IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Bergström, Per
    et al.
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Thorngren, Linnea
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Fiskebäckskil Sweden.
    Lindegarth, Mats
    Department of Marine Sciences –Tjärnö University of Gothenburg Tjärnö Sweden.
    Identifying high‐density areas of oysters using species distribution modeling: Lessons for conservation of the native Ostrea edulis and management of the invasive Magallana ( Crassostrea ) gigas in Sweden2021In: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 11, no 10, p. 5522-5532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimUnderstanding spatial patterns of the distribution of adult native oyster, Ostrea edulis, and the invasive Magallana (Crassostrea) gigas is important for management of these populations. The aim of this study was to use ensemble SDM’s to (a) identify and predict conservation hotspots, (b) assess the current level of protection for O. edulis, and (c) quantify the amount of overlap between the two species where interactions with M. gigas are most likely.

    LocationSkagerrak, Sweden.

    MethodsWe used data collected by video at depths from 0.5 to 10 m in 436 sites. Models of occurrence and densities >1 m−2 were fitted and assessed using ensemble methods (“biomod2” package). Models of high-density hotspots were used to predict, map, and quantify areal extent of the species in order to assess the degree of overlap with protected areas and the potential for interactions between the two species.

    ResultsBoth species were widely distributed in the region. Observations of high-density habitats, mainly occurring at depths of ≈3 and 0.5 m for O. edulis and M. gigas, respectively, were found in 4% and 2% of the sites. Models provided useful predictions for both species (AUC = 0.85–0.99; sensitivity = 0.74–1.0; specificity = 0.72–0.97). High-density areas occupy roughly 15 km2 each with substantial overlap between species. 50% of these are protected only by fisheries regulations, 44% are found in Natura 2000 reserves and 6% of the predicted O. edulis enjoys protection in a national park.

    Main conclusionsData collection by video in combination with SDM’s provides a realistic approach for large-scale quantification of spatial patterns of marine population and habitats. O. edulis and M. gigas are common in the area, but a large proportion of the most valuable O. edulis habitats are not found in protected areas. The overlap between species suggests that efforts to manage the invasive M. gigas need to be integrated with management actions to conserve the native O. edulis.

  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    De Wit, Pierre
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Robert, Chloé
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar Del 3 – Underlag för bedömning av bevarandevärde av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are keystone species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other or-ganisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Con-servation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodi-versity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    Marine species with high dispersal potential, such as Mytilus and to some extent Ostrea, have historically been thought unlikely to show genetic differentiation on local scales. However, it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that dispersal barriers caused by, for example, current conditions or lack of suitable habitats, are common and can result in genetically differentiated subpopulations on geographically small scales. This means that knowledge of genetic structures can contribute valuable information for the establishment of effective management strategies for different species, for example through analysis of genetic diversity and dispersal mechanisms. For example, knowledge of population structures, local recruitment patterns and dispersal of larvae are of great value to ensure a good genetic basis for the conservation of source- and sink populations and to maintain a good recruitment base and spread of new individuals. For both Mytilus and Ostrea, information about genetic structures, recruitment patterns and larval dispersal is lacking in Sweden, hence limiting the possibilities of assessing the conservation value of different bivalve beds.This report presents the work done to fill this knowledge gap and thereby support the identifica-tion of valuable Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds for species conservation (WP3 in the project). With the help of genetic analyses, large-scale patterns of distribution of the different "species" of the gene-ra Mytilus and Ostrea in the Skagerrak have been studied. The aim was to analyse genetic diversi-ty and gene flow between different areas in the Skagerrak and to identify possible barriers to larval transport along the coasts of Sweden and Norway. To further study the connectivity (de-fined as how well areas are linked to each other by sea currents, eg larval transport from one population to another) between different populations, the spread of particles (eggs and larvae) from Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds was also evaluated using an oceanographic distribution model (ROMS / OpenDrift). The aim was also to identify important areas where larvae from several areas gather (sink areas) as well as important areas which contribute to a high dispersal of larvae (source regions).

    The results from both the oceanographic trajectory modelling and genetic analysis were con-sistent for Mytilus and illustrated a general transport of larvae northwards along the coast. The results also showed that beds located in the inner archipelago were more isolated than beds in the outer part of the archipelago, especially inside of the islands Tjörn and Orust, and in the Oslo Fjord. A barrier was also observed between Tvedestrand and Kragerö along the Norwegian coast. The southern European species M. galloprovencialis was also observed in Swedish waters for the first time, in several different places, but in a low proportion of the total number of mussels sampled. Genetic monitoring of this alien species is desirable to study how the occurrence of the species develops in the future and how it interacts with local populations of M. edulis.For Ostrea, the genetic patterns and results from the oceanographic modelling were less con-sistent. The dispersal simulations showed that sites in the inner archipelago had little larval ex-change with other areas, while sites in the central archipelago had the most exchange of larvae both among themselves and, above all, with sites in the outer archipelago. The genetic data, how-ever, did not show a clear geographical structure. This is attributed to historical movements of oysters. Common to Mytilus and Ostrea is that larvae were in general transported northwards along the coast of Sweden, and that larvae from many different sites seem to gather in the archi-pelago around the Koster island (sink area). Based on the back-tracking of larvae, important source areas for larvae were found further south between Öckerö and Väderöarna (source areas).

    Based on the results presented in this report, it is concluded that both the Mytilus and the Ostrea populations in different geographical areas along the Swedish west coast should be managed as separate sub-units as extensive genetic structures and dispersal barriers were observed for both species. For example, it may be important to preserve populations in the Gothenburg area and in the area around Koster, as one is an important source area with the potential to contribute to significant dispersal of both species, and the other was identified to be an important sink area where large numbers of larvae gather. It is also important to preserve both nearshore and off-shore beds due to the low larval dispersal between these two environments. The bivalve beds in the central archipelago receive larvae from both the outer and the inner archipelago, so it is pos-sible that these beds can act as bridges/steppingstones and connect beds in the outer and inner archipelago. Some areas, such as the area inside the islands of Orust and Tjörn were found to be more or less isolated, illustrating the importance of local management that takes into account the lack of larval transport in and out of the area. With regard to the Orust area, it is also important to study how the large number of mussel farms in the area affect the wild populations.All in all, the project has resulted in valuable knowledge that can support the development of constructive and long-term sustainable management strategies for both Mytilus and Ostrea, but that there is also a need for further knowledge building connected to certain aspects, especially linked to the dispersal and population structures for Ostrea as well as to the interactions between farmed and wild Mytilus.

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  • 3.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sivard, Åsa
    Integrerad akvakultur med cellulosaindustri2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns både på global nivå och inom Sverige ett ökande intresse att använda sig av vattenbruk för produktion av livsmedel. I Sverige odlas i relativt liten skala främst fisk, kräftor och musslor. Traditionell odling i dammar, sjöar, vattendrag och kustområden är behäftat med en potentiell negativ miljöpåverkan i form av lokala övergödningseffekter och spridning av antibiotika och andra läkemedelsrester i miljön. Rymlingar från kassodlingar kan också påverka de naturliga bestånden negativt. Det är ett av skälen till att intresset för landbaserad fiskodling i mer slutna system ökat under senare år.

    I processen att utvinna massa och papper från träråvara genereras ett överskott av lågvärdig värmeenergi och ett restutsläpp av näringsämnen och organiskt material som stimulerar produktionen av bland annat vitfisk i mottagande vattenrecipient. Detta är naturresurser som i dagsläget inte utnyttjas. I det följande redovisas en förstudie syftande till att översiktligt undersöka de tekniska förutsättningarna att lokalisera landbaserad fiskodling i anslutning till pappers- och massabruk och vilka marknads- och miljömässiga fördelar det skulle medföra genom att tillvarata överskottsresurser från vedråvaran.

    I studien har teoretiska beräkningar av förutsättningarna att samlokalisera ett vattenbruk utförts med tre exempelfabriker representerande olika typer av produktion: 1) Skärblacka bruk, blekt sulfatmassa; 2) Fiskeby board, returpappersbruk; 3) Bravikens pappersbruk, termomekanisk massa. De individuella förutsättningarna vid de olika bruken var avgörande för om det föreslagna processkonceptet är applicerbart. Generellt torde dock anläggningar som producerar kemisk massa vara mest lämpade att integrera med vattenbruk

    Ett teoretiskt maximum för optimalt utnyttjande av resurser i enlighet erhölls vid en produktionskapacitet i fiskodlingen på 0,4 % av produktionskapaciteten i skogsindustrint. Vid ett bruk som producerar 375 000 årston massa eller papper blir således den optimala fiskproduktionen 1 500 ton/år. Upp till storleksordningen 30 % av en skogsindustris behov av att dosera kväve skulle kunna ersättas med slam bestående av foderrester och fiskfekalier från vattenbruket, vilket innebär en besparing på upp till 100 000 kr/år.

    Den årliga kostnaden för ett vattenbruk som producerar 500-750 årston fisk har beräknats till 30-40 MSEK, vilket ger ett kilopris för den producerade fisken inom intervallet 50-60 kr. Exempel på arter som skulle kunna bli aktuella i en framtida odling är tilapia, abborre, jätteräka och afrikansk mal. Gemensamt för dessa är att de är så kallade varmvattenarter som behöver tillgång till uppvärmt vatten under större delen av året.

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  • 4.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reamon, Molly C.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet / Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 1 Nulägesanalys av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar i Sverige.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems and they contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus and Ostrea banks have declined in number and extent in Europe, and there are also strong indications of a similar situation for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, knowledge of population sizes is generally lacking, which makes assessments of population development difficult.

    The threat assessment carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus and Ostrea beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalve beds in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. Swedish populations are, however, more or less spared from these factors and other aspects can therefore be assumed to have a greater impact on popu-lation development. However, other factors can also affect population development. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) will worsen the conditions for Mytilus and Ostrea stocks in Sweden.

    In this project, data from historical (1970s onwards) surveys was compiled with the aim of evaluating whether analysis of temporal changes in bivalve populations was possible. A review of historical data from Bohuslän did not generate any time series that could contribute to an as-sessment of the population development of Mytilus and Ostrea.

    In addition, the review showed that the survey methods used differed between studies and over time, and that there was a lack of a standardized definition of what is designated as a bivalve bed. Overall, this illustrates the need for continuity and standardized monitoring of bivalve beds, including a clear definition of what counts as a bivalve bed. This could support the development of time series to monitoring trends in the population development of the target species.

    The compilation of the historical data was also combined with a threat analysis focusing on interactions with the invasive Pacific oyster, with mapping of current distribution patterns and monitoring to evaluate present day population development, as well as with an analysis of short-term changes in population distribution and/or densities. This information was combined in an analysis aimed to evaluate the current status of the Mytilus and Ostrea beds.

    The threat analysis showed that, in the short term, the main threat to the Swedish bivalve populations is probably disease outbreaks and parasites due to the continued commercial importation of live shellfish. In a more long-term perspective, climate change and the increasing presence of environmental tox-ins may pose serious threats to shallow, coastal, environments. Even though the invasive Pacific oyster to a large extent has overlapping habitats and ecological functions with the native species, no signs of negative interactions with the native bivalves were observed in this project.

    Monitor-ing of population development in selected bivalve beds showed a decrease in density of both Mytilus and Ostrea over the projects lifetime (2018-2021), a pattern that was also strengthened for Mytilus through the results of the re-survey of previously surveyed beds. For Ostrea, the re-survey of previously surveyed sites showed a more scattered pattern with an increase in the number of oysters in some beds while the number of oysters in other beds had decreased.

    Overall, it was concluded that it is likely that a reduction in Mytilus occurred during the 1990s and has continued onwards, and that more information is required to determine both the extent and cause of the patterns observed.

    Based on the results in this project, four main actions are recommended to improve the state of knowledge for both Mytilus and Ostrea. Firstly, species-specific definitions of what is regarded as a bivalve bed should be developed. The definition should include information on cover-age/density, size, patchiness, and presence of Pacific oysters. The definition should also be aligned with international frameworks and take field conditions into account.

    Second, monitor-ing programs that record distribution and changes in demographic parameters (e.g., population density/recovery/biomass, recruitment, mortality, and growth) for both Mytilus and Ostrea should be established. Time series of data is the only thing that enables the analysis of population development and the identification of threats.

    Thirdly, infrastructure and routines for storing inventory data and implementation in accordance with the FAIR principle are needed to ensure that historical data is not lost. A lot of data is lost when it is stored within specific projects and with individuals. As data is often collected within ongoing research projects, solutions for storage with a publication embargo for actors other than those who collected the data should be ex-plored.

    Finally, continued knowledge building is required about both general and specific threats and possible measures that can reduce the threats. Examples of such activities are impact analy-sis of various risk factors and combinations of these, knowledge development about the effects of harvesting of wild Ostrea and establishment of activity-based management, and knowledge de-velopment regarding food competition and other interactions between Pacific oysters and our native bivalves.

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  • 5. Ran, Ylva
    et al.
    Cederberg, Christel
    Jonell, Malin
    Bergman, Kristina
    De Boer, Imke J M
    Einarsson, Rasmus
    Karlsson, Johan
    Potter, Hanna Karlsson
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Metson, Geneviève S
    Nemecek, Thomas
    Nicholas, Kimberly A
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tidåker, Pernilla
    Van der Werf, Hayo
    Vanham, Davy
    Van Zanten, Hannah H E
    Verones, Francesca
    Röös, Elin
    Environmental assessment of diets: overview and guidance on indicator choice2024In: The Lancet Planetary Health, ISSN 2542-5196, Vol. 8, no 3, p. e172-e187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive but interpretable assessment of the environmental performance of diets involves choosing a set of appropriate indicators. Current knowledge and data gaps on the origin of dietary foodstuffs restrict use of indicators relying on site-specific information.

    This Personal View summarises commonly used indicators for assessing the environmental performance of diets, briefly outlines their benefits and drawbacks, and provides recommendations on indicator choices for actors across multiple fields involved in activities that include the environmental assessment of diets.

    We then provide recommendations on indicator choices for actors across multiple fields involved in activities that use environmental assessments, such as health and nutrition experts, policy makers, decision makers, and private-sector and public-sector sustainability officers. We recommend that environmental assessment of diets should include indicators for at least the five following areas: climate change, biosphere integrity, blue water consumption, novel entities, and impacts on natural resources (especially wild fish stocks), to capture important environmental trade-offs.

    If more indicators can be handled in the assessment, indicators to capture impacts related to land use quantity and quality and green water consumption should be used. For ambitious assessments, indicators related to biogeochemical flows, stratospheric ozone depletion, and energy use can be added.

  • 6. Sinha, R.
    et al.
    Thomas, J.-B.E.
    Strand, Å.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Stadmark, J.
    Franzen, F.
    Ingmansson, I.
    Gröndahl, F.
    Hasselström, L.
    Quantifying nutrient recovery by element flow analysis: Harvest and use of seven marine biomasses to close N and P loops2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 178, p. 106031-106031, article id 106031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines nutrient flows and the extent to which marine biomass can contribute to close the loop. The study utilizes an element flow analysis to map N and P flows and explore scenarios of biomass utilisation by 2030 and 2050 in Sweden. 

  • 7.
    Sondal, Jonas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Samhällsplanering för en hållbart växande extraktiv vattenbrukssektor i Sverige2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att öka förståelsen för vilken roll den fysiska planeringen spelar i att skapa rätt förutsättningar för en växande och hållbar vattenbrukssektor i Sverige. Intervjuer har genomförts med tjänstepersoner på flera kommuner i Bohuslän, tjänstepersoner på länsstyrelsen i Västra Götaland samt odlare. Genomgångar har även gjorts av nationella strategier, planeringsdokument och tillståndsbeslut för extraktiva odlingar. Rapporten kan både läsas som en introduktion till samhällsplaneringens roll för en hållbart växande vattenbrukssektor (med fokus på de första delarna av rapporten), och som en analys av hur dagens planering fungerar för att ge rätt förutsättningar för sektorn (senare delen av rapporten).

    Resultaten från arbetet visar på stora svårigheter med att få den kommunala fysiska planeringen och länsstyrelsens tillståndsprocesser att synka med varandra. Även om kommuner tagit fram planeringsdokument för att skapa en proaktiv planering av havet, följer inte den reaktiva tillståndsprövningen den kommunala planeringen. Detta skapar frustration och förvirring för de som söker tillstånd och resulterar i hämmande effekter på sektorn. För att nå målen i nationella handlingsplaner och strategier om att vattenbrukssektorn ska växa behöver därför denna problematik lösas.

    För att förbättra den svenska kustzonsplaneringen diskuteras i rapporten tre olika behov att arbeta med framåt. För det första krävs mer samsyn mellan flera aktörer och inom flera frågor. Detta inkluderar till exempel behovet av säkerhetsavstånd till naturvärden, hotade naturtyper (som ålgräs), hur stora ekosystemtjänster som odlingar genererar och hur stora störningarna är på friluftslivet. Samsyn inom dessa centrala frågor är en viktig grund för ökad samverkan mellan aktörerna. För det andra behöver roller och mandat mellan olika myndigheter klargöras och kanske även förändras.

    Kommunernas vana att på land kunna ta fram planer som prioriterar mellan intressen och gör ytor exklusiva för vissa typer av aktiviteter/verksamheter verkar inte inom dagens planeringssystem kunna överföras direkt till kustzonsplanering. Trots försök till proaktiv planering där vattenbruket får ytor tilldelade, styrs användandet av havet av tillståndsprocessernas reaktiva utgångspunkt, som inte bygger bedömningarna på den kommunala planeringens utpekanden. För det tredje ser vi stora möjligheter till en bättre planeringsprocess. Utpekade områden för vattenbruk i kommunala planer verkar dåligt förankrade med militären, länsstyrelsen och odlare. En förklaring till detta är att dialogerna som planerna bygger på skedde med branschen för 10 år sedan, samtidigt som det är en ung bransch i ständig förändring.

    Rapporten föreslår därför en mer processfokuserad planering som genom forum för ständig dialog skapar samsyn och bättre förståelse för roller och mandat. Detta kan göra det tydligare för odlare, kommuner och tillståndsmyndigheter var i havet vattenbruk bör kunna prioriteras framför andra intressen utan att minska på de värden som finns.

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  • 8.
    Strand, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kläckning av Ostrea edulis i havsbaserade tankar - Biologisk och teknisk förstudie2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intresset för odling av det platta ostronet, Ostrea edulis, i Sverige är stort men kommersiell odling hindras i dagens läge av brist på yngel. Varken insamling av yngel med havsbaserade kollektorer eller produktion i landbaserade kläckerier har kunnat ge en tillförlitlig tillgång till yngel, och import av yngel är riskabelt ur ett smittskyddsperspektiv. En möjlig lösning på detta kan vara dammproduktion av yngel. På grund av ett högt exploateringstryck på den svenska västkusten är dock tillgången till mark för konstruktion av dammar begränsad, speciellt i områden med god vattenkvalitet, varför nya tekniska lösningar krävs.

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  • 9.
    Strand, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet och Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane. T
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 2 - Metoder för restaurering och skydd av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organ-isms and to several other important ecosystem services. In recent years, both Mytilus- and Os-trea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden.

    For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Conservation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodiversity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    The threat analysis carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalves in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. The Swedish bivalve populations, however, are more or less spared from these impact factors. Nevertheless, other factors can also affect population de-velopment. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster may impact the populations of Mytilus and Ostrea in Sweden negatively.

    All in all, there are good reasons to explore the possible alternatives for supporting the development of the Mytilus- and Ostrea-populations, and also methods that could be used if the Pacific oyster prove to impact the native bivalve populations negatively. The purpose of this project was therefore to produce a knowledge base for the establishment of management models for the pro-tection of Sweden's populations of Mytilus and Ostrea. Part of this work include knowledge building, both theoretical and practical, about possible restoration measures of bivalve beds, e.g. removal of Pacific oysters or stock enhancement.

    To summarise, a number of performed activities are discussed in this report, including a removal experiment in which Pacific oysters were removed from both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds, a stock enhancement experiment with Ostrea in which juveniles of Ostrea were placed on different sites, and several different studies on stock enhancement of Mytilus, including studies of biological conditions and methodology for population enhancement.

    The removal experiments demonstrated that it was possible to clear Pacific oysters from bivalve beds but that this is time consuming and complicated, especially in Mytilus beds. In terms of numbers of oysters the effect of the removal was short-lived. Already one year after the removal, the number of Pacific oysters was equal, or higher, to the number before the experiment. In terms of biomass, however, many of the cleared sites did not show complete recovery och the biomass of the invasive species. How long the recolonization time was before the original biomass was re-established is unknown, but calculations indicate that this time is longer than for the abundance of oysters. Better technologies must be developed for more resource-efficient efforts if this type of activity is to be carried out regularly. Additionally, ways to utilize the harvested biomass of Pacific oysters must be established.

    The stock enhancement experiments also showed that it was possible to re-establish bivalve beds on a pilot scale. Even in sites with good conditions, however, the target species will decrease after relaying. In the experiments performed, the survival of Ostrea (about 30-50 mm in length when re-laid) on the best sites was only about 16% after 2 years, and for Mytilus the cover of mussels (a mixture of large and small mussels) decreased by almost 50% in one year and the survival was about 20% after this period of time. In general, predation was observed to be a problem for both species. Small and medium-sized Mytilus were greatly affected by eider duck, while shore crabs caused high mortality for Ostrea. Site-specific conditions were also of great importance for the success of the experiments.

    Examples of factors discussed in this report are, in addition to the presence of predators, also ice-cover, substrate, the possibility of moving in organisms for resto-ration experiments/activities, depth and exposure. It is obvious that much can be gained from solid preparatory work before stock enhancement activities are initiated. The experiences from the project also illustrate the importance of protection against exploitation of the restored populations and a good relationship with authorities and landowners.

    A unique activity in the project that, to our knowledge, has not been tested before is the use of residual mussels from commercial mussel production for stock enhancement of Mytilus. By using waste mussels, increased circularity and improved resource utilization in aquaculture produc-tion can be achieved, with both ecological and economic gains as important natural environments are recreated and costs for waste management from production is reduced for the aquaculture companies.

    However, it remains to be explored how extensive this type of activity can be as the goal in mussel farming is, of course, to produce a product without fouling.

    In addition, the regulatory conditions for this type of use must be established.Finally, the report discusses a number of development needs that should be studied further be-fore future stock enhancement experiments. Among these aspects, monitoring of ongoing activi-ties and success rate of restoration should be implemented, guidelines for site selection should be established, optimized techniques for restoration adapted to local conditions should be devel-oped, and the ecosystem services that the bivalve beds can support should be documented in future work.

    An important part of this is to learn from existing knowledge but also to put this knowledge into a local context with the goal of identifying important knowledge gaps for context relevant activities. Combined, these activities can be a first step towards establishing a manual for the restoration of mussels and oysters in Sweden.

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  • 10. Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Nathaniel, Hanna
    Franzén, Daniel
    Franzén, Frida
    Hasselström, Linus
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Sinha, Rajib
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ingmansson, Ida
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harvesting beach-cast can help mitigate marine eutrophication by closing land-marine nutrient loops and provide a blue biomass raw material for the bioeconomy. Cost–benefit analysis was applied to harvest activities during 2009–2018 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, highlighting benefits such as nutrient removal from the marine system and improved recreational opportunities as well as costs of using inputs necessary for harvest.

    The results indicate that the activities entailed a net gain to society, lending substance to continued funding for harvests on Gotland and assessments of upscaling of harvest activities to other areas in Sweden and elsewhere. The lessons learnt from the considerable harvest experience on Gotland should be utilized for developing concrete guidelines for carrying out sustainable harvest practice, paying due attention to local conditions but also to what can be generalized to a wider national and international context.

  • 11.
    Thomas, Jean‐Baptiste E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet/IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Kristineberg Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB Stockholm Sweden;Holmboe & Skarp AB Sorunda Sweden.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet/IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Gothenburg Sweden.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyrens AB Stockholm Sweden.
    Ingmansson, Ida
    Tyrens AB Stockholm Sweden.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Marine biomass for a circular blue‐green bioeconomy?: A life cycle perspective on closing nitrogen and phosphorus land‐marine loops2021In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A blue-green bioeconomy revolution is underway in Europe, with particular attention being paid to the development of new or underutilized marine biomass resources. The wild harvest and mariculture of low-trophic non-fed species of marine biomass may be contributing to circular economies, the mitigation of environmental problems such as eutrophication and climate change through the uptake of nutrients and carbon, while also recovering finite phosphorus from marine coastal environments, thus contributing to food security. The present study provides a cradle-to-gate life cycle perspective on seven established or innovative/emerging marine biomass utilization cases in Sweden: mariculture of sugar kelp, blue mussels, and ascidians and the harvest of invasive Pacific oysters along the Skagerrak coast, the mariculture of blue mussels in the Baltic sea, the harvest of common reed in the Stockholm archipelago, and the harvest of beach-cast seaweed in Gotland. Results showed that the mariculture cases were found to con tribute to eutrophication and climate impact mitigation (at gate).

    All cases were found to contribute to closing the loop on phosphorus by enabling recovery from marine or coastal environments, bridging marine–land flows, all while performing well from an environmental perspective with a relatively low cumulative energy demand and low carbon and nutrient footprints. This highlights the potential of low-trophic biomass to contribute to phosphorus security in the future, and demonstrates the value of industrial ecology tools such as LCA in support of this imminent Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development

  • 12.
    Wilhelmsson, Jens
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    AI som verktyg för klassificering av  ostronyngel från havsbaserade kollektorer2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien är en fortsättning och vidareutveckling av ett tidigare projekt (Wilhelmsson et al.2020). I det tidigare projektet slogs det fast att det är möjligt att klassificera ostron som antingen Magallana gigas (fortsättningsvis endast Gigas) eller Ostrea edulis (fortsättningsvis endast Edulis) med hjälp av AI-baserad bildbehandlingsteknik.

    Ostronen som användes i det tidigare projektet hade tillåtits växa till sig under ca 11 månader i korgar efter att ha skördats från kollektorer och var även manuellt rengjorda innan fotografering.

    Det långsiktiga målet med ostronklassificeringen är att kunna sortera ostron automatiskt direkt när de skördas från kollektorer, eftersom det är i det skedet som ostronodlare är i störst behov av ensortering. Genom att sortera ostron direkt vid skörd från kollektorer säkerställs även att inga ostron hunnit bli könsmogna och därför heller inte hunnit föröka sig.

    Att sortera direkt från kollektor innebär dock att ostronen som ska klassificeras kommer vara blandade med kalkrester från kollektorerna, samt diverse havslevande organismer i form av marin påväxt.

    Därför behöver klassificeraren inte bara kunna se skillnad på olika ostronarter utan även identifiera vad i skörden från kollektorerna som är ostron och ej.

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  • 13.
    Wilhelmsson, Jens
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hunter, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klassificering av ostronyngel med hjälp av artificiell intelligens2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL har i ett samarbete mellan projekt finansierade av Jordbruksverket, Interreg (MarGenII) och H2020 (AquaVitae) utvecklat ett bildidentifieringsprogram som kan särskilja yngel av de inhemska platta ostronen i Sverige från de invasiva stillahavsostronen. Över 98 procent av bilderna klassificeras korrekt, visar projektets slutrapport

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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