IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Fjellander, Liv
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekholm, Hanna Matschke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Delningens potential2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project investigates the potential increasing resource efficiency and reducing environmental impact and how the potential can be achieved for premises, transports and tools. The driving forces and obstacles for sharing have been studied, methodology for sustainability assessments and potential rebound effects have been investigated and ten success factors have been identified for upscaling sharing solutions:

    1. Trust. For the sharing platform, the quality of the goods and for other users.
    2. Accessibility. Geographically, temporally and in terms of access to systems and spaces.
    3. Managed risk. Sharing is associated with risk, which needs to be managed and facilitated by existing regulations and which can be mitigated by commercial insurance.
    4. Quality. The quality of the goods and services need to be at least as good as those the consumer would otherwise have bought for them to switch to sharing.
    5. Simple and smooth transactions. By making it easier to share than to buy new, the interest in sharing solutions can increase.
    6. Visibility. The fact that the knowledge and habit of sharing are so low means that the critical mass of users and objects is still too low.
    7. Belonging. In several of the product categories, like transport and space, there is a need to feel that you belong - a sense of ”this is my space”. For sharing to scale up, design, business models and policy need to relate to that need.
    8. Negative effects. The ability to limit and manage the negative effects of the sharing economy on conventional companies is an important factor for upscaling.
    9. Access to capital is in many cases critical to growth, both to achieve a critical mass and long-term economic sustainability.
    10. Regulation. Sharing requires regulations and policy support for better conditions with clear rules and tailor-made policy instruments for sharing.

    Several actors play an important role in building sharing potential; the role of the business sector to create new business models and good working conditions, the role of the financial sector to improve the conditions for sharing initiatives to be able to upscale, the role of national decision makers to both regulate and create conditions for sharing and manage the consequences of sharing, the role of the cities to create infrastructure, coordinate and be a driving force in itself to shape the development of sharing so that it contributes to sustainability and the role of research to develop innovative forms of sharing, continue to follow the development of sharing and develop ways to measure effects and prevent rebound effects.

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  • 2.
    Fjellander, Liv
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekholm, Hanna Matschke
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Delningens potential, kortversion2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kortversion av rapporten från projektet Delningens potential, där vi bedömt potentialen för att delning av transporter, verktyg och yta ökar och samtidigt bidrar till ekonomiska, sociala och miljömässiga vinster. I Sverige finns en lång tradition och vana av att dela på resurser. Delning har potential att ge både ekologiska, sociala och ekonomiska vinster under vissa förutsättningar.

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  • 3.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mata, Érika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Plepys, Andrius
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Sharing is daring, but is it sustainable? An assessment of sharing cars, electric tools and offices in Sweden2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 170, p. 105583-105583, article id 105583Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stakeholder Specific Multi-Scale Spatial Representation of Urban Building-Stocks2018In: ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 173, no 7(5)Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban building-stocks use a significant amount of resources and energy. At the same time, they have a large potential for energy efficiency measures (EEM). To support decision-making and planning, spatial building-stock models are used to examine the current state and future development of urban building-stocks. While these models normally focus on specific cities, generic and broad stakeholder groups such as planners and policy makers are often targeted. Consequently, the visualization and communication of results are not tailored to these stakeholders.

    This paper uses a differentiated building-stock description based on building-specific data and measured energy use from energy performance certificates for multi-family buildings (MFB) in the city of Gothenburg. The building-stock description treats every building as unique, allowing results to be provided at any level of aggregation to suit the needs of the specific stakeholders involved. Calculated energy use of the existing stock is within 10% of the measured energy use.

    The potential for EEM in the existing stock is negated by the increased energy use due to new construction until 2035, using a development scenario based on current renovation rates and planned developments. Visualizations of the current energy use of the stock as well as the impact of renovation and new construction are provided, targeting specific local stakeholders.

  • 5.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cabeza, LF
    Chàfer, M
    Comparative Analysis of Web of Science and Scopus on the Energy Efficiency and Climate Impact of Buildings2020In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 409-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the body of scientific publications on energy efficiency and climate mitigation from buildings has been growing quickly in recent years, very few previous bibliometric analysis studies exist that analyze the literature in terms of specific content (trends or options for zero-energy buildings) or coverage of different scientific databases. We evaluate the scientific literature published since January 2013 concerning alternative methods for improving the energy efficiency and mitigating climate impacts from buildings. We quantify and describe the literature through a bibliometric approach, comparing the databases Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus. A total of 19,416 (Scopus) and 17,468 (WoS) publications are analyzed, with only 11% common documents. The literature has grown steadily during this time period, with a peak in the year 2017. Most of the publications are in English, in the area of Engineering and Energy Fuels, and from institutions from China and the USA. Strong links are observed between the most published authors and institutions worldwide. An analysis of keywords reveals that most of research focuses on technologies for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, phase change materials, as well as information and communication technologies. A significantly smaller segment of the literature takes a broader perspective (greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle, and sustainable development), investigating implementation issues (policies and costs) or renewable energy (solar). Knowledge gaps are detected in the areas of behavioral changes, the circular economy, and some renewable energy sources (geothermal, biomass, small wind). We conclude that (i) the contents of WoS and Scopus are radically different in the studied fields; (ii) research seems to focus on technological aspects; and (iii) there are weak links between research on energy and on climate mitigation and sustainability, the latter themes being misrepresented in the literature. These conclusions should be validated with further analyses of the documents identified in this study. We recommend that future research focuses on filling the above identified gaps, assessing the contents of several scientific databases, and extending energy analyses to their effects in terms of mitigation potentials

  • 6.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Novikova, Aleksandra
    F.P. Lucena, André
    Bertoldi, Paolo
    Climate Mitigation from Circular and Sharing Economy in the Buildings Sector2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 158, article id 104817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The buildings sector is a major consumer of energy and resources throughout the entire life cycle of the buildings (materials sourcing, design, manufacturing, distribution, consumption, disposal) with corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The contribution of the sector is therefore key to achieving ambitious climate targets. In particular, to maintain global warming below target of 1.5 °C, a carbon dioxide emissions reduction of 9 Gt is required just from the global building sector (Wang et al, 2018). This will need to be achieved by a reduction in energy consumption and decarbonization of electricity production. Equally substantial reductions are required from the other life cycle phases: materials production, construction and demolition phases, which are typically accounted as changes in the industrial sector. The improvement of resource flows through a Circular Economy (CE) approach that includes reducing, reusing, recycling and recovering materials and products, facilitates a decoupling of growth from resource consumption (Kalmykova et al, 2018). This can provide clear advantages from an environmental perspective, contributing to Sustainable Development Goals and to climate change mitigation. However, the literature has identified that despite a global trend of improved operational performance, there are rising “embodied” emissions from processing and manufacturing of building materials. Industrial recycling and energy recovery are the most common practices, even when reuse is believed to have higher economic and environmental value (Eberhardt et al, 2019). The Sharing Economy (SE), offers several opportunities for the building sector by promoting reuse, enabling shared ownership, access or use to increase the utilization rate of products and systems (e.g. shared accommodation, social spaces, offices or tools). Recent literature clearly highlights for the building sector the urgent need for a range of actions across the life cycle such as reduced operational and embodied impacts, as well as strategies to increase alignment of goals and action from numerous stakeholders along the value chain (Röck et al, 2020). This needs to be implemented with specific reference to people, cultures and norms in which the strategies are deployed. The pressure on the sector to embrace its role as provider of critical climate mitigation solutions, is expected to increase. There are however few explicit links to sustainable development and climate mitigation, and little common ground for the variety of analytical approaches and tools. The main aim of the CE in the literature is considered to be economic prosperity, followed by environmental quality; its impact on social equity and future generations is rarely mentioned. Circular and shared economy imply the adoption of cleaner production patterns, an increase of producers’ and consumers’ responsibility and awareness, the use of renewable technologies and materials as well as the adoption of suitable policies. It applies to different systems levels from the macro (neighborhood, city, region, nation and beyond) to the micro level (consumer, product, company). It requires the engagement of all actors in society and their capacity to create and exchange transformative patterns. In all, transition to the era of circular and shared economy aligned with climate goals requires more knowledge on the necessary changes in household’s behavior, design practices, construction and de-construction methods, business models and legal frameworks (Laurenti et al, 2019). This Virtual Special Issue (VSI) calls for new research contributions on mitigation potentials from the Circular and Sharing Economy in the buildings sector worldwide.

  • 7.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kalagasidis A and Johnsson F, Sasic
    Contributions of Building Retrofitting in Five Member States to EU Targets for Energy Savings2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 759-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To benchmark the contributions of building retrofits to the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs) of the Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) and to identify potential improvements to the general EU methodology, this paper presents homogenous mapping of the potential for energy savings and associated effects on CO2 emissions for the building stocks of five selected MS: France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The mapping is created using a verified building stock modeling methodology, and includes results related to technical and techno-economical improvements for ten energy conservation measures (ECMs) and six ECM packages. These results are compared to the corresponding estimates in the NEEAPs, as well as those in the literature.

    Although both our results and those in the literature show high variability for the cost-efficiency of the ECMs between the five national building stocks, the potential application of complete ECM packages generally appears to be more profitable than the application of individual ECMs. Certain challenges must be overcome before this potential can be realized. The energy savings for Year 2020 projected in the NEEAPs appear to be overly optimistic when one considers the efficiency trends, current regulatory framework, and techno-economical potential detailed in this study. Furthermore, the NEEAPs are not in full compliance with the requirements of the EU Energy Efficiency Directive. These requirements could be defined more specifically, so as to address the identified information gaps, thereby facilitating the implementation and monitoring of energy savings in existing buildings.

  • 8.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kihila, J.M.
    Wanemark, J.
    Cheng, S.H.
    Harris, S.
    Sandkvist, F.
    Nyberg, T.
    Yaramenka, K.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Non-technological and behavioral options for decarbonizing buildings – A review of global topics, trends, gaps, and potentials2022In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 29, p. 529-545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Langevin, J.
    Reyna, J.L.
    Ebrahimigharehbaghi, S.
    Sandberg, N.
    Fennell, P.
    Nägeli, C.
    Laverge, J.
    Delghust, M.
    Van Hove, M.
    Webster, J.
    Federico, F.
    Jakob, M.
    Camarasa, C.
    Developing a common approach for classifying building stock energy models2020In: Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 133, article id 110276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings contribute 40% of global greenhouse gas emissions; therefore, strategies that can substantially reduce emissions from the building stock are key components of broader efforts to mitigate climate change and achieve sustainable development goals. Models that represent the energy use of the building stock at scale under various scenarios of technology deployment have become essential tools for the development and assessment of such strategies. Within the past decade, the capabilities of building stock energy models have improved considerably, while model transferability and sharing has increased. Given these advancements, a new scheme for classifying building stock energy models is needed to facilitate communication of modeling approaches and the handling of important model dimensions. In this article, we present a new building stock energy model classification framework that leverages international modeling expertise from the participants of the International Energy Agency's Annex 70 on Building Energy Epidemiology. Drawing from existing classification studies, we propose a multi-layer quadrant scheme that classifies modeling techniques by their design (top-down or bottom-up) and degree of transparency (black-box or white-box); hybrid techniques are also addressed. The quadrant scheme is unique from previous classification approaches in its non-hierarchical organization, coverage of and ability to incorporate emerging modeling techniques, and treatment of additional modeling dimensions. The new classification framework will be complemented by a reporting protocol and online registry of existing models as part of ongoing work in Annex 70 to increase the interpretability and utility of building stock energy models for energy policy making.

  • 10.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindeberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Romson, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Översikt av indikatorer för hållbart boende - Del av förstudie om användbara kriterier för hållbart boende i Stockholms län2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport gör en översiktlig inventering över indikatorer för miljömässig och social hållbarhet för byggande och boende. Meningen med inventeringen är att ge kunskapsunderlag för diskussioner kring hur hållbarhetskriterier kan konstrueras och användas av kommunerna i Storstockholm för att driva på hållbarhetsarbetet i stadsutvecklingen. Det finns många indikatorsystem utarbetade av olika aktörer. Indikatorer finns på olika nivåer, från byggnader till hela städer. Rapporten går igenom åtta miljöcertifieringssystem som finns på den svenska marknaden, sex uppföljningssystem som används bland kommuner i Storstockholm och 14 internationella indikatorsystem för hållbara städer. Sammanfattningsvis listas 189 indikatorer inom social-, miljömässig och ekonomisk hållbarhet samt inom förvaltning och styrning. Att välja lämpliga indikatorer beror till stor del på vilka mål man vill styra mot, samt arbetsbördan som krävs för att ta fram underlagsdata, redovisa resultat och eventuellet låter verifiera detta. Datatillgänglighet är en viktig aspekt för att välja lämpligt indikatorsystem. Uppföljnings- och rankingsystem för städer kan även handla om att redovisa strategier och planer för att uppnå mål kopplade till Agenda 2030 och nationella miljökvalitetsmål. Då jämförs inte nyckeltal utan en bedömning görs till vilken grad utvalda områden uppfylls. Rapporten ger på så vis underlag för en diskussion kring vilka hållbarhetskriterier som bäst skulle driva på stadsutvecklingen i Storstockholm.

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  • 11.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    A review of flexibility of residential electricity demand as climate solution in four EU countries2020In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased flexibility at the grid edge is required to achieve ambitious climate goals and can be provided by smart energy solutions. By systematically reviewing the literature, we provide an overview of the potential flexibility of different residential electrical loads for France, Germany, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. While 85% of the studies aimed to identify potentials for shifting electrical energy use in time, the other 15% aimed to identify energy-saving potentials. Most of the data were found for the German and British electrical systems. A wide range of flexibility measures (e.g., price mechanisms, user-centered control strategies for space heating and water heating, automated shifting of appliances' use, EV charging algorithms, and consumer feedback) and methods (e.g., simulations, trials, and interviews) have been used. Potentials obtained from the literature have been upscaled to the national level, including corresponding effects in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results show that between 2% and 18% of residential sector electricity in the four countries could be shifted, resulting in total emission reductions of 10 MtCO2 from peak shaving, or 24 MtCO2 per year if optimizing the deployment of renewables. The literature identifies substantial economic, technical, and behavioral benefits from implementing flexibility measures. In all the cases, it seems that the current regulatory framework would need to change to facilitate participation. Recognized risks include higher peaks and congestions in low price-hours and difficulties in designing electricity tariffs because of conflicts with CO2 intensity as well as potential instability in the entire electricity system caused by tariffs coupling to wholesale electricity pricing.

  • 12.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ottosson, Jonas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Solid state breakers as climate solutions2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the work performed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) and co-funded by Stiftelsen Institutet för Vatten- och Luftvårdsforskning (SIVL) and Blixt Tech AB. Increased flexibility at the grid edge is required to achieve ambitious climate goals and can be provided by smart energy solutions. Such solutions are expected to support the ongoing shift on the supply side towards more renewable generation (both on grid and distributed) and to offer consumers the opportunity to reduce costs by demand shifting. In combination with better information and automation to optimize energy use, grid edge solutions can take customers a step forward to become prosumers.

    Using a systematic review of the scientific literature, an overview – for France, Germany, UK and Sweden – is provided of the potential flexibility of different residential electrical loads. The potentials obtained from the literature have been upscaled to the national level, including the corresponding effects in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The results show that between 2% and 18% of the electricity from the residential sector in the four countries could be shifted, resulting in total emissions reductions of 10 MtCO2 from peak shaving, or 24 Mt CO2 per year if the flexibility would optimize the deployment of renewables. Additional incentives are needed, and changes are required in energy price mechanisms and tariffs to make flexibility economically feasible on the market.

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  • 13.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wanemark, Joel
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    M. Nik, Vahid
    Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela
    Economic feasibility of building retrofitting mitigation potentials: Climate change uncertainties for Swedish cities2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wanemark, Joel
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Shadram, Farshid
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Österbring, M.
    Ambition meets reality - Modeling renovations of the stock of apartments in Gothenburg by 20502020In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, article id 110098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bottom-up dynamic modeling framework aiming to incorporate realities of the decision-making process when implementing energy-saving building renovations is proposed and applied to a case study of all multifamily buildings in Gothenburg, Sweden. The developed model is based on real conditions of existing buildings, from the national Energy Performance Certificate database, building and property registers, and cadastral maps from the city planning office. Although explorative, the framework accounts for the reaction capacity in terms of (i) investments by all property owners and (ii) total workmanship capacity in the city. Two scenarios were considered to account for renovations driven solely by technical renovation needs (end-of-life of building components) and by cost efficiency; further, both scenarios were investigated at different levels of reaction capacity. The developed framework is easily replicable to other regions and cities. The retrofitting includes, as individual measures as well as in packages, increased insulation levels, increased efficiency of lighting and appliances, and the installation of heat recovery systems and photovoltaic panels. Whereas implementation of energy-efficient measures dictated solely by technical renovation needs led to a very low energy demand, with some buildings becoming energy producers by 2050, implementation strictly driven by cost-efficiency (from the perspective of the property owners) only reduced the energy demand by 5% during this time and would not fully utilize the investment capacity of the property owners. Furthermore, the current limitations of reaction capacity for the market shares allowed for a reduction of the energy demand by only 15% during the same period. Workmanship capacity was more constraining than investment capacity and is thus identified as a local imperative need and suggests co-benefits related to job creation within the construction sector.

  • 15.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wang, Rui
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    K. Korpal, A
    H. Cheng, S
    P Jiménez Navarro, J
    Filippidou, F
    Reyna, J
    A map of roadmaps for zero and low energy and carbon buildings worldwide2020In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 15, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formulation of targets and establishing which factors in different contexts will achieve these targets are critical to successful decarbonization of the building sector. To contribute to this, we have performed an evidence map of roadmaps for zero and low energy and carbon buildings (ZLECB) worldwide, including a list and classification of documents in an on-line geographical map, a description of gaps, and a narrative review of the knowledge gluts. We have retrieved 1219 scientific documents from Scopus, extracted metadata from 274 documents, and identified 117 roadmaps, policies or plans from 27 countries worldwide. We find that there is a coverage bias towards more developed regions. The identified scientific studies are mostly recommendations to policy makers, different types of case studies, and demonstration projects. The geographical inequalities found in the coverage of the scientific literature are even more extreme in the coverage of the roadmaps. These underexplored world regions represent an area for further investigation and increased research/policy attention. Our review of the more substantial amount of literature and roadmaps for developed regions shows differences in target metrics and enforcement mechanisms but that all regions dedicate some efforts at national and local levels. Roadmaps generally focus more on new and public buildings than existing buildings, despite the fact that the latter are naturally larger in number and total floor area, and perform less energy efficiently. A combination of efficiency, technical upgrades, and renewable generation is generally proposed in the roadmaps, with behavioral measures only reflected in the use of information and communication technologies, and minimal focus being placed on lifecycle perspectives. We conclude that insufficient progress is being made in the implementation of ZLECB. More work is needed to couple the existing climate goals, with realistic, enforceable policies to make the carbon savings a reality for different contexts and stakeholders worldwide.

  • 16.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Österbring, M.
    Thuvander, L.
    Wallbaum, H.
    Explorative life-cycle assessment of renovating existing urban housing-stocks.2019In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 165, article id 106391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    Mata, Érika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Samperio, Álvaro
    Quijano, Ana
    Cuneo, Alessandra
    Social and market acceptance of photovoltaic panels and heat pumps in Europe: A literature review and survey2022In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 155, p. 111867-111867, article id 111867Article in journal (Refereed)
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