IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroplast i Stockholms stad - Källor, spridningsvägar och förslag till åtgärder för att skydda Stockholms stads vattenförekomster2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts av IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet på uppdrag av Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad i syfte att ta fram underlag till den handlingsplan för minskad spridning av mikroplast som miljöförvaltningen har fått ett uppdrag i Kommunfullmäktiges budget för 2018 att ta fram.

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  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    De Wit, Pierre
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Robert, Chloé
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar Del 3 – Underlag för bedömning av bevarandevärde av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are keystone species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other or-ganisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Con-servation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodi-versity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    Marine species with high dispersal potential, such as Mytilus and to some extent Ostrea, have historically been thought unlikely to show genetic differentiation on local scales. However, it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that dispersal barriers caused by, for example, current conditions or lack of suitable habitats, are common and can result in genetically differentiated subpopulations on geographically small scales. This means that knowledge of genetic structures can contribute valuable information for the establishment of effective management strategies for different species, for example through analysis of genetic diversity and dispersal mechanisms. For example, knowledge of population structures, local recruitment patterns and dispersal of larvae are of great value to ensure a good genetic basis for the conservation of source- and sink populations and to maintain a good recruitment base and spread of new individuals. For both Mytilus and Ostrea, information about genetic structures, recruitment patterns and larval dispersal is lacking in Sweden, hence limiting the possibilities of assessing the conservation value of different bivalve beds.This report presents the work done to fill this knowledge gap and thereby support the identifica-tion of valuable Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds for species conservation (WP3 in the project). With the help of genetic analyses, large-scale patterns of distribution of the different "species" of the gene-ra Mytilus and Ostrea in the Skagerrak have been studied. The aim was to analyse genetic diversi-ty and gene flow between different areas in the Skagerrak and to identify possible barriers to larval transport along the coasts of Sweden and Norway. To further study the connectivity (de-fined as how well areas are linked to each other by sea currents, eg larval transport from one population to another) between different populations, the spread of particles (eggs and larvae) from Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds was also evaluated using an oceanographic distribution model (ROMS / OpenDrift). The aim was also to identify important areas where larvae from several areas gather (sink areas) as well as important areas which contribute to a high dispersal of larvae (source regions).

    The results from both the oceanographic trajectory modelling and genetic analysis were con-sistent for Mytilus and illustrated a general transport of larvae northwards along the coast. The results also showed that beds located in the inner archipelago were more isolated than beds in the outer part of the archipelago, especially inside of the islands Tjörn and Orust, and in the Oslo Fjord. A barrier was also observed between Tvedestrand and Kragerö along the Norwegian coast. The southern European species M. galloprovencialis was also observed in Swedish waters for the first time, in several different places, but in a low proportion of the total number of mussels sampled. Genetic monitoring of this alien species is desirable to study how the occurrence of the species develops in the future and how it interacts with local populations of M. edulis.For Ostrea, the genetic patterns and results from the oceanographic modelling were less con-sistent. The dispersal simulations showed that sites in the inner archipelago had little larval ex-change with other areas, while sites in the central archipelago had the most exchange of larvae both among themselves and, above all, with sites in the outer archipelago. The genetic data, how-ever, did not show a clear geographical structure. This is attributed to historical movements of oysters. Common to Mytilus and Ostrea is that larvae were in general transported northwards along the coast of Sweden, and that larvae from many different sites seem to gather in the archi-pelago around the Koster island (sink area). Based on the back-tracking of larvae, important source areas for larvae were found further south between Öckerö and Väderöarna (source areas).

    Based on the results presented in this report, it is concluded that both the Mytilus and the Ostrea populations in different geographical areas along the Swedish west coast should be managed as separate sub-units as extensive genetic structures and dispersal barriers were observed for both species. For example, it may be important to preserve populations in the Gothenburg area and in the area around Koster, as one is an important source area with the potential to contribute to significant dispersal of both species, and the other was identified to be an important sink area where large numbers of larvae gather. It is also important to preserve both nearshore and off-shore beds due to the low larval dispersal between these two environments. The bivalve beds in the central archipelago receive larvae from both the outer and the inner archipelago, so it is pos-sible that these beds can act as bridges/steppingstones and connect beds in the outer and inner archipelago. Some areas, such as the area inside the islands of Orust and Tjörn were found to be more or less isolated, illustrating the importance of local management that takes into account the lack of larval transport in and out of the area. With regard to the Orust area, it is also important to study how the large number of mussel farms in the area affect the wild populations.All in all, the project has resulted in valuable knowledge that can support the development of constructive and long-term sustainable management strategies for both Mytilus and Ostrea, but that there is also a need for further knowledge building connected to certain aspects, especially linked to the dispersal and population structures for Ostrea as well as to the interactions between farmed and wild Mytilus.

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  • 3. Koroschetz, Bianca
    et al.
    Sköld, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harrie, Per
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eko Marina II - Fortsättningsprojekt av miljömärkning av fritidsbåtshamnar: Underlag för att vidareutveckla miljömärkningssystem för fritidsbåtshamnar som syftar till att minska belastningen på vattenmiljön2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet ”Miljömärkning av fritidsbåtshamnar” – Eko Marina I, (Koroschetz m.fl., 2020) tog IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet tillsammans med Havsmiljöinstitutet fram ett miljöindex för fritidsbåtshamnar, som består av en samling skräddarsydda kriterier för att minska miljöföroreningarna från verksamheter kopplade till fritidsbåtshamnar. I fortsättningsprojektet Eko Marina II var syftet att utveckla och förbättra miljöindexet, samt att utvärdera tillämpningsbarheten av indexet i samarbete med olika typer av fritidsbåtshamnar. Detta gjordes genom att via en enkät testa de tidigare framtagna indexkriterierna i samverkan med 17 olika fritidsbåtshamnar. Utifrån inkomna svar på enkäten, samt kompletterande kommentarer från fritidsbåtshamnar och andra aktörer, har ett omarbetat förslag på index tagits fram, kallat Index 2.0, som är lämpligt för alla typer av hamnar – gästhamnar, hamnar som drivs av ideella föreningar, såväl som kommersiella fritidsbåtshamnar.

    Projektet har också tagit fram stöddokumentation med förklaringar och checklistor för olika kriterier i miljöindexet (till exempel förslag till en miljöpolicy) samt handlingsplaner för olika miljöproblem, till exempel för förorenade områden. Förutom att utveckla miljöindexet vidare har projektet resulterat i ett första konkret förslag till affärsmodell som inkluderar en app och hemsida samt potentiella samarbetspartners. Rapporten presenterar också de förväntande positiva effekterna för fritidsbåtshamnar t. ex ett konkret stöd i miljöarbetet, men också ekonomiska incitament för att vara med i miljömärkningen. Här beskrivs också hur miljömärkningen kan underlätta miljötillsynen för kommunerna och fritidsbåtshamnar.

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  • 4.
    Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Dinis Reis
    Chalmers.
    Granhag, Lena
    Chalmers.
    Larsson, Ann I.
    Univeristy of Gothenburg.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Chalmers.
    Are silicone foul-release coatings a viable and environmentally sustainable alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings in the Baltic Sea region?2022In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 184, p. 114102-114102, article id 114102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combat unwanted fouling on immersed hulls, biocidal antifouling coatings are commonly applied to vessels trafficking the Baltic Sea. Here, the efficacy, environmental sustainability and market barriers of silicone foul-release coatings (FRCs) was assessed for this region to evaluate their viability as replacements for biocidal coatings. Coated panels were exposed statically over a 1 year period at three locations in the Baltic Sea region to assess the long-term performance of a biocide-free FRC and two copper coatings. The FRC was found to perform equally well or significantly better than the copper coatings. Even though most silicone FRCs on the market are biocide-free, a review of the literature regarding toxic effects and the identity and environmental fate of leachables shows that they may not be completely environmentally benign, simply for the lack of biocides. Nonetheless, FRCs are substantially less toxic compared to biocidal antifouling coatings and their use should be promoted.

  • 5. Lagerström, Maria
    et al.
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessment of efficacy and excess toxicity of antifouling paints for leisure boats: A guide for copper-based antifouling paints intended for use in the Baltic Sea regio2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of antifouling paints in the European Union falls under the Biocide Products regulation (BPR, Regulation (EU) 528/2012) and consists of two assessments: an environmental risk assessment (ERA) and an efficacy assessment. The efficacy assessment is key for the placement of an antifouling paint on the market as a biocidal product must be shown to be effective to gain approval. At the same time, the BPR states clearly that biocidal products should not be excessively toxic, i.e. release active substances to the environment in excess of the minimum necessary to achieve the desired effect. This report provides a summary of current knowledge, based on several years of research, about efficaciy and excess toxicity of antifouling paints intended for use on leisure boats in the Baltic Sea region.

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  • 6.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reamon, Molly C.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet / Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 1 Nulägesanalys av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar i Sverige.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems and they contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus and Ostrea banks have declined in number and extent in Europe, and there are also strong indications of a similar situation for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, knowledge of population sizes is generally lacking, which makes assessments of population development difficult.

    The threat assessment carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus and Ostrea beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalve beds in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. Swedish populations are, however, more or less spared from these factors and other aspects can therefore be assumed to have a greater impact on popu-lation development. However, other factors can also affect population development. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) will worsen the conditions for Mytilus and Ostrea stocks in Sweden.

    In this project, data from historical (1970s onwards) surveys was compiled with the aim of evaluating whether analysis of temporal changes in bivalve populations was possible. A review of historical data from Bohuslän did not generate any time series that could contribute to an as-sessment of the population development of Mytilus and Ostrea.

    In addition, the review showed that the survey methods used differed between studies and over time, and that there was a lack of a standardized definition of what is designated as a bivalve bed. Overall, this illustrates the need for continuity and standardized monitoring of bivalve beds, including a clear definition of what counts as a bivalve bed. This could support the development of time series to monitoring trends in the population development of the target species.

    The compilation of the historical data was also combined with a threat analysis focusing on interactions with the invasive Pacific oyster, with mapping of current distribution patterns and monitoring to evaluate present day population development, as well as with an analysis of short-term changes in population distribution and/or densities. This information was combined in an analysis aimed to evaluate the current status of the Mytilus and Ostrea beds.

    The threat analysis showed that, in the short term, the main threat to the Swedish bivalve populations is probably disease outbreaks and parasites due to the continued commercial importation of live shellfish. In a more long-term perspective, climate change and the increasing presence of environmental tox-ins may pose serious threats to shallow, coastal, environments. Even though the invasive Pacific oyster to a large extent has overlapping habitats and ecological functions with the native species, no signs of negative interactions with the native bivalves were observed in this project.

    Monitor-ing of population development in selected bivalve beds showed a decrease in density of both Mytilus and Ostrea over the projects lifetime (2018-2021), a pattern that was also strengthened for Mytilus through the results of the re-survey of previously surveyed beds. For Ostrea, the re-survey of previously surveyed sites showed a more scattered pattern with an increase in the number of oysters in some beds while the number of oysters in other beds had decreased.

    Overall, it was concluded that it is likely that a reduction in Mytilus occurred during the 1990s and has continued onwards, and that more information is required to determine both the extent and cause of the patterns observed.

    Based on the results in this project, four main actions are recommended to improve the state of knowledge for both Mytilus and Ostrea. Firstly, species-specific definitions of what is regarded as a bivalve bed should be developed. The definition should include information on cover-age/density, size, patchiness, and presence of Pacific oysters. The definition should also be aligned with international frameworks and take field conditions into account.

    Second, monitor-ing programs that record distribution and changes in demographic parameters (e.g., population density/recovery/biomass, recruitment, mortality, and growth) for both Mytilus and Ostrea should be established. Time series of data is the only thing that enables the analysis of population development and the identification of threats.

    Thirdly, infrastructure and routines for storing inventory data and implementation in accordance with the FAIR principle are needed to ensure that historical data is not lost. A lot of data is lost when it is stored within specific projects and with individuals. As data is often collected within ongoing research projects, solutions for storage with a publication embargo for actors other than those who collected the data should be ex-plored.

    Finally, continued knowledge building is required about both general and specific threats and possible measures that can reduce the threats. Examples of such activities are impact analy-sis of various risk factors and combinations of these, knowledge development about the effects of harvesting of wild Ostrea and establishment of activity-based management, and knowledge de-velopment regarding food competition and other interactions between Pacific oysters and our native bivalves.

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  • 7. Sjöholm, Johanna
    et al.
    Eriander, Louise
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sköld, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harrie, Per
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Feldtmann, Melissa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lundström, Helena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Robijn, Ardo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eko Marina III - Inventering, kartläggning och miljömärkning av Sveriges fritidsbåtshamnar: Inventering av Sveriges fritidsbåtshamnar, kartläggning av fritidsbåtshamnars uppbyggnad samt utvecklig av prototyp för Eko Marinas miljömärkningssystem2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eko Marina III är den tredje delen av ett projekt som påbörjades i oktober 2019, med övergripande syfte att undersöka förutsättningarna för att utveckla en miljömärkning för fritidsbåtshamnar för att minska deras negativa miljöpåverkan. Denna del av projektet har fokuserat på tre primära områden: 1. en inventering av Sveriges fritidsbåtshamnar, 2. en kartläggning över hur fritidbåtshamnarna ser ut samt 3. utvecklingen av ett digitalt verktyg som kan bära miljömärkningsindexet, men också utgöra en stödplattform för fritidsbåtshamnarna i deras miljöarbete. Inventeringen resulterade i att 2 654 fritidsbåtshamnar listades. Det tidigare antagandet om att omkring 1 500 fritidsbåtshamnar finns i Sverige har därmed visat sig vara en kraftig underskattning.

    För att undersöka hur intresset bland fritidsbåthamnarna såg ut för ett digitalt verktyg för stöd i sitt miljöarbete tillfrågades även hamnrepresentanterna i enkätundersökning om vilka olika digitala funktioner de hade ett intresse av. Projektgruppen valde att arbeta vidare med att utveckla ett stödsystem för egenkontroll, vilket 73 procent av respondenterna svarade att de hade ett medel- till stort intresse av. Detta beslut grundade sig dels på respondenternas svar, men även på de intervjuer med fritidsbåtshamnar som har gjorts under projektet, där det blivit tydligt att många hamnar saknar kunskap och förståelse för sitt miljöansvar och behöver stöd för att upprätta en systematisk egenkontroll för att undvika att utsläpp sker. För att illustrera hur den digitala stödplattformen (verktyget) som utvecklats i detta projekt kan användas i olika typer av verksamheter och vilka funktioner som kan ingå, valdes exemplet båtbottentvätt, där en stegvis genomgång av egenkontrollen presenteras i bilaga 5.

    Det digitala verktygets övergripande syfte är att hjälpa fritidsbåtshamnar att upprätta ett systematiskt egenkontrollarbete där risker identifieras, rutiner och åtgärder tas fram, arbetet dokumenteras och följs upp för att säkerställa att hamnens miljöpåverkan på havsmiljön minimeras. En prototyp av det digitala verktyget har under projektet visats upp för en arbetsgrupp och referensgrupp bestående av branschorganisationer, hamnar, myndigheter och forskare. Överlag var mottagandet positivt – deltagarna såg många möjligheter för effektivisering av den egna verksamheten, driva miljöengagemang hos klubbmedlemmar samt stöd för att prioritera utvecklingen av miljöarbetet hamnarna. Däremot uppfattades komplexiteten och detaljnivån som ett potentiellt hinder för hamnar som inte har kommit långt i miljöarbetet. En utmaning i det framtida utvecklingsarbetet blir att hitta ett sätt att möta och kunna hantera fritidsbåtshamnarnas heterogenitet, där variation av hamnarnas finansiella förutsättningar, kunskap i miljöbalken samt kommunernas fokus på tillsyn är så olika.

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  • 8.
    Strand, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kläckning av Ostrea edulis i havsbaserade tankar - Biologisk och teknisk förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för odling av det platta ostronet, Ostrea edulis, i Sverige är stort men kommersiell odling hindras i dagens läge av brist på yngel. Varken insamling av yngel med havsbaserade kollektorer eller produktion i landbaserade kläckerier har kunnat ge en tillförlitlig tillgång till yngel, och import av yngel är riskabelt ur ett smittskyddsperspektiv. En möjlig lösning på detta kan vara dammproduktion av yngel. På grund av ett högt exploateringstryck på den svenska västkusten är dock tillgången till mark för konstruktion av dammar begränsad, speciellt i områden med god vattenkvalitet, varför nya tekniska lösningar krävs.

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  • 9.
    Strand, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet och Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane. T
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 2 - Metoder för restaurering och skydd av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organ-isms and to several other important ecosystem services. In recent years, both Mytilus- and Os-trea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden.

    For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Conservation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodiversity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    The threat analysis carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalves in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. The Swedish bivalve populations, however, are more or less spared from these impact factors. Nevertheless, other factors can also affect population de-velopment. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster may impact the populations of Mytilus and Ostrea in Sweden negatively.

    All in all, there are good reasons to explore the possible alternatives for supporting the development of the Mytilus- and Ostrea-populations, and also methods that could be used if the Pacific oyster prove to impact the native bivalve populations negatively. The purpose of this project was therefore to produce a knowledge base for the establishment of management models for the pro-tection of Sweden's populations of Mytilus and Ostrea. Part of this work include knowledge building, both theoretical and practical, about possible restoration measures of bivalve beds, e.g. removal of Pacific oysters or stock enhancement.

    To summarise, a number of performed activities are discussed in this report, including a removal experiment in which Pacific oysters were removed from both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds, a stock enhancement experiment with Ostrea in which juveniles of Ostrea were placed on different sites, and several different studies on stock enhancement of Mytilus, including studies of biological conditions and methodology for population enhancement.

    The removal experiments demonstrated that it was possible to clear Pacific oysters from bivalve beds but that this is time consuming and complicated, especially in Mytilus beds. In terms of numbers of oysters the effect of the removal was short-lived. Already one year after the removal, the number of Pacific oysters was equal, or higher, to the number before the experiment. In terms of biomass, however, many of the cleared sites did not show complete recovery och the biomass of the invasive species. How long the recolonization time was before the original biomass was re-established is unknown, but calculations indicate that this time is longer than for the abundance of oysters. Better technologies must be developed for more resource-efficient efforts if this type of activity is to be carried out regularly. Additionally, ways to utilize the harvested biomass of Pacific oysters must be established.

    The stock enhancement experiments also showed that it was possible to re-establish bivalve beds on a pilot scale. Even in sites with good conditions, however, the target species will decrease after relaying. In the experiments performed, the survival of Ostrea (about 30-50 mm in length when re-laid) on the best sites was only about 16% after 2 years, and for Mytilus the cover of mussels (a mixture of large and small mussels) decreased by almost 50% in one year and the survival was about 20% after this period of time. In general, predation was observed to be a problem for both species. Small and medium-sized Mytilus were greatly affected by eider duck, while shore crabs caused high mortality for Ostrea. Site-specific conditions were also of great importance for the success of the experiments.

    Examples of factors discussed in this report are, in addition to the presence of predators, also ice-cover, substrate, the possibility of moving in organisms for resto-ration experiments/activities, depth and exposure. It is obvious that much can be gained from solid preparatory work before stock enhancement activities are initiated. The experiences from the project also illustrate the importance of protection against exploitation of the restored populations and a good relationship with authorities and landowners.

    A unique activity in the project that, to our knowledge, has not been tested before is the use of residual mussels from commercial mussel production for stock enhancement of Mytilus. By using waste mussels, increased circularity and improved resource utilization in aquaculture produc-tion can be achieved, with both ecological and economic gains as important natural environments are recreated and costs for waste management from production is reduced for the aquaculture companies.

    However, it remains to be explored how extensive this type of activity can be as the goal in mussel farming is, of course, to produce a product without fouling.

    In addition, the regulatory conditions for this type of use must be established.Finally, the report discusses a number of development needs that should be studied further be-fore future stock enhancement experiments. Among these aspects, monitoring of ongoing activi-ties and success rate of restoration should be implemented, guidelines for site selection should be established, optimized techniques for restoration adapted to local conditions should be devel-oped, and the ecosystem services that the bivalve beds can support should be documented in future work.

    An important part of this is to learn from existing knowledge but also to put this knowledge into a local context with the goal of identifying important knowledge gaps for context relevant activities. Combined, these activities can be a first step towards establishing a manual for the restoration of mussels and oysters in Sweden.

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  • 10.
    Wilhelmsson, Jens
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    AI som verktyg för klassificering av  ostronyngel från havsbaserade kollektorer2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien är en fortsättning och vidareutveckling av ett tidigare projekt (Wilhelmsson et al.2020). I det tidigare projektet slogs det fast att det är möjligt att klassificera ostron som antingen Magallana gigas (fortsättningsvis endast Gigas) eller Ostrea edulis (fortsättningsvis endast Edulis) med hjälp av AI-baserad bildbehandlingsteknik.

    Ostronen som användes i det tidigare projektet hade tillåtits växa till sig under ca 11 månader i korgar efter att ha skördats från kollektorer och var även manuellt rengjorda innan fotografering.

    Det långsiktiga målet med ostronklassificeringen är att kunna sortera ostron automatiskt direkt när de skördas från kollektorer, eftersom det är i det skedet som ostronodlare är i störst behov av ensortering. Genom att sortera ostron direkt vid skörd från kollektorer säkerställs även att inga ostron hunnit bli könsmogna och därför heller inte hunnit föröka sig.

    Att sortera direkt från kollektor innebär dock att ostronen som ska klassificeras kommer vara blandade med kalkrester från kollektorerna, samt diverse havslevande organismer i form av marin påväxt.

    Därför behöver klassificeraren inte bara kunna se skillnad på olika ostronarter utan även identifiera vad i skörden från kollektorerna som är ostron och ej.

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  • 11.
    Wilhelmsson, Jens
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hunter, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klassificering av ostronyngel med hjälp av artificiell intelligens2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL har i ett samarbete mellan projekt finansierade av Jordbruksverket, Interreg (MarGenII) och H2020 (AquaVitae) utvecklat ett bildidentifieringsprogram som kan särskilja yngel av de inhemska platta ostronen i Sverige från de invasiva stillahavsostronen. Över 98 procent av bilderna klassificeras korrekt, visar projektets slutrapport

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  • 12.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The Barnacle Balanus improvisus as a Marine Model - Culturing and Gene Expression2018In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Vol. 138, article id e57825Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Barnacles are marine crustaceans with a sessile adult and free-swimming, planktonic larvae. The barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) improvisus is particularly relevant as a model for the studies of osmoregulatory mechanisms because of its extreme tolerance to low salinity. It is also widely used as a model of settling biology, in particular in relation to antifouling research.

    However, natural seasonal spawning yields an unpredictable supply of cyprid larvae for studies. A protocol for the all-year-round culturing of B. improvisus has been developed and a detailed description of all steps in the production line is outlined (i.e., the establishment of adult cultures on panels, the collection and rearing of barnacle larvae, and the administration of feed for adults and larvae). The description also provides guidance on troubleshooting and discusses critical parameters (e.g., the removal of contamination, the production of high-quality feed, the manpower needed, and the importance of high-quality seawater).

    Each batch from the culturing system maximally yields roughly 12,000 nauplii and can deliver four batches in a week, so up to almost 50,000 larvae per week can be produced. The method used to culture B. improvisus is, probably, to a large extent also applicable to other marine invertebrates with free-swimminglarvae. Protocols are presented for the dissection of various tissues from adults as well as the production of high-quality RNA for studies on gene expression. It is also described how cultured adults and reared cyprids can be utilized in a wide array of experimental designs for examining gene expression in relation to external factors. The use of cultured barnacles in gene expression is illustrated with studies of possible osmoregulatory roles of Na+/K+ ATPase and aquaporins.

  • 13.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sköld, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    MILJÖMÄRKNING AV FRITIDSBÅTSHAMNAR Underlag för ett miljömärkningssystem som syftar till att minska belastningen från fritidsbåtshamnar på den marina miljön2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fritidsbåtshamnar har en betydande miljöpåverkan och är redan idag föremål för en rad olika krav och regler. Projektet har undersökt potentialen för hur ett miljömärkningssystem kan användas som ett styrinstrument för att minska miljöpåverkan från fritidsbåthamnar. Rapporten har tagits fram av Havsmiljöinstitutet i samarbete med IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet på uppdrag av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten. Rapportförfattarna ansvarar för innehållet och slutsatserna i rapporten, vilket inte innebär något ställningstagande från Havs- och vattenmyndighetens sida.

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  • 14.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    R Barboza, Francisco
    Ferreira, Joao
    Eriksson-Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Ytreberg, Erik
    R. Jonsson, Per
    Watermann, Burkard
    Dahlström, Mia
    Monitoring biofouling as a management tool for reducing toxic antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea.2020In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 264, article id 110447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over two million leisure boats use the coastal areas of the Baltic Sea for recreational purposes. The majority of these boats are painted with toxic antifouling paints that release biocides into the coastal ecosystems and negatively impact non-targeted species. Regulations concerning the use of antifouling paints differ dramatically between countries bordering the Baltic Sea and most of them lack the support of biological data. In the present study, we collected data on biofouling in 17 marinas along the Baltic Sea coast during three consecutive boating seasons (May–October 2014, 2015 and 2016). In this context, we compared different monitoring strategies and developed a fouling index (FI) to characterise marinas according to the recorded biofouling abundance and type (defined according to the hardness and strength of attachment to the substrate). Lower FI values, i.e. softer and/or less abundant biofouling, were consistently observed in marinas in the northern Baltic Sea. The decrease in FI from the south-western to the northern Baltic Sea was partially explained by the concomitant decrease in salinity. Nevertheless, most of the observed changes in biofouling seemed to be determined by local factors and inter-annual variability, which emphasizes the necessity for systematic monitoring of biofouling by end-users and/or authorities for the effective implementation of non-toxic antifouling alternatives in marinas. Based on the obtained results, we discuss how monitoring programs and other related measures can be used to support adaptive management strategies towards more sustainable antifouling practices in the Baltic Sea.

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