IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. de los Santos, Carmen B.
    et al.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    Infantes, Eduardo
    Microplastic retention by marine vegetated canopies: Simulations with seagrass meadows in a hydraulic flume2021In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 269, p. 116050-116050, article id 116050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine canopies formed by seagrass and other coastal vegetated ecosystems could act as sinks of microplastics for being efficient particle traps. Here we investigated for the first time the occurrence of microplastic retention by marine canopies in a hydraulic flume under unidirectional flow velocities from 2 to 30 cm s−1.

    We used as model canopy-forming species the seagrass Zostera marina with four canopy shoot density (0, 50, 100, 200 shoots m−2), and we used as microplastic particles industrial pristine pellets with specific densities from 0.90 to 1.34 g cm−3 (polypropylene PP; polystyrene PS; polyamide 6 PA; and polyethylene terephthalate PET). Overall, microplastics particles transported with the flow were retained in the seagrass canopies but not in bare sand. While seagrass canopies retained floating microplastics (PP) only at low velocities (<12 cm s−1) due to a barrier created by the canopy touching the water surface, the retention of sinking particles (PS, PA, PET) occurred across a wider range of flow velocities.

    Our simulations revealed that less dense sinking particles (PS) might escape from the canopy at high velocities, while denser sinking particles can be trapped in scouring areas created by erosive processes around the eelgrass shoots. Our results show that marine canopies might act as potential barriers or sinks for microplastics at certain bio-physical conditions, with the probability of retention generally increasing with the seagrass shoot density and polymer specific density and decreasing with the flow velocity.

    We conclude that seagrass meadows, and other aquatic canopy-forming ecosystems, should be prioritized habitats in assessment of microplastic exposure and impact on coastal areas since they may accumulate high concentration of microplastic particles that could affect associated fauna.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Carl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Cecilia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Underwater noise from fairways – policies, incentives and measures to reduce the environmental impact2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Underwater noise and its negative impact on marine life is a growing environmental concern where scientific knowledge is increasing but mitigation is scarce. This report is the outcome of a joint effort of the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and the Swedish Maritime Administration that addresses this challenge.

    Motivated by environmental concerns and coming EU legislation, our vision is that Sweden should become the first country to implement national incentives for underwater noise mitigation. The technical aspects of ship underwater noise are relatively well known.

    At cruise speed, cavitation at the propeller is typically the dominant source of underwater noise, but this is not true for all ships. Standardised measurement methods exist but are costly to implement. Prediction models are useful for noise mapping and fleet-wide estimates but not sufficiently accurate for individual ships. 

    The environmental impact of underwater noise from shipping has gained increased scientific attention in recent years. While many studies have been made, dose-response relationships and thresholds for different effects are largely unknown. Behavioural effects, including escape reactions, difficulty to avoid predators and masking of important communication calls, have been observed across a large number of species upon exposure to ship noise.

    There are no national or international binding rules on ship underwater noise emissions. The International Maritime Organisation is currently updating its voluntary guidelines on ship underwater noise. The EU is introducing legislation on permissible levels of ship underwater noise in the environment, which is expected to come into force in member states within a few years.

    Technical methods for mitigation of underwater noise are known but not independently validated. Ship speed reductions may reduce underwater noise but may incur increased operational costs at the ship owners. Stakeholders in ship underwater noise mitigation are found across ship owners, the ship design and technology industry, research bodies and authorities.

    Through interviews and workshops a network of relevant stakeholders in Sweden has been established. A stakeholder analysis showed that there is a need for more knowledge on ship underwater noise and its environmental impacts as well as its mitigation. Fairway design for reduced transmission of underwater noise to the environment was investigated by long-term measurements at different sections of the fairway leading to Västerås in lake Mälaren. Neither depth nor a turn could be demonstrated to have an effect on the radiated noise.

    A more detailed experiment would be required to clarify if fairway design is a viable alternative for noise mitigation. Six different ways of designing a financial incentive for ship underwater noise reduction were described. Rewarding speed reductions or technical measures for noise mitigation is feasible but the scientific basis is not clear. An incentive may be based on a silent ship notation from a classification society, but these are not commonly issued.

    A noise inquiry may be performed, but it may be difficult to identify the most relevant mitigations without underwater noise measurement. Bespoke measurement stations at or near port inlets may be a cost-effective way to collect measurement data, but the accuracy of such opportunistic measurements would need to be improved if the data is to be used for a financial incentive.

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    BUFF report_FINAL
  • 3.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Two-current choice flumes for testing avoidance and preference in aquatic animals2017In: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2041-210XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic chemical ecology is an important and growing field of research that involves understanding how organisms perceive and respond to chemical cues in their environment. Research assessing the preference or avoidance of a water source containing specific chemical cues has increased in popularity in recent years, and a variety of methods have been described in the scientific literature. Two-current choice flumes have seen the greatest increase in popularity, perhaps because of their potential to address the broadest range of research questions.

    Here, we review the literature on two-current choice flumes and show that there is a clear absence of standardized methodologies that make comparisons across studies difficult. Some of the main issues include turbulent flows that cause mixing of cues, inappropriate size of choice arenas for the animals, short experiments with stressed animals, failure to report how experiment and researcher biases were eliminated, general underreporting of methodological details, underutilization of collected data and inappropriate data analyses.

    This review provides a set of standards that should be followed to ensure data quality, transparency and replicability in future studies in this field.

  • 4.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Edlund, Daniel
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållén, Joakim
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Friesen, Lisa Winberg von
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sammanställning av kunskap och åtgärdsförslag för att minska spridning av mikroplast från konstgräsplaner och andra utomhusanläggningar för idrott och lek2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL har genom mätningar vid lekplatser och idrottsanläggningar med gjutet gummi påvisat höga halter mikroplast i närbelägna dagvattenbrunnar. Vidare spridning i vattenmiljön har dock ej undersökts. Därtill har nuvarande situation och kunskapsläge i Sverige sammanställts för anläggningar med gjutet gummi, konstgräsplaner och ridanläggningar. Syftet med studien är att öka kunskapen om de olika anläggningstyperna som källa till mikroplast och att ta fram åtgärdsförslag för att minska spridningen av mikroplast till miljön. Projekt har utförts på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    et al.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reamon, Molly C.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Svedberg, Kristina
    Göteborgs Universitet / Bohus Havsbruk.
    Waldetoft, Hannes
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar. Del 1 Nulägesanalys av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar i Sverige.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) are key species in coastal ecosystems and they contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other organisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus and Ostrea banks have declined in number and extent in Europe, and there are also strong indications of a similar situation for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, knowledge of population sizes is generally lacking, which makes assessments of population development difficult.

    The threat assessment carried out by OSPAR for Mytilus and Ostrea beds in Europe indicates that the primary cause of loss of bivalve beds in Europe is overexploitation and habitat loss, as well as disease outbreaks caused by pathogens. Swedish populations are, however, more or less spared from these factors and other aspects can therefore be assumed to have a greater impact on popu-lation development. However, other factors can also affect population development. For example, there is concern among management authorities that the invasive Pacific oyster (Magallana gigas) will worsen the conditions for Mytilus and Ostrea stocks in Sweden.

    In this project, data from historical (1970s onwards) surveys was compiled with the aim of evaluating whether analysis of temporal changes in bivalve populations was possible. A review of historical data from Bohuslän did not generate any time series that could contribute to an as-sessment of the population development of Mytilus and Ostrea.

    In addition, the review showed that the survey methods used differed between studies and over time, and that there was a lack of a standardized definition of what is designated as a bivalve bed. Overall, this illustrates the need for continuity and standardized monitoring of bivalve beds, including a clear definition of what counts as a bivalve bed. This could support the development of time series to monitoring trends in the population development of the target species.

    The compilation of the historical data was also combined with a threat analysis focusing on interactions with the invasive Pacific oyster, with mapping of current distribution patterns and monitoring to evaluate present day population development, as well as with an analysis of short-term changes in population distribution and/or densities. This information was combined in an analysis aimed to evaluate the current status of the Mytilus and Ostrea beds.

    The threat analysis showed that, in the short term, the main threat to the Swedish bivalve populations is probably disease outbreaks and parasites due to the continued commercial importation of live shellfish. In a more long-term perspective, climate change and the increasing presence of environmental tox-ins may pose serious threats to shallow, coastal, environments. Even though the invasive Pacific oyster to a large extent has overlapping habitats and ecological functions with the native species, no signs of negative interactions with the native bivalves were observed in this project.

    Monitor-ing of population development in selected bivalve beds showed a decrease in density of both Mytilus and Ostrea over the projects lifetime (2018-2021), a pattern that was also strengthened for Mytilus through the results of the re-survey of previously surveyed beds. For Ostrea, the re-survey of previously surveyed sites showed a more scattered pattern with an increase in the number of oysters in some beds while the number of oysters in other beds had decreased.

    Overall, it was concluded that it is likely that a reduction in Mytilus occurred during the 1990s and has continued onwards, and that more information is required to determine both the extent and cause of the patterns observed.

    Based on the results in this project, four main actions are recommended to improve the state of knowledge for both Mytilus and Ostrea. Firstly, species-specific definitions of what is regarded as a bivalve bed should be developed. The definition should include information on cover-age/density, size, patchiness, and presence of Pacific oysters. The definition should also be aligned with international frameworks and take field conditions into account.

    Second, monitor-ing programs that record distribution and changes in demographic parameters (e.g., population density/recovery/biomass, recruitment, mortality, and growth) for both Mytilus and Ostrea should be established. Time series of data is the only thing that enables the analysis of population development and the identification of threats.

    Thirdly, infrastructure and routines for storing inventory data and implementation in accordance with the FAIR principle are needed to ensure that historical data is not lost. A lot of data is lost when it is stored within specific projects and with individuals. As data is often collected within ongoing research projects, solutions for storage with a publication embargo for actors other than those who collected the data should be ex-plored.

    Finally, continued knowledge building is required about both general and specific threats and possible measures that can reduce the threats. Examples of such activities are impact analy-sis of various risk factors and combinations of these, knowledge development about the effects of harvesting of wild Ostrea and establishment of activity-based management, and knowledge de-velopment regarding food competition and other interactions between Pacific oysters and our native bivalves.

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    fulltext
1 - 5 of 5
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