. Ifall det beror på en minskad skumbildning eller ett effektivt avdrag av skummet kvarstår dock att utreda.

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    fulltext
  • 4.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Axegård, Peter
    Lazic, Aleksandra
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Framtidens slamhantering vid Roslagsvatten: Behandling av kommunalt orötat slam med HTC-teknik (OxyPower HTC™) och rening av HTC-vatten med SBR och MBBR2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of municipal sewage sludge has the potential to become one of the techniques for future sludge management at Swedish municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

    Some expected benefits of the HTC technology are a more sustainable sludge management and return of nutrients via the produced hydrochar, as well as other positive effects such as less greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leakage into the environment.

    At the same time, certain challenges such as the handling of process water and uncertainties about the properties of the produced hydrochar need to be investigated. In order to answer these questions and gather practical experience for HTC as a sludge management alternative, pilot trials with C-Green's OxyPower HTC™ have been carried out at Roslagsvattens WWTP in Margretelund, Åkersberga, Sweden.

    Undigested sludge was treated to produce hydrochar and the produced HTC water was used at KTH/IVL's pilot plant Hammarby Sjöstadsverk in various side- or mainstream bench- and pilot-scale tests for biological treatment.Hydrochar and sludge from Roslagsvattens WWTP in Margretelund were characterized and tested in growth trials with soil and peat.

    The formation of carbon dioxide in soil was also evaluated. In these studies, the results were also compared with hydrochar from four other substrates (digested food waste, stable manure, biosludge from treatment of process water from a pulp/paper mill and digested mixed sludge from municipal WWTPs).The project has shown that C-Green's OxyPower HTC™ is a possible technical alternative for treating Margretelund’s undigested sewage sludge. Various tests have illustrated that the technol¬ogy can reduce the sludge volume through an increase in TS to about 65 %, not only for sewage sludge but also for several other investigated substrates.

    Although the HTC pilot plant could not be run continuously as a full-scale plant, still a process stability could be demonstrated. Even though the process is basically exothermic and a net production of energy over the entire process can be observed, the process needs high-quality electrical energy for operation.

    An efficient utilization of the surplus heat that is produced thus becomes an important aspect to achieve resource efficiency. C-Green's OxyPower HTC™ is a compact process with relatively little surface area and costs for the process are judged to be dominated by operating costs in the form of energy and operating personnel.Tests with biological treatment of HTC water showed that a mixture with only reject water from sludge dewatering is not sufficient to achieve an effective purification to avoid an increased internal load on the mainstream process.

    Although an effective reduction of organic pollutants measured as COD could be achieved, both short-term bench-scale and long-term pilot-scale tests indicated a clear inhibition of nitrification. While no complete inhibition was observed, long-term tests clearly showed that an adaptation of the microbial community over time cannot be expected. At the same time, supplementary long-term pilot tests with biological treatment of both HTC-water and reject water in the mainstream process showed an effective reduction of both organic pollutants such as COD and ammonium. No inhibitory effects were indicated, which is due to the very strong dilution of any inhibitory substances in the HTC water.

    A return to the main treatment, however, means a greatly increased internal load, mainly with respect to organic pollutants and ammonium, which require extra process volumes if the effluent levels are not to be compromised.The HTC technology thus constitutes an interesting alternative for sludge management at Swedish WWTPs, which, however, requires consideration of several aspects: the facility's fitness to handle an increased internal load, today's sludge quality for producing good quality hydrochar, and a good integration into existing processes for optimal resource utilization.

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    Framtidens slamhantering vid Roslagsvatten
  • 5.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Carranza Munoz, Andrea
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Resultat från FoU-samarbete Syvab-IVL2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens reningsverk står inför flera utmaningar såsom ökad belastning, skärpta reningskrav, ett förändrat klimat, krav på ökad resurseffektivitet, en mer hållbar slamhantering och minskad miljöpåverkan från verksamheten.

    I en strävan att nå mer hållbara lösningar för avloppsvattenrening och slamhantering har IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet och Syvab haft ett långsiktigt forskningssamarbete. Under 2022 har olika aktiviteter inom områdena resursförbrukning, miljöpåverkan, slamhantering och processoptimering genomförts. Några av de aktiviteter som redovisas i denna rapport är fortfarande under genomförande och fortsätter även under 2023.  Några resultat från 2022 års arbete är följande:

    Långtidspilottester med teknikkombinationen av Syvabs framtida MBR-process och två parallella 2-stegs filter med granulerat aktivt kol (GAK) för rening av läkemedelsrester och PFAS visar en fortsatt bra reningseffektivitet även om en förväntat avtagande effekt med ökade antal behandlade bäddvolymer observerats. tt kolbyte har fortfarande inte behövts efter ca 2,5 år av drift (vid ca 70 000 behandlade bäddvolymer i de enstaka GAK-filtren). Jämfört med det befintliga principförslaget så visar pilottesterna att signifikanta resurs- och kostnadsbesparingar kan åstadkommas om resultaten från pilotförsöken läggs till grund för en framtida fullskaleimplementering.Utvärderingen av övervaknings- och styrningsmöjligheter av GAK-filtren med hjälp av UVA eller DOC indikerar att en övervakning av reningen baserat på endast dessa parameter inte kommer räcka till.

    Pilottester med en kombination av pulveriserat aktivt kol (PAK) och MBR-processen visar en mycket effektiv borttagning av studerade läkemedelsrester med >80 % redan vid en PAK-dos på ca 15 mg/l. Även PFOS renas bort effektivt med en avskiljning >98 %. Jämfört med teknikkombinationen MBR-GAK kan PAK-MBR alternativet ge ytterligare resursbesparingar samtidigt som andra utmaningar som slampåverkan p.g.a. PAK-tillsats behöver beaktas.

    En implementering av SIMBA#-processmodellen för MBR-piloten och utvärdering av återkommande nitrifikationshämningar i fullskaleanläggningen med hjälp av dataanalys visar potential för dessa verktyg som möjlig användning i framtiden.

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    Resultat från FoU-samarbete Syvab-IVL
  • 6.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kanders, Linda
    Lustgasutsläpp från behandlingen av rejektvatten vid Slottshagens reningsverk i Norrköping2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At Slottshagen wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), one of the first mappings of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from the reject water treatment was performed. The first measurements were carried out in 2012 and showed relatively high emissions of nitrous oxide with emissions corresponding to an average of 10 % of the incoming nitrogen load but periodically significantly higher emissions than that. Thus, it was concluded that the process, despite efficient nitrogen removal, contributed to a significant environmental impact. To reduce the negative environmental impact caused by the high emissions of nitrous oxide, which is a 298-fold stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, IVL developed various action strategies for Nodra AB that would result in reduced emissions both in the short and long term.

    As a quick measure, an adaptation of the ethanol dosing strategy was recommended to reduce emissions. A monitoring measurement showed that nitrous oxide emissions had been reduced to an average of 5-6 % of the average nitrogen load. The long-term recommendation to Nodra AB was to change the treatment process from Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR) with conventional nitrification and denitrification to a 1-step deammonification, which includes the biological processes nitration and anammox. After completion of the reconstruction in 2017, a new measurement campaign was performed in 2018. These measurements indicate significantly lower nitrous oxide emissions in the deammonification process (<1 % of the nitrogen load).

    A further optimization of the process with a focus on pH control, which was carried out in collaboration with Mälardalen University (MDH) and Purac AB, resulted in even lower emissions of <0.2 % of the nitrogen load. Although in this specific case, certain mitigation strategies were proposed, there may be several other action strategies possible. The most important part of a successful reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the knowledge of the current situation and the willingness to change a negative state. Nodra AB has been driving these questions and despite high emissions that were discovered during the mapping process, they have been continuously working to reduce these with the help of external expertise.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jingjing, YANG
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Niclas, BORNOLD
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kåre, TJUS
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Linda, KANDERS
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klara, WESTLING
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Direct GHG emissions from a pilot scale MBR-process treating municipal wastewater2022In: Advances in Climate Change Research, ISSN 1674-9278, E-ISSN 2524-1761, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 138-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate direct greenhouse gas emissions from Membrane Biological Reactor (MBR), measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) were made at a pilot-scale MBR treating municipal wastewater Measurements were conducted during two campaigns with some changes in processes, i.e. introducing a pre-aeration tank in the second measurement, different distributions of aeration in the treatment line, not the same wastewater inflow rate, two types of ultrafiltration membrane. It was found that about 0.004% and 0.07% of the total ammonium loads were emitted as N2O, CH4 emissions were 0.026% and 0.12% of incoming TOC (0.008% and 0.04% of incoming COD) in 2014 and 2018. The obtained N2O emission values were relatively low.

    The study suggested that a high aeration at the beginning of the treatment line may result in significantly high emissions of both N2O and CH4. A significant change in aeration in the membrane ultrafiltration tank did not have the same impact. The MBR process is known for high quality effluent but have been questioned due to its higher carbon footprint due to energy consumption. This study gave a reference case about direct GHG emissions from MBR process and provide information for the further evaluation of MBR processes.

  • 8.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malovanyy, Andriy
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lovisa Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Resultat från FoU-samarbete Syvab-IVL - Årsredovisning för 20192020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens reningsverk står inför flera utmaningar såsom skärpta reningskrav, ett förändrat klimat, krav på ökad resurseffektivitet, en mer hållbar slamhantering och minskad miljöpåverkan från verksamheten. I en strävan att nå mer hållbara lösningar för avloppsvattenrening och slamhantering har IVL och Syvab haft ett långsiktigt forskningssamarbete. Under 2019 har olika aktiviteter inom områdena klimat- och miljöpåverkan, slamhantering och processoptimering genomförts. Några av de aktiviteter som redovisas i denna rapport är fortfarande under genomförande och fortsätter även under 2020.

    Några aktiviteter från 2019 års arbete som presenteras är:
    • Utvärdering av olika slamtorkningstekniker.
    • Modeller för att generera realistiska inflödesscenarier och simulera drift av framtida processlösning.
    • Mätningar av lustgasemissioner från rejektvattenrening.
    • Sammanställning av tidigare utredningar och försök kring rening av läkemedelsrester i avloppsvatten.
    • En förstudie av kombinationen pulveriserat aktivt kol (PAK) och MBR-processen.
    • Tester med produktion av biokol från torkat slam.
    • Undersökning av mikroföroreningar vid högflöde.
    • Produktion av intern kolkälla till reningsprocessen från organiska restprodukter.

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  • 9.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Narongin-Fujikawa, Mayumi
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lundwall, Ted
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bornold, Niclas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söhr, Sara
    Syvab.
    Pulveriserat aktivt kol i kombination med MembranBioReaktor (PAK-MBR): Etablering och tester med en pilotanläggning vid Hammarby Sjöstadsverk2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 2020 - 2022 har Syvab med hjälp av medel från Naturvårdsverket och i samverkan med IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet genomfört en utvärdering av teknikkombinationen pulveriserat aktivt kol med MembranBioReaktor, d.v.s. PAK-MBR avseende för rening av mikroföroreningar. IVL har bidragit med att etablera och drifta pilotanläggningen. Teknikkombinationen har tidigare diskuterats som en potentiell avancerad reningsteknik, framförallt för rening av läkemedelsrester från avloppsvatten, men brist på kunskap och erfarenheter om tekniken har varit ett hinder för att betrakta tekniken som ett tänkbart alternativ vid svenska avloppsreningsverk (ARV).

    Etableringen av PAK-MBR-pilotanläggningen vid Hammarby Sjöstadsverk kunde avslutas under 2021, trots stora utmaningar med bl.a. förseningar orsakat av coronapandemin. Pilotanläggningen bestod av två identiska MBR-pilotlinjer. För en pilotlinje doserades det även in PAK. PAK-dosering till membrantanken gjordes med fyra olika PAK-doser (5-25 mg/L) inklusive en kontroll, och utvärderades för avskiljning av primärt olika organiska mikroföroreningar där bl.a. högfluorerade ämnen (PFAS) också ingick. Utöver de utvalda organiska mikroföroreningarna undersöktes även reningsgrad för hormonstörande effekter, bakterier och antibiotikaresistenta bakterier. Försöken med MBR och MBR-PAK hade två syften: dels att på ett generellt plan undersöka hur väl organiska mikroföroreningar avskiljs av teknikkombinationen PAK-MBR, dels att undersöka vid vilken PAK-dos som ledde till högst reningsgrad av de utvalda mikroföroreningarna.

    Resultaten visade att en mycket effektiv borttagning av de studerade läkemedelsrester erhölls med >80 % redan vid en PAK-dos på ca 15 mg/L. Även hormonstörande effekter avlägsnades markant vid 2 av 3 undersökta PAK-doser och i det tredje fallet var en lägre reningsgrad sannolikt förknippat med högre inkommande halter av östradiol till PAK-MBR-processen. PFOS (perfluorooktansyra, ett högfluorerat ämne), kunde renas bort mycket effektivt med en avskiljning >98 % med hjälp av teknikkombinationen PAK-MBR. För den andra pilotlinjen, där PAK inte doserades till membrantanken (referenslinjen), avskildes PFOS också mycket effektivt (>90 %). Någon avskiljning av andra högfluorerade ämnen (PFAS), som för denna rapport utvärderas med summaparametern PFAS11, var inte lika tydlig för någon av pilotlinjerna. Däremot visade pilotlinjen PAK-MBR en något bättre reningseffekt jämfört med referenslinjen utan PAK-tillsats.    

    För bedömning av miljöpåverkan och kostnader jämfördes framför allt PAK-MBR med en annan teknikkombination bestående av MBR-GAK. Den senare teknikkombinationen testas för närvarande i pilotskala av Syvab och IVL och under 2019 tog Ramboll fram ett principförslag av denna teknikkombination. I jämförelsen bedömdes det att resursförbrukningen och kostnaderna var avsevärt mindre för PAK-MBR jämfört med MBR-GAK, vilket bl.a. kan förklaras med att inga extra processvolymer behövs och att endast en PAK-lagring och -dosering krävs för PAK-MBR processen. Från pilottesterna framgick det dessutom att en mindre, eller en nästan jämförbar mängd aktivt kol som i MBR-GAK-alternativet behövdes. I jämförelse med andra tekniker, möjliggör PAK-MBR en belastningsstyrd (flödesstyrd) resursförbrukning. Detta kan innebära en framtida användning av biobaserat aktivt kol där exempelvis biokol kan tillverkas från avloppsslam och andra substrat. PAK ger också en positiv effekt på slamavvattningen och på rötningen, vilket kan ge ytterligare resursbesparingar.

    Sammanfattningsvis framstår teknikkombinationen PAK-MBR som den mest resurseffektiva avancerade reningsteknik för de reningsverk som redan har en befintlig MBR-process. Förutom att investeringskostnader kan hållas på en låg nivå, uppnår teknikkombinationen med PAK-MBR en mycket bred reningseffekt för många olika typer av mikroföroreningar. Med bred reningseffekt menas samtliga studerade parametrar, dvs. att en effektiv och delvis komplett rening av hormonstörande effekter, mikroplaster, PFOS, bakterier och antibiotikaresistenta bakterier också erhölls. Utöver dessa nämnda parametrar visade MBR-tekniken också att den kunde åstadkomma den mest effektiva reningen av vanliga föroreningar såsom närsalter, partiklar och biologiskt nedbrytbart material.

    Potentiella nackdelar med tekniken såsom överföring av mikroföroreningar till slamfasen behöver inte nödvändigtvis utgöra ett hinder för en framtida teknikimplementering. Istället, och för en möjlig reduktion av organiska mikroföroreningar, kan en ökad ackumulering av många organiska mikroföroreningar i slammet fasa ut återrecirkuleringen av dessa föroreningar till samhället och miljön. Framgent rekommenderas fler kompletterande tester med PAK-MBR-tekniken för att utforska potentialen av tekniken, hur den bäst styrs och övervakas och för att identifiera möjliga synergier med MBR-processen. Vi vill också betona att kompletterande tester även kan leda till upptäckten av andra eventuella bieffekter som ännu inte har identifierats.

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