IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tekniska lösningar för avancerad rening av avloppsvatten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att beskriva vilka tekniska lösningar och dess effektivitet som finns för rening av avloppsvatten från oönskade ämnen som läkemedelsrester, mikroplaster, PFAS, andra organiska miljöföroreningar, tungmetaller, samt antibiotikaresistenta och andra skadliga mikroorganismer. Undersökningen har ett speciellt fokus på rening av läkemedelsrester och mikroplaster. De tekniker som beskrivs i rapporten är de som bedöms kunna vara tillgängliga att implementera till år 2018. Tekniker som ännu håller på att utvecklas och som inte bedöms vara tillgängliga till år 2018 beskrivs men mer översiktligt. I rapporten görs en samlad bedömning av de olika teknikerna med avseende på ett flertal aspekter så som reningseffektivitet, kostnad, miljöpåverkan, arbetsmiljörisker, energi- och råvaruåtgång, mm.

    Som effektiv rening avses här ett avlägsnande av föroreningar eller effekter från avloppsvatten så att utgående avloppsvatten till recipient helt saknar eller har en signifikant lägre halt av föroreningar eller effekter. Det bör noteras att fokus för bedömningen härvid ligger på just vattenfasen. En reningsprocess behöver dock inte innebära att en förorening bryts ner till ofarliga beståndsdelar utan föroreningen kan också övergå från t.ex. vattenfas till slamfas eller brytas ned till metaboliter, som i sig kan vara definierade som föroreningar. Rapporten försöker att redovisa alla dessa aspekter för genomgångna reningstekniker.

    Studien visar att kostnader för olika tekniker och anläggningsstorlekar varierar signifikant både mellan olika tekniker och olika reningsverksstorlekar. Olika teknikkombinationer tas upp och dess för- och nackdelar diskuteras. Studien poängterar att det är viktigt att välja reningsteknik utifrån målsättning och lokala förutsättningar, då varje reningsverk är unikt. Är målsättningen en effektiv rening av läkemedelsrester (>90%) genom ett kompletterande reningssteg som slutbehandling rekommenderas en kombination av ozonering och BAF med granulerat aktivt kol (GAK) som filtermaterial. Den totala miljöpåverkan för de olika teknikerna/-kombinationerna som behandlats i denna studie begränsas till framförallt energi- och kemikalieförbrukning men även risker för bildning av nya, eventuellt toxiska föreningar från reningsteknikerna behandlas.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

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  • 2.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroplast i Stockholms stad - Källor, spridningsvägar och förslag till åtgärder för att skydda Stockholms stads vattenförekomster2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har genomförts av IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet på uppdrag av Miljöförvaltningen, Stockholms stad i syfte att ta fram underlag till den handlingsplan för minskad spridning av mikroplast som miljöförvaltningen har fått ett uppdrag i Kommunfullmäktiges budget för 2018 att ta fram.

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  • 3.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utredning av Loddebo avloppsreningsanläggnings miljöpåverkan i det nära havsområdet med avseende på utsläpp av näringsämnen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid ansökan om utbyggnad utreder IVL nuvarande och framtida utsläpp av näringsämnen från Loddebo avloppsreningsanläggning och möjlig ekologisk påverkan i den inre delen av havsområdet Brofjorden.

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  • 4.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, M.
    Bergman, S.
    Björk, M.
    Diaz-Almela, E.
    Gullström, M.
    Leiva-Dueñas, C.
    Marco-Mendés, C.
    Piñeiro-Juncal, N.
    Mateo, MA.
    A temporal record of microplastic pollution in Mediterranean seagrass soils2021In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, no 273, article id 116451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic pollution is emerging as a potential threat to the marine environment. In the current study, we selected seagrass meadows, known to efficiently trap organic and inorganic particles, to investigate the concentrations and dynamics of microplastics in their soil. We assessed microplastic contamination and accumulation in 210Pb dated soil cores collected in Posidonia oceanica meadows at three locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, with two sites located in the Almería region (Agua Amarga and Roquetas) and one at Cabrera Island (Santa Maria). Almería is known for its intense agricultural industry with 30 000 ha of plastic-covered greenhouses, while the Cabrera Island is situated far from urban areas. Microplastics were extracted using enzymatic digestion and density separation. The particles were characterized by visual identification and with Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and related to soil age-depth chronologies. Our findings showed that the microplastic contamination and accumulation was negligible until the mid-1970s, after which plastic particles increased dramatically, with the highest concentrations of microplastic particles (MPP) found in the recent (since 2012) surface soil of Agua Amarga (3819 MPP kg 1), followed by the top-most layers of the soil of the meadows in Roquetas (2173 kg 1) and Santa Maria (68e362 kg 1). The highest accumulation rate was seen in the Roquetas site (8832 MPP m 2 yr 1). The increase in microplastics in the seagrass soil was associated to land-use change following the intensification of the agricultural industry in the area, with a clear relationship between the development of the greenhouse industry in Almería and the concentration of microplastics in the historical soil record. This study shows a direct linkage between intense anthropogenic activity, an extensive use of plastics and high plastic contamination in coastal marine ecosystems such as seagrass meadows. We highlight the need of proper waste management to protect the coastal environment from continuous pollution.

  • 5.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ask, Amalie
    Collard, France
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Murphy, Fionn
    Strand, Jakob
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Bach, Lis
    Microlitter in arctic marine benthic food chains and potential effects on sediment dwelling fauna2020In: TemaNord report, no 528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine litter pollution affects oceans globally and has today also made its way to the pristine arctic environment adding to the microlitter from local pollution sources. Marine litter pollution is recognized as a serious threat to the marine environment at all levels, from the UN to regional (EU, OSPAR, HELCOM) and national authorities. The risk posed by microlitter to marine biota is related to their documented ubiquity and long residence time in marine ecosystems. Risks are also mediated by intrinsic toxicity of added chemicals and potential adsorbance of other pollutants. When released into the marine environment, a major part of microlitter likely accumulate in beach sand and marine sediments either immediately or after acquiring a biofilm. It is therefore expected that benthic food chains will be key to understanding fate and effects (i.e. concentrations, potential trophic transfer and biological impact) of microlitter in the marine environment. The overall aim of the project was to determine abundance of microlitter pollution in marine sediments and benthic food chains in the Arctic, and to evaluate the abundance in relation to potential local sources and background levels. The aim was also to investigate potential effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms through laboratory studies using an arctic amphipod as a model organism. The field investigations in Svalbard, Norway and Greenland focused on determining microlitter particle concentrations and characteristics in marine sediments and biota collected close to and far from potential local pollution sources and pathways, i.e. outlets of untreated wastewater and effluents from a dumping site in Sisimiut, West Greenland and outlets of treated (Ny-Ålesund) and untreated (Longyearbyen) wastewater in Svalbard. Overall, higher concentrations and a higher diversity of microlitter types and polymers were found in sediments and organisms (blue mussels and cod) closer to human settlements (wastewater outlets and dumping sites) and in places where lost and/or dumped fishing gear accumulate. Thus, we can confidently conclude that local pollution sources for anthropogenic microlitter do exist in the Arctic. The experimental studies investigated whether environmentally relevant and future predicted concentrations of microplastics could impact feeding rate, microplastic ingestion, respiration and locomotion activity in an arctic sediment dwelling amphipod. The experimental results confirm previous microplastics studies on marine invertebrates showing effect only at very high concentrations not yet relevant in the arctic environment. The shape of the plastic particles was found to affect the particle fate. While microplastic fragments were ingested, short microplastic fibres attached to the carapace of the amphipods and likely obstructed normal ventilation behaviour. Furthermore, biofilm cover was found to affect the behaviour and effects of the particles. Microlitter naturally become covered by biofilms in the environment and our results stress the importance of effect experiments being carried out using naturally fouled plastics for ecological relevance. This report provides both environmental- and impact data related to microlitter pollution in the arctic marine environment. Although the levels of microplastics required to cause effects in experimental organisms in this study were much higher than what was detected in the field, there may be other species that are more sensitive than the one tested in nature. The currently relatively low microlitter concentrations detected in the field should be considered as a “window of opportunity” to act to at least reduce local pollution. Consequently, introduction of sustainable waste management and wastewater treatment should be an important focus of local management initiatives.

  • 6. Hassellöv, Martin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Mattsson, Karin
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Strand, Jakob
    Lenz, Robin
    Bavel, Bert van
    Eidsvoll, David Pettersson
    Progress towards monitoring of microlitter in Scandinavian marine environments2018In: TemaNord, 2018, 551, 2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different case studies were carried out to determine dominating microlitter types from urban environments to the regional Scandinavian seas (eastern North Sea). The sampling was both from sediment near sources (urban runoff and road dust sediment), and further out from coastal sediments. The sea surface layer and subsurface samples was taken in two different gradients, in the Oslo and Roskilde fjords, where also blue mussels were sampled. Best available technologies for sampling each compartment was used and evaluated, and while the water samples was analysed as collected, the sediment and biota samples needed some pretreatment of chemical digestion and/or heavy density liquid floatation or elutriation.

    In order to develop visual identification as objective as possible, a visual and physical observation scheme was proposed. The visual identification scheme should be complemented with spectroscopic identification to different degrees depending on the size fractions.Spectroscopic identification is still often a quite time-consuming process, meaning that for monitoring purposes it is not currently advisable to aim to identify all particles during monitoring studies. Until fully or partly automated spectroscopic methods are available they are still important tools for verification of representative types of particles in samples above 100 μm.

    The amount of particles that should be identified to provide adequate compositional information would be dependent on the aim of the study as well as the type and composition of the samples. However, in order to do monitoring and include sample composition in the results a minimum of 100 of the fewest particles should be counted in a sample to achieve 10% standard deviation in terms of counting statistical uncertainty.The field is however rapidly evolving, and automated procedures are already being published. For research purposes and more detailed monitoring and screening studies spectroscopic methods can aside from providing particle identification also give clues on additives and level of degradation.The most common types of microlitter found varied between studies but common trends could be identified between the road tunnel sediment and the urban creek sediment that these contained black particles resembling tire rubber from both visual and tactile tests, and also asphalt, charcoal, oil/tar particles and road marker particles. In the coastal water samples the surface layer was dominated by polystyrene foam particles and polyethylene fragments and films.

    In the subsurface water samples fibres, films and fragments of plastic was most common. In both the Gothenburg urban creek sediment and Oslo fjord surface water samples particles that could be related to artificial sports turf (polyethylene green grass and clear cut, tire granulate) was observed. The microlitter in mussels was dominated by fibres. The approach of using gradient studies, and include both near source sampling as well as recipient gradient sampling, was concluded to be very suitable to determine sources and fate.

  • 7. Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    et al.
    Johansson, Lasse
    Wilewska-Bien, Magda
    Granhag, Lena
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Eriksson, K. Martin
    Yngsell, Daniel
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Raudsepp, Urmas
    Maljutenko, Ilja
    Winnes, Hulda
    Moldanova, Jana
    Modelling of discharges from Baltic Sea shipping2021In: Ocean Science, ISSN 1812-0784, E-ISSN 1812-0792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the new developments of the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM) which enable the modelling of pollutant discharges to water from ships. These include nutrients from black/grey water discharges as well as from food waste. Further, the modelling of contaminants in ballast, black, grey and scrubber water, bilge discharges, and stern tube oil leaks are also described as well as releases of contaminants from antifouling paints.

    Each of the discharges is regulated by different sections of the IMO MARPOL convention, and emission patterns of different pollution releases vary significantly. The discharge patterns and total amounts for the year 2012 in the Baltic Sea area are reported and open-loop SOx scrubbing effluent was found to be the second-largest pollutant stream by volume. The scrubber discharges have increased significantly in recent years, and their environmental impacts need to be investigated in detail.

  • 8. Järlskog, Ida
    et al.
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Galfi, Helén
    Björklund, Karin
    Polukarova, Maria
    Garção, Rita
    Markiewicz, Anna
    Aronsson, Maria
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Norin, Malin
    Blom, Lena
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Traffic-related microplastic particles, metals, and organic pollutants in an urban area under reconstruction2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 774, p. 145503-145503, article id 145503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban environments, particularly areas under reconstruction, metals, organic pollutants (OP), and microplastics (MP), are released in large amounts due to heavy traffic. Road runoff, a major transport route for urban pollutants, contributes significantly to a deterioratedwater quality in receivingwaters. This studywas conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is unique because it simultaneously investigates the occurrence of OP, metals, and MP on roads and in stormwater from an urban area under reconstruction. Correlations between the various pollutants were also explored.

    The study was carried out by collecting washwater and sweepsand generated from street sweeping, road surface sampling, and flow-proportional stormwater sampling on several occasions. The liquid and solid samples were analyzed for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oxyPAH, aliphatics, aromatics, phthalates, andMP. The occurrence ofOPwas also analyzedwith a non-target screening method of selected samples. Microplastics, i.e. plastic fragments/fibers, paint fragments, tire wear particles (TWP) and bitumen, were analyzed with a method based on density separation with sodium iodide and identificationwith a stereomicroscope, melt-tests, and tactile identification.MP concentrations amounted to 1500 particles/L in stormwater, 51,000 particles/L in washwater, and 2.6 × 106 particles/kg dw in sweepsand. In stormwater, washwater and sweepsand, MP ≥20 μmwere found to be dominated by TWP (38%, 83% and 78%, respectively). The results confirm traffic as an important source to MP, OP, andmetal emissions.

    Concentrations exceeding water and sediment quality guidelines for metals (e.g. Cu and Zn), PAH, phthalates, and aliphatic hydrocarbons in the C16–C35 fraction were found inmost samples. The results show that the street sweeper collects large amounts of polluted materials and thereby prevents further spread of the pollutants to the receiving stormwater.

  • 9. Lange, Katharina
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Viklander, Maria
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Removal of rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles from stormwater by a gross pollutant trap - bioretention treatment train2021In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 202, p. 117457-117457, article id 117457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microplastic particles in stormwater pose significant threats to the environment. This study investigated howeffective a stormwater treatment train was at removing rubber, bitumen and other microplastics (incl. fibers,fragments, and paint particles) in the 100–300 μm and >300 μm size fractions from highway runoff. The twotreatment trains comprise a gross pollutant trap (GPT) followed by either a vegetated bioretention cell or nonvegetatedsand filter. Flow-proportional composite samples were taken from the highway runoff, GPT outflowand the outflow from the two parallel filters during nine rain events to determine overall treatment performance,as well as the performance of individual system components.

    The identified rubber, bitumen and other microplasticparticles mainly represented the 100–300 μm fraction and included high ratios of rubber (30%) andbitumen (60%). Overall, the treatment train efficiently removed rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particlesin the 100–300 μm size fraction from the stormwater. The filter cells accounted for a major share of this removal,as the GPT did not reduce microplastic particle concentrations. This observation is likely explained by the factthat the rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles have a density close to the density of water and thusremoval by sedimentation is decreased. This identified an inherent weakness of the system; more specifically, thehigh microplastic concentrations in the surface water of the GPT means there can be a risk of microplastic releasethrough overflow pits when inflows surpass the system capacity. Despite some differences, both the vegetatedbioretention cell and the non-vegetated sand filter removed rubber, bitumen and other microplastic particles tosimilar extent.

  • 10.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Förekomst och spridning av mikroplast, gummi och asfaltspartiklar från vägtrafik2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten redovisar förekomst av mikroplast och trafikrelaterade partiklar som däckgummi och asfalt i dagvatten, gatusopningssand och gatusopningsvatten från centrala Göteborg. Resultaten visar att dessa partiklar sprids till miljön via dagvatten och att det även finns stor risk för spridning via lakvatten från deponier av uttjänt gatusopningssand.

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  • 11.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Microlitter in sewage treatment systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether sewage treatment plants (STPs) are important entry routes for small litter particles, so called microltter, to the marine environment. Whether or not this is the case depends of course on the abundance of litter particles reaching the STPs, which in turn is the result of all the activities that create the waste water. But the amount of litter particles that are actually being discharged from the STP into the recipient water also heavily depends on how the waste water is treated in the plant. In this study microlitter is defined as particles <5 mm which is the definition most frequently used.

    STPs are primarily designed to reduce the amount of organic matter and the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorous in waste water. The retention of particles like microlitter in the STPs is hence unintentional, but a positive side-effect of the waste water treatment. There are within the Nordic countries large variations both in the origin of waste water being treated in STPs and in the techniques applied. In the present report, which is based on collaboration between scientist in Sweden, Finland and Iceland, the implications of these differences on the release of microlitter to the environment via STP effluents will be investigated. Two STPs were selected from each country, one representing the highest standard in the country regarding techniques for waste water treatment, and the other a representative for an “ordinary” level. The level of technology of the plants were found to vary significantly. Sweden and Finland, whose geographical positions are in densely populated areas and in enclosed sea areas, have invested in advanced treatment techniques where mechanical, chemical and biological treatment is standard. Iceland with its low density of people and the open Atlantic sea surrounding the country has at present only mechanical treatment of waste water, even at the largest STP serving the residents of Reykjavik. This large variation in waste water treatment opened up the opportunity to also study how the use of different techniques affects the content of microlitter in effluent water.

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  • 12.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroplast och andra antropogena partiklar i vatten, sediment och musslor från Hanöbukten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mikroplast brukar definieras som plastpartiklar <5 mm. Någon generell konsensus om en nedre gräns för partikelstorlek i begreppet ”mikroplast” finns dock inte. I Naturvårdsverkets rapport Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment. A review of existing data (Magnusson et al., 2016) definieras ”plast” inte bara som syntetiska plastpolymerer utan även icke-syntetiska polymerer som gummi inkluderas. I denna studie har vi analyserat både partiklar av syntetiska plastpolymerer och av gummipartiklar, men valt att presentera dem var för sig, som två olika grupper. Vi rapporterar dessutom förekomst av förbränningspartiklar och icke-syntetiska fibrer (framför allt bomullsfibrer) eftersom dessa antropogena partiklar är relativt vanliga i vattenmiljön. Termen mikroplastpartiklar refererar i texten till alla plastpartiklar oberoende av form och dessa delas även upp i kategorierna plastfibrer, plastfragment, plastflagor och plastfilm.

    Förekomst av mikroplast och andra antropogena partiklar, gummi, förbränningspartiklar och icke-syntetiska textilfibrer, undersöktes i vatten, sediment och musslor från två lokaler i Hanöbukten, en utanför Åhus och den andra utanför Stenshuvud. Gummipartiklarna förmodas komma från fordonsdäck. Partiklar från alla fyra grupper återfanns i vatten och sediment från bägge lokaler. I musslor återfanns endast en plastpartikel i ett poolat prov om 31 individer från Stenshuvud. I djurprovet från Åhus, bestående av 35 individer, fanns inga plastpartiklar.

    Antalet prover var för få för att kunna dra några säkra slutsatser om skillnader i förekomst av antropogena partiklar mellan de två lokalerna, men i de analyserade proverna kunde inga egentliga skillnader detekteras.

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  • 13.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroskräp i avloppsvatten från tre norska avloppsreningsverk2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microscopic litter particles in waste water from three waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), VEAS (700 000 population equivalents, pe), Tönsberg (185 000 pe) and Fuglevik (85 000 pe) were studied. Samples were taken by filtration of influent and effluent waste water, and also from the water right before the biological treatment at VEAS. The filters were analysed with stereomicroscopy, and the microlitter particles counted and categorized. To compare particles of different size classes, filters with two different mesh sizes were applied: 300 µm and 20 µm. It should be emphasized that particles that are collected on a 20 µm-filter will of course include also the size of particles that are collected on a particles ?300 µm filter. The analysed particles were divided into two main categories: microplastics and non-synthetic anthropogenic fibres (in the report referred to as non-synthetic fibres ). The latter category included e.g. cotton fibres from clothes. The study was based on a limited amount of data; only two samples were taken from influent and two from effluent water at each WWTP. So caution should be taken when interpreting the results. Still, valuable information on the importance of the WWTPs as gateways for microlitter to the environment has been obtained.

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  • 14.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroskräp i inkommande och utgående renat avloppsvatten vid Arvidstorps reningsverk i Trollhättans kommun2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    För att minska utflödet av mikroskräp från våra reningsverk och avloppsvattennät är det viktigt att kartlägga och sätta den eventuella volymen bräddat avloppsvatten i relation till den reduktion av mikroskräp som kan uppnås genom att införa ytterligare reningssteg. Eftersom inkommande vatten innehåller stora mängder mikroskräp är det möjligt att den största/snabbaste reningseffekten kan uppnås genom att minska graden av bräddning och rena vattnet med befintliga processer.

    I studien har förekomsten av mikroskräp i avloppsvattenströmmen genom Arvidstorps reningsverk i Trollhättan studerats på flera platser i verket och även på två platser i avloppsnätet. Provtagning gjordes under en dag och avloppsvattnet filtrerades genom filter för att fånga upp vattnets innehåll av mikroskräp av olika storlekar. De matriser som provtogs var: avloppsvatten från nätet, avloppsvatten inkommande till verket före rensgaller, avloppsvatten före respektive efter skivfilter (10 μm), råslam, skivfilterslam samt otvättad sand. På en punkt på ledningsnätet provtogs även vattnet i en pumpbrunn för dagvatten och också brunnens sediment. Mikroskräpet delades huvudsakligen in i tre typer: 1) icke-syntetiska fibrer d.v.s. exempelvis bomull och lin, 2) syntetiska fibrer (plastfibrer) 3) syntetiska partiklar (plastpartiklar).

    Transparenta icke-syntetiska fibrer ingick ej i analysen då dessa är svåra att skilja från cellulosafibrer som förekommer i stor mängd i avloppsvattenproverna. Analys av sediment i dagvattenpumpbrunnen gjorde det nödvändigt att för dessa prover addera skräpkategorierna metall, glas och asfalt. Inkommande vatten innehåller stora mängder mikroskräp men reningsprocesserna inom verket reducerar mängden mikroskräp betydligt. Skivfiltren bidrar till att reducera mängden mikroskräp men den absoluta merparten av reduktionen har redan skett under tidigare reningssteg.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

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  • 15.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening of microplastic particles in and down-stream a wastewater treatment plant2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för Naturvårdsverkets screeningprogram 2014 har i detta projekt avloppsreningsverkens betydelse som introduktionsväg för mikroplastpartiklar till havet utvärderats. Provtagning gjordes på Långeviksverket i Lysekil, ett relativt litet avloppsreningsverk med en belastning på 12 000 person ekvivalenter (pe), och med en avloppstub som mynnar i havet. Analyser av mikroplastpartiklar ?300 ?m utfördes dels i själva reningsverket (inkommande och utgående vatten samt i slam), dels i recipientvattnet. Bakgrundshalter av mikroplaster analyserades i havsvatten på en lokal som bedömdes vara opåverkad av Långeviksverkets utsläpp. Alla provtagningar gjordes under loppet av en och samma dag. Det är inte heller självklart att exakt definiera storleken på de uppsamlade partiklarna. t.ex. kan en plastfiber med en diameter mindre än 300 ?m antingen fastna på filtret eller åka igenom det. Trots detta har vi valt att kalla det uppsamlade materialet för mikroplastpartiklar ?300 ?m , även om det egentligen hade varit mer korrekt att definiera det som de mikroplastpartiklar som fångats med ett 300 ?m-filter . I inkommande vatten uppmättes en genomsnittlig koncentration på ~15 000 mikroplastpartiklar ?300 ?m per m3. vilket innebar inflöde av ~3 200 000 mikroplastpartiklar per timme. Över 99 procent av partiklarna avskiljdes till reningsverksslammet och mängden som lämnade verket med utgående vatten var ~1 770 mikroplastpartiklar per timme. Formen på de analyserade partiklarna påverkade i vilken utsträckning de avskiljdes i reningsverket och plastfibrer var en grupp som i högre grad än partiklar av andra former återfanns i slamfasen. Koncentrationen av mikroplastpartiklar i recipienten var förhöjd i plymen utanför avloppstubens mynning jämfört med ett referensområde som inte var direkt påverkat av utsläppsvattnet; 1.1 - 1.8 plastpartiklar m-3 i plymen jämfört med 0.45 m-3 i referensområdet. Högre partikelkoncentrationer uppmättes närmast tubens mynning jämfört med 200 m nedströms. I recipienten detekterades inga andra typer av plastpartiklar än plastfibrer. Undersökningen visar att volymen av mikroplastpartiklar som tillförs havet via utgående vatten från avloppsreningsverk kan vara substantiell. Eftersom det fortfarande har gjorts mycket få kvantitativa studier av källor/tillförselvägar till marint mikroskräp är det dock svårt att bedöma avloppsreningsverkens relativa betydelse. This report is only available in English.

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  • 16.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been assigned to identify important sources of microplastics in the sea and to work for reducing the production and emission of microplastics from these sources. Within the scope of this governmental assignment, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has been funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to review the sources of microplastics and the pathways microplastics take to reach the sea.

    A range of potential sources for microplastics and the pathways by which microplastics can reach the sea were selected for the review. The sources included both intentionally produced plastic pellets and plastic particles formed from fragmentation of larger plastic items. The pathways were primarily stormwater, wastewater and atmospheric deposition. For sea-based sources particles are discharged directly to the sea. Information was collected from scientific articles, reports and through personal communication with experts in relevant areas. Where the available data allowed, calculations were done to quantify the amounts of microplastics.

    The most important emissions for microplastics were found to be from road wear and abrasion of tyres. Approximately 13 000 tons of microplastics are released from tyres every year. Since data on microplastic content in stormwater from roads is very scarce it is however uncertain how much of these particles that is transported to water recipients and how much that is permanently deposited in the ground close to the road. The same is true for artificial turfs where the estimated loss was 2 300-3 900 tons per year, but data on the load reaching the sea is completely lacking. Loss of industrially produced plastic pellets in connection to manufacture and handling was estimated to amount to between 300 and 530 tons per year, but also here the volumes discharged to the sea are unknown. For several sources suspected to contribute with large amounts of microplastics to the sea, data is so scarce that no estimations on emissions could be done. This is for example the case for important categories related to waste management, recycling and littering.

    In summary it can be concluded that Swedish coastal waters receive substantial amounts of microplastics from both land-based and sea-based sources. Quantitative data is often scarce or completely lacking and it is not possible to summarize the total Swedish discharge of microplastics to the sea. An attempt to rank the sources according to their contribution was made but it should be kept in mind that data suffers from a large degree of uncertainty. Additional studies are needed to improve the bases for further assessments, in particular on microplastics in stormwater from different surfaces and sources.

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  • 17.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Friesen, Lisa Winberg von
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söderlund, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Atmosfäriskt nedfall av mikroskräp2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedfall av luftburna mikroskopiska skräppartiklar undersöktes på elva lokaler runt om i Sverige. Luftdeponerade plastfibrer, plastfragment, gummipartiklar från fordonsdäck och bomullsfibrer kunde påvisas vid de flesta av provtagningsplatserna, även de som låg på långt avstånd från större tätorter. Studien visar att lufttransport kan vara en betydelsefull spridningsväg för mikroskräp

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  • 18.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Piarulli, S.
    Scapinello, S.
    Comandini, P.
    X. W. Wong, J.
    Sciutto, G.
    Prati, S.
    Mazzeo, R.
    M. Booth, A.
    Airoldi, Rl
    Microplastic in wild populations of the omnivorous crab Carcinus aestuarii: A review and a regional-scale test of extraction methods, including microfibres.2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 251, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    Johansson, Lasse
    Smailys, Vytautas
    Telemo, Paul
    Winnes, Hulda
    Risk assessment of bilge water discharges in two Baltic shipping lanes2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 126, p. 575-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concentrations and effects of bilge water contaminants in two Baltic Sea areas were estimatedfrom modelling of discharge rates and analytical data on bilge water from seven ships. Biodegradation of bilgewater oil was accounted for and annual water concentrations were estimated to peak in late spring, whichcoincides with the beginning of a period with extensive biological activities in the sea.

    Concentrations on bilgewater metals were calculated both as water concentrations and as the annual contribution of metals to sediments.The predicted bilge water concentrations of oil and metal in the marine environment were estimated tobe 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower than reported toxic concentrations. However, available toxicity data arebased on short term exposure and there is to date limited information on toxic effects of the small but chronicallyelevated contaminant concentrations derived from bilge water discharge and other operational shipping activities.

  • 20. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    J�rundsd�ttir, Hr�nn
    Nor�n, Fredrik
    Lloyd, Hywel
    Talvitie, Julia
    Set�l�, Outi
    Microlitter in sewage treatment systems2016In: TemaNord report 2016:510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microscopic litter particles in the sea is a problem that has received considerable attention over the past decade. There are numerous possible sources to these microparticles and also numerous ways by which they may reach the marine environment. In order to take efficient measures to reduce the concentrations important sources and entrance routes have to be identified. Effluent water from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is one entrance route for microlitter to the sea and other aquatic environments. The purpose of the present study has been to quantify the amount of litter particles being discharged into the sea this way and also to investigate whether elevated microlitter concentrations could be detected in water, sediment and biota in the STP recipient areas.

    The study was limited to particles ≥300 μm in water and particles ≥100 μm in biota and sediment.The microlitter content was analysed in influent and effluent water at two STPs in each of Sweden, Finland and Iceland. Analyses of microlitter concentrations in water, sediment and biota were done in the recipient to one of the STPs in each country. Two major groups of microlitter were registered; microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibers (e.g. cotton).The study showed that in the Swedish and Finnish STPs more than 99.7% of the microlitter particles ≥300 μmThe plume of waste water coming from the discharge tube was fairly easy to detect in the Swedish and Finnish STP recipients. In both these recipients the microlitter concentrations in the plumes were found to be significantly higher than in water at the reference sites.

    The Swedish STP recipient water was localized in a river mouth in a heavily urbanized and industrialized area but the microlitter concentration in the waste water plume was still distinctly elevated compared to the water unaffected by the waste water.Microlitter concentrations in the recipient to the Swedish STP were found to be considerably lower when sampling during a period with no precipitation compared to sampling during a heavy rainfall, 1.9 microplastics and 1.5 non-synthetic fibres per m3 compared to 10.5 microplastics per m3 and non-synthetic fibers too numerous to be counted. In the Finnish recipient the concentrations were on average 12.7 microplastics and 11.3 non-syntheic fibres per m3 on the first sampling occasion and 0.7 microplastic and 6.7 non-synthetic fibres per m3 on the second. The difference could not be explained by any obvious climatolocial factors since both samplings were carried out during periods of dry weather. The microplastic concentrations in the Icelandic STP recipient water were slightly elevated compared to the reference site, and the difference was larger for the non-synthetic fibres than for the microplastics.

    Concentrations of microplastics varied between 2 and 5 litter particles per m3 at both sites. The small difference between the STP recipient and the reference site was probably at least partly due to the fact that the discharge point was localized in an area with an open coastline and a very good water circulation.Microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibres were detected in biota and sediment from the waste water recipient areas in all countries but it was not possible to trace them with any certainty to the waste water effluents.The study shows that STP effluents are entrance routes for microplastics and other microlitter particles to the aquatic environment. If the plants are equipped with chemical and biological treatment most of the litter particles in influent waste water will be retained in the sewage sludge. This reduces the impact on the recipient water, but if the sludge for example is to be used as an agricultural fertilizer the microlitter will still be spread to the environment. Efforts to reduce the microlitter concentrations in waste water should therefore preferably be done in households and other locations where the waste water is originally being formed.

  • 21.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Järlskog, Ida
    Strömvall, Ann-Margret
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Polukarova, Maria
    Galfi, Helen
    Aronsson, Maria
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    Occurrence of tire and bitumenwear microplastics on urban streets and in sweepsand and washwater2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, no 729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tire and roadwear particles have been identified as a potentialmajor source ofmicroplastics in the environment. However, more knowledge of the emissions and their further fate in the environment is needed, and the effec- tiveness and benefits of potential measures must be investigated to support future risk management efforts. Here the concentrations of tire and bitumenmicroplastic particles (TBMP) on roads and in nearby in stormwater, sweepsand andwashwaterweremeasured for the first timewithin the same area and time period. The analysis also included plastic, paint and fiber particles. Road dustwas sampled on the road surface using awet dust sam- pler, before and after street sweeping on twooccasions. On each of these occasions, and several occasions during a four-month periodwith frequent street sweeping, sweepsand and washwater, aswell as flow-weighted sam- pling of stormwater, were collected. TBMP concentrations were operationally defined, using density separation for some samples, followed by analysis by stereo microscopy. Sodium iodide (NaI) was found to be effective for density separation of TBMP. The largest proportion of anthropogenic microplastics detected consisted of tire tread wear and bitumen. The number of TBMP ≥100 μm in the WDS samples was up to 2561 particles/L. Sweepsand andwashwater contained highamounts of TBMP ≥100 μm, up to 2170 particles/kgdwand 4500 par- ticles/L, respectively. The results showthat the sweeper collects considerableamounts of TBMP, and thusweekly sweeping might prevent further transport of TBMP to the receiving stormwater. In stormwater the number of particles ≥100 μm was up to 3 particles/L and ≥ 20 μm was up to 5900 particles/L showing the importance of analysing smaller microparticle sizes than 100 μmin all samples in future studies. This study also confirms that there is a substantial volume of TBMP generated from traffic that enters the environment.

  • 22.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norén, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Distribution and abundance of surface water microlitter in the Baltic Sea: A comparison of two sampling methods2016In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, no 110, p. 177-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methods for marine microlitter sampling were compared in the Gulf of Finland, northern Baltic Sea: manta trawl (333μm) and a submersible pump (300 or 100μm). Concentrations of microlitter (microplastics, combustion particles, non-synthetic fibres) in the samples collected with both methods and filter sizes remained <10particlesm(-3). The pump with 100μm filter gave higher microlitter concentrations compared to manta trawl or pump with 300μm filter.

    Manta sampling covers larger areas, but is potentially subjected to contamination during sample processing and does not give precise volumetric values. Using a submerged pump allows method controls, use of different filter sizes and gives exact volumetric measures. Both devices need relatively calm weather for operation. The choice of the method in general depends on the aim of the study. For monitoring environmentally relevant size fractions of microlitter the use of 100μm or smaller mesh size is recommended for the Baltic Sea.

  • 23.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thor, Peter
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Scrubbers: Closing the loop; Activity 3. Task 2; Risk assessment of marine exhaust gas scrubber water.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to regulations on permitted levels of sulphur emissions from ships an increasing amount of ships are expected to become equipped with exhaust gas cleaning systems, so called scrubbers. The use of scrubbers makes it possible to continue to use high sulphur fuel oil on board. In the scrubbers, the exhaust gases are washed with a scrubber fluid aiming at reducing levels of sulphur dioxide. The fluid passes the exhaust gas once (“open loop scrubber”) or is recirculated (“closed loop scrubber”). This study investigates the potential impact of the discharges from open and closed loop scrubbers on marine ecosystems.

    Samples were taken of effluent water from ships with closed loop and open loop scrubbers. The water from closed loop systems is treated before discharge to the marine environment. The waters were tested for toxicity using experimental studies with field collected zooplankton and bottom-dwelling blue mussels. Zooplankton were found to be more sensitive than mussels. A subsequent risk assessment based on the toxicity results and data on discharged volumes together with a simple and static model on mixing in sea water showed that the issue needs further attention specially to protect sensitive and enclosed areas with heavy ship traffic.

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  • 24.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wahlberg, Cajsa
    Mikroskopiska skräppartiklar i vatten från avloppsreningsverk2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microscopic litter particles was studies in influent and effluent water from three Swedish waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), Henriksdal in Stockholm with 750 000 population equivalent (pe), Ryaverket in Gothenburg (740 000 pe) and Långeviksverket in Lysekil (12 000 pe). Sampling was done at three occasions at each WWTP and particles were collected on filters with two mesh sizes, 300 ?m and 20 ?m. Effluent wastewater from the membrane bioreactor (MBR) at the pilot plant Hammarby Sjöstadsverket, was also sampled. The filters were analysed with stereo microscopy which had an acceptable resolution to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic particles. By also using melting tests it was generally also possible to distinguish between synthetic (plastic) and non-synthetic anthropogenic (man-made) particles. The latter group consisted almost entirely of textile fibres made of natural materials such as cotton. A selection of commonly occurring particles were analysed with FTIR spectrometry to get in-depth information on what material they consisted of. Cellulose fibres, e.g. from toilet paper, were not considered as microlitter in this study. The most important results were as follows: ? The number of microlitter particles in incoming water was in the order of 104 to 105 per cubicmeter. With the flow rates occurring at the time the inflow of particles was in the order of 108 microplastics and 1010 non-synthetic anthropogenic fibres per hour to the two larger WWTPs, Henriksdal and Ryaverket, and 1*106 microplastics and 10*106 non-synthetic anthropogenic fibres to the smaller Långeviksverket. ? The majority of the microlitter particles in the incoming water, 70-100 percent, were retained in the WWTPs, but the effluent water still contained substantial amounts. ? Larger particles, >300 ?m, were retained in the WWTPs to a larger extent than particles <300 ?m. This is valid for both microplastics and non-synthetic anthropogenic fibres. ? Non-synthetic anthropogenic fibres were retained inn the WWTPs to a larger extent than microplastics. ? The number of particles >300 ?m in effluent water was substantially reduced after passage through the 15 ?m disc filter at Ryaverket compared to the two other WWTPs. However, no such difference for particles <300 ?m could be observed. ? No reduction of the number of microparticles could be observed after passage of waste water through the sand filter at Henriksdal. ? The MBR at the test plant at Hammarby Sjöstadsverket reduced the number of particles >20 ?m to around ten percent of what was found in effluent water from the other WWTPs. ? FTIR analyses of the microlitter revealed that commonly occurring materials were e.g. polypropylene, polyethylene, polyamide and acrylic plastic. The litter fibres consisted of materials like polyamide (nylon), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene and cotton.

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  • 25.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Graae, Lisette
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Härnwall, Eva-Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fullskaleförsök av vatten och partikeltransport i en dag- och bräddvattenanläggning Kungälv/Ytterby2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapaciteten att hantera vatten och partiklar vid ett kraftigt punktutsläpp (så kallad bräddning) i en dag- och bräddvattenanläggning har testats i ett fullskaleförsök. En tankbil släppte ut 9 kubikmeter rent vatten med mikroplast, 2 g polyamidpartiklar, i en grop överst i anläggningen. Vattenprover samlades in och filtrerades och partiklarna analyserades i mikroskop. Anläggningen fördröjde effektivt det insläppta vattnet och partikelhalterna minskade mycket kraftigt mellan utsläppet och anläggningens olika delar.

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  • 26.
    Norén, Katja
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norén, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uppföljning och utvärdering av miljötillståndet till följd av slängda tobaksprodukter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har till syfte att sammanställa kunskapsläget rörande slängda tobaksprodukters miljöpåverkan och är uppdelad i tre områden: litteraturbaserad undersökning av kunskapsläget, mindre enkätstudie och exemplifierande beräkningar.

    Inom litteraturstudien har internet och forskningsdatabaser använts för att söka efter svensk- och engelskspråkiga artiklar och rapporter. Enkätstudien har riktats till ca 55 personer vid reningsverk och reningsverksorganisationer. De exemplifierande beräkningarna har utformats efter tillgången på information. De har bland annat syftat till att kvantifiera mängder av kadmium, bly, nickel och kvicksilver som uppkommer från tobaksanvändare inom ett definierat område.

    Utifrån antagandet att all konsumerad röktobak (cigaretter, rulltobak, piptobak och cigarr/cigariller) samt snus når reningsverken så har mängderna satts i relation till andra källor till metaller i samma område t.ex. avloppsvatten från hushåll och luftdeposition. Beräkningar har också utförts för att försöka uppskatta tobaksskräpets påverkan på vattenmiljö och vattenlevande organismer. Här har enbart mängder från tobaksskräp i form av röktobak beräknats eftersom det finns viss information om antalet fimpar som ligger på gatan medan sådan information saknas helt för snus.

    I och med att tobaksskräp hamnar på gatan kan det via dagvattnet transporteras till en recipient och påverka denna. Då graden av miljöpåverkan beror av den koncentration som uppstår i recipienten har bidraget av tobakskräp beräknats för den kända ytan Kungsholmen ö och den kända volymen Karlbergskanalen som används som exempelrecipient och således mottagare av dagvatten från Kungsholmen ö.

    Baserat på tillgänglig information har tre scenarier för vilka mängder tobaksskräp som kan uppkomma beräknats utifrån:

            1. Antalet fimpar som har hittats på gatan (dvs. en ögonblicksbild där vi                            inte vet hur länge skräpet har ansamlats.

            2. Enkätstudier av hur många fimpar som rökare slänger på gatan per                              dag.

            3. Worst case scenario som innebär att allt kadmium i konsumerad                                    röktobak alternativt alla fimpar som uppstår under en dag når                                      recipienten.

    Med antagandet att dessa olika tobaksmängder når Karlbergskanalen har de uppnådda koncentrationerna i Karlbergskanalen beräknats och satts i relation till dels EU:s gränsvärde för kadmiumEG i inlandsytvatten och dels ett eget beräknat gränsvärde för fimpar (Predicted No Effect Concentration, PNECfimp) där ingen effekt i miljön förväntas. Gränsvärdet för fimpar har beräknats utifrån resultat från ekotoxicitetstester för att kunna bedöma fimparnas påverkan i miljön.

    Tobak innehåller ett stort antal ämnen och då den brinner bildas ytterligare ämnen som kan hamna i fimpen. Dessa ämnen kan vart och ett vara toxiskt men tillsammans kan de också ha en additiv effekt så att fimpens totala toxicitet är summan av de ingående ämnenas toxicitet. Det är inte heller ovanligt att ämnen i blandningar har en synergistisk effekt i förhållande till varandra, vilket innebär att blandningens samlade toxicitet till och med kan vara större än summan av de ingående ämnenas toxicitet. Att det beräknade gränsvärdet PNECfimp är mycket lägre än gränsvärdet för kadmiumEG illustrerar att fimpen innehåller flera giftiga ämnen.

    Sammantaget visar analysen att fimpars toxicitet skulle kunna utgöra ett problem för vattenmiljöer. Dvs. den giftighet alla de ämnen som finns i fimparna uttrycker sammantaget gör att framförallt mindre recipienter riskerar att påverkas negativt. I analysen har Karlbergskanalen använts som mottagare av fimpar från Kungsholmen ö och vid antagandet att varje rökare slänger 1,7 fimpar per dag så överskrids gränsvärdet för fimpar redan efter en dags fimpansamling. Även om inte alla fimpar når recipienten så hamnar nya fimpar på gatan varje dag vilket gör att recipienter med dåligt vattenutbyte blir extra känsliga.

    Resultaten indikerar således att det antal fimpar som hamnar på gatan i storstadsområden riskerar att ha en påverkan på mindre vattenrecipienter och det bör vara av intresse att analysera vart dagvattnet från de mest fimpnedsmutsade områdena leds. Miljöeffekten i exempelrecipienten baserat på kadmium från slängd tobak visade sig vara obetydlig då den beräknade kadmiumkoncentration blev mycket lägre än det befintliga gränsvärdet för kadmium också för worst case scenariot.

    Som jämförelse är tillskottet från luftdeponerat kadmium betydligt större än det maximala tillskottet från röktobak inom det analyserade området. På samma sätt är tillskottet av nickel, bly och kvicksilver från luftdeposition mycket högre än tillskottet från röktobak som slängs på gatan. Om allt tobaksrelaterat kadmium i värsta fall skulle nå reningsverket så utgör bidraget trots detta enbart en tredjedal av bidraget från urin + fekalier från samma område. Vad gäller tillskottet av nickel, bly och kvicksilver från tobak så är bidraget, även om all tobak når reningsverket, mycket litet i jämförelse med de mängder som tillförs reningsverken från hushållens avloppsvatten.  

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  • 27.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce sulfur emission from global shipping, exhaust gas cleaning systemsare increasingly being installed on board commercial ships. These so-called scrubbers extractSOX by spraying water into the exhaust gas. An effluent is created which is either releaseddirectly to the sea (open-loop system) or treated to remove harmful substances beforerelease (closed-loop system). We found severe toxic effects in the ubiquitous planktoniccopepod Calanus helgolandicus of exposure to effluents from two closed-loop systems andone open-loop system on North Sea ships.

    The effluents contained high concentrations ofheavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including alkylated PAHs. Weobserved significantly elevated mortality rates and impaired molting already in the lowesttested concentrations of each effluent: 0.04 and 0.1% closed-loop effluents and 1% open-loopeffluent. These concentrations correspond to total hydrocarbon concentrations of 2.8, 2.0,and 3.8 μg L−1, respectively, and compared to previous studies on oil toxicity in copepods,scrubber effluents appear more toxic than, for example, crude oil. None of the individualPAHs or heavy metals analyzed in the effluents occurred in concentrations which couldexplain the high toxicity. The effluents showed unexpected alkylated PAH profiles, and we hypothesize that scrubbers act as witch’scauldrons where undesired toxic compounds form so that the high toxicity stems from compounds we know very little about.

  • 28. Tiselius, Peter
    et al.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Toxicity of treated bilge water: The need for revised regulatory control2017In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 860-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Water accumulating in the bottom of ships (bilge water), contains a mixture of oil, detergents and other compounds from on board activities. To evaluate ecological effects of released bilge water the chemical composition and toxicity of treated bilge water from seven passenger ships was analysed. The oil content was below 15 mg L−1, the threshold for legal discharge, in all but one ship.

    Still, significant reductions in feeding and reproduction of Acartia tonsa were found after 48 h exposure in dilutions with 2.5–5% of bilgewater.Mortality was significant at dilutions of 5–10% in 4 of the 5 bilge water samples. Surfactantswere the most significant contributor to the toxicity on copepod vital rates and survival. Toxicity was also tested with Microtox where an EC50 was found at dilutions between 4.3% and 52%. The results showthat ecological effectsmight occur also in diluted suspensions of bilge water.

  • 29.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    W. Gabrielsen, Geir
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    An efficient and gentle enzymatic digestion protocol for the extraction of microplastics from bivalve tissue.2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 142, p. Pages 129-134.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    W. Gabrielsen, Geir
    Summer sea ice melt and wastewater are important local sources of microlitter to Svalbard waters2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, article id 105511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities leave traces of marine litter around the globe. The Arctic is, despite its remoteness, emerging as an area of no exception to this environmental issue. Arctic sea ice has previously been found to constitute a temporal sink of microplastics, but the potential release and subsequent fate of microplastics in the marine environment are yet unknown. Furthermore, the relative importance of local sources of microplastics in the Arctic marine environment is under discussion. In this study, the concentration and distribution of anthropogenic microparticles (AMPs,<5 mm, including microplastics) have been investigated in marine waters and sea ice of Svalbard. Seawater samples throughout the water column and floating sea ice samples were collected along a transect originating in Rijpfjorden, reaching northwards to the sea ice-edge. Seawater samples were also collected along a transect extending westwards from head to mouth of Kongsfjorden. Samples were collected throughout the water column with stations positioned to enable detection of potential AMP emissions from the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund. Along both transects, environmental parameters were measured to explore potential correlations with AMP distribution. High concentrations of AMPs were detected in sea ice (158 ± 155 AMPs L−1). Based on both AMP concentrations and characteristics, AMPs identified in seawater of the marginal ice zone are to a large extent likely released during the melting of sea ice. The release of AMPs during summer melting of sea ice was concomitantly taking place with the ice-edge bloom, suggesting increased bioavailability to Arctic marine biota. Concentrations of AMPs were up to an order of magnitude higher in Kongsfjorden (up to 48.0 AMPs L−1) than in Rijpfjorden (up to 7.4 AMPs L−1). The distribution and composition of AMPs in Kongsfjorden suggest the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund to be a likely source. Our results emphasize the importance of local point- and diffuse sources of AMPs in the Arctic and stress the urgency of considering their associated environmental impact. Implementation of regulatory policy is of importance, particularly since human activities and environmental pressures are increasing in the Arctic.

  • 31.
    Winnes, Hulda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Zhang, Yuqing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Scrubbers: Closing the loop; Activity 3. Summary; Environmental analysis of marine exhaust gas scrubbers on two Stena Line ships.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a summary and a joint analysis of four studies on environmental aspects of the use of exhaust gas SO2 -scrubbers on ships. Based on measurements and analyses of emissions and effluents from scrubber systems on ferries in Stena Line’s fleet we draw conclusions on environmental effects of the installations. The studies are part of the EU-funded project “Scrubbers: Closing the loop”. The use of exhaust gas scrubbers on ships is an alternative to the use of low sulphur fuels from a legal perspective. Both options fulfil existing international standards on sulphur emissions from ships in the Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) implemented by the IMO. The environmental effects of a wide spread use of exhaust gas scrubbers are relevant topics for discussion as the limit for sulphur in marine fuel will be reduced globally 2020 and a large increase in the use of scrubbers is likely to follow. Our environmental analyses indicate that the use of a low sulphur fuel oil as marine fuel is favourable compared to the use of heavy fuel oil in combination with an exhaust gas scrubber, from an environmental risk perspective.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sköld, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    MILJÖMÄRKNING AV FRITIDSBÅTSHAMNAR Underlag för ett miljömärkningssystem som syftar till att minska belastningen från fritidsbåtshamnar på den marina miljön2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fritidsbåtshamnar har en betydande miljöpåverkan och är redan idag föremål för en rad olika krav och regler. Projektet har undersökt potentialen för hur ett miljömärkningssystem kan användas som ett styrinstrument för att minska miljöpåverkan från fritidsbåthamnar. Rapporten har tagits fram av Havsmiljöinstitutet i samarbete med IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet på uppdrag av Havs- och vattenmyndigheten. Rapportförfattarna ansvarar för innehållet och slutsatserna i rapporten, vilket inte innebär något ställningstagande från Havs- och vattenmyndighetens sida.

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    FULLTEXT01
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