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  • 1.
    Andersson, Tova
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ekholm, Hanna Matschke
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fjellander, Liv
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Zhang, Yuqing
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Dela prylar, yta, bil och tid - En vägledning till delningsekonomi i kommunerna2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Delning handlar om att ge varandra tillgång till underutnyttjade resurser, som saker, ytor, transporter, tid, data eller kompetens. Det kan ske med eller utan vinstsyfte, privat eller kommersiellt och i de flesta fall utan ägarbyte. I Sverige finns en lång tradition och vana av att dela, både i grannskapet med tvättstuga, föreningslokaler och klädbytardagar, och samhälleligt med offentliga rum, kollektivtrafik och allemansrätt. Tilliten mellan människor är en av de högsta i världen enligt SOM-Institutet. Det gör steget att börja dela via nya tjänster och plattformar kortare. Intresset för delningsformer ökar hos invånarna. Det har skett flera normförflyttningar som ger delningsekonomin en skjuts. Att göra saker själv har fått högre status liksom att ta vara på saker. Prylar med en historia har fått ett uppgraderat värde och för allt fler unga är tillgång viktigare än ägande.

    Det finns ett stort behov hos kommuner av erfarenhets- och kunskapsutbyte kring delningsekonomi. Att inspireras av varandra och få inblick i vilka framgångsfaktorer andra kommuner funnit, hur ekonomiska och juridiska problem lösts och hållbarhetseffekter följts upp. Avfall Sverige och IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har tagit fram denna vägledning utifrån en kartläggning av vad som görs på kommunnivå, en enkätundersökning med cirka 30 svarande kommuner och intervjuer med åtta av dem. Det finns också en mer detaljerad rapport och en förteckning över delningsinitiativ för den som vill fördjupa sig.

    Vi hoppas att den ska inspirera och ge handgripliga råd både för de kommuner som är i full gång och de kommuner som just ska börja jobba med delningsekonomi.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Andersson, Tova
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fjellander, Liv
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ljungkvist Nordin, Hanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Zhang, Yuqing
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Dela prylar, yta, bil och tid - Delningsekonomi i kommunerna2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att uppnå de Globala målen i agenda 2030 och Sveriges miljömål behöver vår konsumtion vara hållbar och använda cirkulära resurser så effektivt och länge som möjligt på ett sätt som ryms inom de planetära gränserna och bidrar till välmående. Det handlar om att kommuner, företag och individer gör medvetna val, tar väl hand om, lagar, delar, tillgängliggör och återanvänder det vi har så att vi inte konsumerar mer än vi behöver eller vad planeten kan återskapa. Det handlar också om att skapa förutsättningar för hållbar konsumtion genom hela värdecykeln. Att återanvända och återvinna material, att designa, producera, distribuera och affärsutveckla på ett sätt som gör hållbar konsumtion till norm. Delning är en del av att förändra konsumtionen i en mer hållbar riktning. I Sverige har vi en lång tradition av att dela tvättstugor, badhus, daghem, kollektivtrafik och naturvärden genom allemansrätten. Den vanan kan man bygga vidare på nu när nya former för delning växer fram. Kommunal verksamhet handlar i grunden om att ta hand om gemensamma resurser och kommuner har därför stora möjligheter att stödja att de delas och återanvänds inom kommunens verksamheter genom att till exempel återanvända byggmaterial och inredning eller dela på transportpooler, lokaler eller utrustning mellan verksamheter. Men också genom att erbjuda invånare tillgång till lokaler eller odlingsmark, plattformar för delning av ting, tid eller transporter, eller system för återanvändning av saker. Den digitala utvecklingen har gjort möjligheterna att dela på resurser så mycket större och tillgängligare för fler. Många kommuner har idag tagit initiativ för ökad delning, samtidigt så finns det oklarheter och hinder kring hur delningen ska kunna skalas upp och utvidgas till fler områden. Avfall Sverige och IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har i samband med denna rapport också tagit fram en vägledning för hur kommunen kan jobba för att öka delningsekonomin inom kommunens verksamheter och mellan kommunen och invånarna: Dela prylar, yta, bil och tid. En vägledning till delningsekonomi i kommunerna.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Dahllöf, Lisbeth
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Re:Sourse Mätning av produktcirkularitet som ett sätt att öka resursproduktivitet2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett mått som mäter cirkularitet, det vill säga hur stor andel av en produkt som har använts tidigare eller återvunnits och dess värde har nu testats i samarbete med ett antal företag. Syftet är att skapa tydlighet och mätbarhet som kan underlätta övergången till en cirkulär ekonomi. Projektet har genomförts av RISE och IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet inom ramen för det strategiska innovationsprogrammet Re:source och IVL stod för jämförelse med livscykelanalys.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ljungkvist Nordin, Hanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Participatory life cycle sustainability analysis2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This presentation aims to contribute to the development and demonstration of an operational approach to life cycle sustainability analysis (LCSA). This approach originates from the framework developed within the EU project CALCAS. The framework is different from the life cycle sustainability assessment outlined by Klöpffer in that it not only broadens the scope of life cycle assessment (LCA) to include economic and social aspects, but also allows for deepening of the analysis. It is also different in that it does not predefine the LCSA to be the sum of LCA, life cycle costing (LCC) and social LCA. Instead, the sustainability indicators, the systems investigated and the methods used for the analysis are all decided case by case. Our LCSA approach has two distinct features: 1. the case-specific research questions are defined in a participatory procedure that involves an Open Space workshop; 2. the analyses are carried through by a network of researchers and experts. A network is necessary because the research questions are not known in advance.

    We applied the approach in a sustainability assessment of a 50 km pipeline for transfer of residual heat from industries to a large district-heating system. The LCSA included 14 research questions on economic, environmental and social aspects. The results indicate that the pipeline is likely to reduce the total costs of the system, but the expected profit is rather small and uncertain, and it is difficult to find a market model that ensures everyone a share of this profit. The environmental benefits of the pipeline are highly dependent on what electricity production increases when the use of residual heat in the DH systems reduces the combined heat and power production in these systems. The pipeline is likely to have no significant impact on the employment and a somewhat negative impact on the land owners.

    In conclusion, our LCSA approach proved to be operational. The Open Space format for workshops can generate a good basis for the research questions; however, care must be taken to ensure a balanced participation at the workshop, and complementary research questions might have to be added after the workshop. We found that an LCSA that is the sum of LCA, LCC and social LCA does not cover all sustainability aspects that stakeholders can consider important. We also found that the sustainability of a pipeline for residual heat is uncertain in this specific system and in the time frame investigated.

    Den här rapporten finns endast på engelska. Svensk sammanfattning finns i rapporten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sustainability assessment of residual heat transfer from Stenungsund to Gothenburg2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a sustainability assessment of a link for transfer of residual heat from the chemical industries in Stenungsund to the district-heating (DH) systems of Kungälv and Gothenburg. It is part of the output from a package of interrelated projects involving researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, and IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. A consortium of Stenungsund industries, DH companies and other potential stakeholders are also involved in as partners and co-funders of the projects. The Swedish Energy Agency participates as external co-funder. A sustainability assessment can address different types of questions, for example: 1. Does the DH link make it easier to reach a sustainable society? 2. Does the DH link in itself improve the environmental, economic and social aspects of society? The first question is about to what extent opportunities for sustainable solutions arise or disappears as a result of the link. The answer to this question is at least partly known at the start of the project: a DH link is in principle likely to make it easier to reach an environmentally sustainable society, because the use of residual heat in the long term reduces the need for other energy sources. The main purpose of this sub-project is to respond to the second question, which is about foreseeable consequences of the specific DH link on the economic, environmental, and social performance of society. This question is much more complex. It requires that the assessment considers the case-specific local and regional conditions but, at the same time, is broad enough to take into account important and foreseeable impacts regardless of where in society they occur. This report is only available in English.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Fjellander, Liv
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ekholm, Hanna Matschke
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Delningens potential2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This project investigates the potential increasing resource efficiency and reducing environmental impact and how the potential can be achieved for premises, transports and tools. The driving forces and obstacles for sharing have been studied, methodology for sustainability assessments and potential rebound effects have been investigated and ten success factors have been identified for upscaling sharing solutions:

    1. Trust. For the sharing platform, the quality of the goods and for other users.
    2. Accessibility. Geographically, temporally and in terms of access to systems and spaces.
    3. Managed risk. Sharing is associated with risk, which needs to be managed and facilitated by existing regulations and which can be mitigated by commercial insurance.
    4. Quality. The quality of the goods and services need to be at least as good as those the consumer would otherwise have bought for them to switch to sharing.
    5. Simple and smooth transactions. By making it easier to share than to buy new, the interest in sharing solutions can increase.
    6. Visibility. The fact that the knowledge and habit of sharing are so low means that the critical mass of users and objects is still too low.
    7. Belonging. In several of the product categories, like transport and space, there is a need to feel that you belong - a sense of ”this is my space”. For sharing to scale up, design, business models and policy need to relate to that need.
    8. Negative effects. The ability to limit and manage the negative effects of the sharing economy on conventional companies is an important factor for upscaling.
    9. Access to capital is in many cases critical to growth, both to achieve a critical mass and long-term economic sustainability.
    10. Regulation. Sharing requires regulations and policy support for better conditions with clear rules and tailor-made policy instruments for sharing.

    Several actors play an important role in building sharing potential; the role of the business sector to create new business models and good working conditions, the role of the financial sector to improve the conditions for sharing initiatives to be able to upscale, the role of national decision makers to both regulate and create conditions for sharing and manage the consequences of sharing, the role of the cities to create infrastructure, coordinate and be a driving force in itself to shape the development of sharing so that it contributes to sustainability and the role of research to develop innovative forms of sharing, continue to follow the development of sharing and develop ways to measure effects and prevent rebound effects.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Fjellander, Liv
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harris, Steve
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Mata, Erika
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ekholm, Hanna Matschke
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Delningens potential, kortversion2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en kortversion av rapporten från projektet Delningens potential, där vi bedömt potentialen för att delning av transporter, verktyg och yta ökar och samtidigt bidrar till ekonomiska, sociala och miljömässiga vinster. I Sverige finns en lång tradition och vana av att dela på resurser. Delning har potential att ge både ekologiska, sociala och ekonomiska vinster under vissa förutsättningar.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Ljungkvist Nordin, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    WEEE system setup a comparison of Sweden, Norway and Denmark2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report is a short summary of the findings from the project WEEE Setup, comparing the legislation and setup of the collection systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The setup aspects that have been studied and compared are the practical implementation of legislation, the material flows and financial flows in the systems and the clearing models used between actors in the respective countries. Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) such as computers, TV-sets, fridges and cell phones pervades modern lifestyles but its quick obsolescence is resulting in huge quantities of WEEE. The amount of WEEE is growing faster than any other waste category in the world and collection, treatment and recycling of WEEE is essential to improve the environmental management, contribute to circular economy, and enhance resource efficiency. The project WEEE setup has studied legislation on EU and national levels, consulted scientific literature, conducted interviews with key actors within the WEEE systems in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, and analysed environmental impacts using LCA models. One general conclusion is that the countries, despite being geographically close, are quite different both in terms of legislation and in practical implementation and setup of the WEEE collection systems. The results of the project are not only of interest for the WEEE system actors in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, but may also be used as indications for best practice in Europe and for other products under extended producer responsibility (EPR) obligations. This report is only available in English.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Ljungkvist Nordin, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Kjellsdotter Ivert, Linea
    L Raadal, Hanne
    The role of the WEEE collection and recycling system setup on environmental, economic and socio-economic performance2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    This study compares the legislation and how the collection systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) are practically and administratively managed in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. The authors have studied legislation on EU and national levels, consulted scientific literature, conducted interviews with key actors within the three systems and analysed environmental impacts using LCA models. One general conclusion is that the countries, despite being geographically close, are quite different both in terms of legislation and in practical implementation and setup of the WEEE collection systems.

    Svensk sammanfattning finns i rapporten.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Cirkulär fordonsplast2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om mer plast från bilar kunde demonteras istället för att fragmenteras skulle mer högkvalitativt material kunna återvinnas istället för att bli industribränsle. Detta projekt har i liten skala testat separat insamling av stötfångare från både demonterare och verkstäder, vilket kan bidra till att få upp volymerna insamlad plast.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Explore - Exploring the opportunities for advancing vehicle recycling industrialization Summary report2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project's goal was to strengthen Swedish automotive recycling industry’s role in a more circular economy and create close cooperation between manufacturing and recycling industries. Against this background, the project had the following objectives:

    • Analyze future vehicle fleet's material content and its implication for recycling system adaptation.
    • Adopt and adapt manufacturing planning and control theories and practices to develop a more efficient vehicle dismantling.
    • Analyze and propose solutions for more efficient reverse logistics in vehicle recycling.
    • Identify political and industrial action that can support the development of Swedish vehicle recycling.
    • Identify technical solutions for disassembly, sorting and recycling of future vehicles.

    The work was organized in work packages relating to the Future vehicle fleet, Manufacturing planning and control theories and practices, Reverse logistics of challenging materials, Policy options and Future technologies for dismantling, sorting and recycling. This report summarizes the work and lists deliverables from the work packages.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Miljöpåverkan från mat- och matavfallsflöden i Lerums kommun - Förstudie för att undersöka hur materialflödesanalys kan kombineras med livscykelanalys2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of goods and services generates material flows causing environmental impacts. In cases where the environmental impacts from consumption has been calculated for a single municipality, national economic flows are generally transformed to material flows and subsequently downscaled to municipal level. This method is called economic input-output LCA and does to a very limited extent account for local differences in the consumption patterns. In this pilot study it was therefore investigated how material flow analysis (MFA) can be combined with life cycle analysis (LCA) in order to develop a more precise method for calculating the environmental impact from the consumption of goods and services. The scope of the pilot study includes food and food waste flows in the municipality of Lerum. Data regarding food flows were calculated using the MFA model Urban Metabolism Analyst (UMAn). UMAn enables calculations of product and material flows on municipal level regarding e.g. import, export, extraction, production, consumption and accumulation of material flows. Data regarding food waste flows were collected from the municipality of Lerum. The MFA data for food and food waste were subsequently combined with LCA data from the IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute’s LCA data bank. The environmental impact categories addressed in the pilot study are acidification, formation of ground level ozone, greenhouse effect, eutrophication and primary energy use. The calculated environmental impact from food consumption is presented in section 3. According to the calculations, food consumption in the municipality of Lerum caused greenhouse gas emissions equivalent to 33 000 tons carbon dioxide equivalents in 2011. This corresponds to almost 0.9 tones carbon dioxide equivalents per capita. The food category meat (animal fat, pork, chicken and bovine meat) was identified as an important category to influence in order to reduce the environmental impacts from food consumption. Meat accounts for almost a third of the climate impacts from food consumption even if it accounts for less than ten percent of the total food flow. To substitute the protein demand now filled by bovine meat with chicken meat would reduce the total climate impact with 15 percent. Also some vegetables such as tomatoes and salads have a relatively large environmental impact. The calculated environmental impact from generated and treated food waste is presented in section 4. The climate impact of the avoidable food waste, i.e. food that could have been eaten if it had been treated differently, corresponds to 2 100 - 2 300 tons carbon dioxide equivalents. The climate impact from the treatment of food waste in the municipality of Lerum corresponded to -185 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents in 2011. In 2011 separately collected food waste in the municipality of Lerum was still composted and the mixed municipal waste incinerated. Currently the separately collected food waste in the municipality of Lerum is pre-treated and sent to anaerobic digestion. Given unchanged amounts of food waste, the climate impact from the current treatment of food waste would have been -280 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. Assuming unchanged amounts of food waste and complete separate collection of food waste would result in -360 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. These figures can be compared to almost 7 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents that the wasted food caused during production. This shows that prevention of food waste is a much more powerful measure in order to reduce environmental impact of food consumption than to change the treatment of the generated food waste. To combine material flow analysis from urban metabolism models with environmental performance from life cycle analyses is an interesting area of further research. The pilot study identified several knowledge gaps and areas to investigate further, e.g.: ? The amount as well as the quality of available LCA data needs to be considerably improved in order to be able to draw distinct conclusions from combinations of MFA and LCA data. ? It should be further investigated what level of aggregation is best suited for combining MFA and LCA data as well as whether it would make sense to use different levels of detail depending on different subareas. ? The applied MFA model, UMAn, does not fully account for private transports of goods across municipality borders. This results in certain uncertainties in the calculation of the environmental impacts from consumption in a specific municipality. The model should be adjusted to better reflect these private material flows across municipal borders. ? In cases where one material flow can be used for multiple purposes difficulties arise in terms of allocating the right subsets to the right purposes. It should be further investigated what material flows are relevant in this respect and how the subsets of these material flows should be allocated. ? Increased knowledge regarding the actual products in the waste streams is necessary in order to be able to accurately calculate the environmental impacts of waste treatment. For more complex products also knowledge regarding the content of the products is necessary. It is recommended that this is taken into account in future municipal waste picking analyses. ? The combination of MFA and LCA data stresses the importance that the chosen method in the MFA model is consistent, recognized and transparent since even small changes in material flows can get large effects regarding environmental impacts (e.g. for meat).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sustainability assessment of pre-treatment methods for plastic waste from hospitals in Sweden2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents results of the sustainability assessment of treatment options for plastic waste from hospitals. The work has been carried out within work package five of the RE:Source project “Sustainable treatment of plastic waste from hospitals”. The main research question in the project is whether pre-treatment could remove potential risks and enable more recycling of plastic waste from hospitals. The evaluation is divided into assessment of environmental, economic and social factors. In the environmental assessment, two types of pre-treatment technology and subsequent recycling have been compared with incineration using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A qualitative economic assessment investigates cost components connected to different actors in the value chain if pre-treatment were to be introduced. In the qualitative social assessment, interviews have been used to investigate the acceptance, work load and attitudes among staff connected to sorting and pre-treatment of plastic waste.

    Results show that pre-treatment and recycling is beneficial from a climate perspective, even with material losses and assumed quality reduction of the recycled material. The pre-treatment solutions are probably too costly to invest in for most hospitals, and the shredding of material in the process presents challenges to subsequent sorting and separation.

    There is a delicate balance between work load for employees and separate sorting of different fractions, but there are also success stories where recycling of specific fractions bring revenue to hospitals already today. Key factors for successful sorting include well planned sorting infrastructure, sufficient storage space, good communication and internal quality control.

    To facilitate more sustainable procurement of plastics, networking and knowledge sharing between regions would be helpful. Expert support in terms of comparable LCA results and procurement guidelines could also provide support to buyers.

    Last, but not least, we found that the motivation of employees is more of a driver than a challenge for increased sorting and recycling: the majority of hospital staff is positive to separate sorting of plastics!

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Boberg, Nils
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Kartläggning av plastavfallsflöden, återvinningsmetoder och marknader: kunskapsunderlag för ett returraffinaderi2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilka plastavfallsflöden skulle kunna användas som bränsle i ett returraffinaderi, om ett sådant skulle etableras på Västkusten? IVL har, tillsammans med Chalmers Industriteknik, RISE och Chalmers kartlagt potentiella flöden i Sverige och Norden och skattat deras tillgänglighet. En internationell överblick över plastavfall och en genomgång av tillgängliga mekaniska återvinningsmetoder för plast ingår också i studien, som utfördes inom Vinnovaprojektet Klimatledande Processindustri.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Klimatsmarta energisystem: Barriärer och inspiration till handling2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish/Danish.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Status och potentialer för klimatsmart energiförsörjning2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Lindberg, Jacob
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sustainable management of plastic waste from hospitals2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Hospitals use large amounts of plastics which continue to rise. Most of the plastics are used as disposable items such as plastic syringes, single-use gowns, sterile packaging, etc. due to patient safety, lower cost and convenience. Medical wastes historically have been disposed of in landfills or incinerated. However, politicians and health organizations are beginning to call for a new approach at hospitals that minimizes waste from manufacturing to the disposal. In this context, significantly increased recycling is highlighted as important part of a broader effect to improve hospital sustainability and reduce waste. Products for the healthcare sector are often of high quality and made from high grade plastics, which makes them even more valuable for recycling. However, despite the fact that there is considerable demand for such high-quality plastic waste, the perception that waste generated in hospitals is “dirty” and constitutes a health risk makes people reluctant to use it.

    The project goal was to increase recycling rates of hospital plastics waste without increasing workload of the staff and without increasing risks for people or the environment. To achieve this goal, suitable pre-treatment methods were used capable to remove infection risks from the plastic waste fraction viz. a hydrothermal method supplied by RedBag Solutions (RBS) and an ozonation process supplied by Ozonator. The main challenge was to find out how quality of plastics from combustible plastic waste fraction is affected by the different pre-treatment methods but without compromising the total removal of the potential infection risks. Three materials for the experimental study were carefully chosen in consensus with hospitals and product manufacturers: polyethylene (PE) used in aprons, polypropylene (PP) used in medicine cups and syringes and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used in gloves. After pre-treatments, the materials were evaluated with respect to colour change, degree of stabilization and alteration of chemical structure. The main conclusion from the pre-treatment studies was that the pre-treatment processes do not cause any measurable changes in the materials studied except some indications of a minor plasticizer loss in the PVC samples.

    Capability of pre-treated plastics to perform well in industrial processes was evaluated in two large-scale recycling trials. The PP material was used at Bergo Flooring for production of floor tiles made of 100 % recycled PP while the PVC material was used at Tarkett for production of flooring containing 20 w% of recycled PVC. Before manufacturing, the materials were pre-treated in commercial large-scale RBS equipment in USA. The main experience from the trials was that the materials are useful and perform well in the manufacturing process although there is room for improvements that would increase the usability of the recycled materials. One important objective would be to identify and hinder the potential contamination of the pre-treated materials. Another objective would be to ensure a sufficient degree of stabilization of the materials in order to minimize degradation during usage, pre-treatments and recycling processes.

    Finally, the pre-treatment technologies and subsequent recycling were evaluated with respect to environmental, economic and social factors. The results show that pre-treatment and recycling is beneficial from a climate perspective, even with assumed material losses and assumed quality reduction of the recycled materials. The environmental credit for recycled plastic materials was given only half of the virgin materials. In the industrial recycling trials a significant part of the virgin materials was replaced by the recycled materials without quality reduction thus the environmental credit should be significantly higher than 0,5. This means that the environmental benefit due to recycling is even higher than calculated by the LCA.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Nordin, Hanna Ljungkvist
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Sustainable recycling of flat panel displays2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    manufacturers of flat screen TVs and monitors, WEEE collection organization, WEEE recyclers, recycling equipment suppliers and environmental labeling organizations a better understanding is provided of the complex conditions influencing the life cycle of flat screens.

    This report presents selected findings made within the project. The results presented are specifically related to process for indium recovery from LCD glass, recovery and re-use of optical components and sustainability rating of different recycling scenarios involving mainly large-scale shredding, manual dismantling or semi-automated dismantling.

    A process has been developed by Chalmers for indium recovery from LCD glass. The process, which involves leaching of the indium-tin oxide layer, and then subsequent extraction, has been studied in terms of kinetics and yield with regards to choice of leachants, extractants and various process parameters. The best conditions identified in this study gave indium contents in the range 0.20-0.25 g/kg glass at a yield of nearly 90 percent. However, to achieve economical sustainability of the process relatively large volumes of LCD glass needs to be treated every year. The required volumes will not be available in the Swedish waste stream until 2015.

    In another work package of the project, we investigated ways of recovering a higher monetary value than currently from discarded flat screens. We found that recovery and re-use of LCD optical components in high-end applications would be a potential way of achieving economical sustainability of LCD recycling particularly for small to medium scale recyclers. As the main properties of many components are not significantly affected by their lifetime in a flat screen, they are well suited for re-use, generally not in LCD screens, but in other applications where their optical properties can improve current product performance. The main application in which we have evaluated recovered components is LED fittings for general illumination. Using the optical components of the LCD backlight unit, which constitute 25-30 weight percent of a 17 inch LCD monitor, enables energy-efficient flat LED luminaries to be produced at a favorable cost level. As a spin-off from the project, serial production of LED fittings has been initiated.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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