IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Almemark, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harding, Mila
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jing-Jing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Reuse of treated wastewater for non-potable use (ReUse)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth, increasing living standards, but also environmental hazards with global climate change as the most significant are all contributing to an increasing water stress in many parts of the world. While access to fresh water for drinking water is getting more costly due to environmental pollution, uses of drinking water conflicts with water needs for agricultural and industrial use, which are in need of substantial water quantities. The use of reclaimed wastewater for non-potable purposes provides a solution for this. This is not new and has in fact been applied in many regions as the main water management approach. As water scarcity becomes more severe, also the need for more sustainable and holistic approaches to deal with our limited fresh water resources becomes more and more obvious. The traditional one-way water handling approach, with end-of-pipe treatment releasing “clean” effluent water to nature, has to be converted into a society-internal water reuse scheme where different water qualities and water uses are considered as an integral part of the water cycle.

    The present report presents activities and results from an international project that aimed at developing and optimizing water treatment processes and systems for sustainable reuse of treated wastewater. The starting point is to combine the sequential batch treatment (SBR, sequencing batch reactors) with different conventional and emerging secondary and tertiary treatment techniques in various combinations, optimized from an overall sustainability perspective. Evaluation and optimization is achieved using life cycle assessment and life cycle cost assessment and their combination.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues and Other Priority Contaminants in the Effluent of Sewage Treatment Plants2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Compilation of what types of pharmaceutical residues and other priority substances that can be found in wastewater, how they affect the recipient, how they can be removed etc.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harding, Mila
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fång, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sustainable Treatment Systems for Removal of Pharmaceutical Residues and Other Priority Persistent Substances.2019In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tekniska lösningar för avancerad rening av avloppsvatten2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftar till att beskriva vilka tekniska lösningar och dess effektivitet som finns för rening av avloppsvatten från oönskade ämnen som läkemedelsrester, mikroplaster, PFAS, andra organiska miljöföroreningar, tungmetaller, samt antibiotikaresistenta och andra skadliga mikroorganismer. Undersökningen har ett speciellt fokus på rening av läkemedelsrester och mikroplaster. De tekniker som beskrivs i rapporten är de som bedöms kunna vara tillgängliga att implementera till år 2018. Tekniker som ännu håller på att utvecklas och som inte bedöms vara tillgängliga till år 2018 beskrivs men mer översiktligt. I rapporten görs en samlad bedömning av de olika teknikerna med avseende på ett flertal aspekter så som reningseffektivitet, kostnad, miljöpåverkan, arbetsmiljörisker, energi- och råvaruåtgång, mm.

    Som effektiv rening avses här ett avlägsnande av föroreningar eller effekter från avloppsvatten så att utgående avloppsvatten till recipient helt saknar eller har en signifikant lägre halt av föroreningar eller effekter. Det bör noteras att fokus för bedömningen härvid ligger på just vattenfasen. En reningsprocess behöver dock inte innebära att en förorening bryts ner till ofarliga beståndsdelar utan föroreningen kan också övergå från t.ex. vattenfas till slamfas eller brytas ned till metaboliter, som i sig kan vara definierade som föroreningar. Rapporten försöker att redovisa alla dessa aspekter för genomgångna reningstekniker.

    Studien visar att kostnader för olika tekniker och anläggningsstorlekar varierar signifikant både mellan olika tekniker och olika reningsverksstorlekar. Olika teknikkombinationer tas upp och dess för- och nackdelar diskuteras. Studien poängterar att det är viktigt att välja reningsteknik utifrån målsättning och lokala förutsättningar, då varje reningsverk är unikt. Är målsättningen en effektiv rening av läkemedelsrester (>90%) genom ett kompletterande reningssteg som slutbehandling rekommenderas en kombination av ozonering och BAF med granulerat aktivt kol (GAK) som filtermaterial. Den totala miljöpåverkan för de olika teknikerna/-kombinationerna som behandlats i denna studie begränsas till framförallt energi- och kemikalieförbrukning men även risker för bildning av nya, eventuellt toxiska föreningar från reningsteknikerna behandlas.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wahlberg, Cajsa
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söhr, Sara
    Läkemedelsrester och andra skadliga ämnen i avloppsreningsverk - koncentrationer, kvantifiering, beteende och reningsalternativ2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Många läkemedelsrester och andra prioriterade substanser passerar igenom dagens avloppsreningsverk (ARV) och hamnar antingen i slammet eller i recipienten, ibland i nivåer som kan påverka vattenlevande organismer. Substanser som släpps ut via avlopps-reningsverk kan också anrikas i den akvatiska näringskedjan och orsaka effekter i högre organismer såsom fiskätande fåglar eller däggdjur, inklusive människor. Studier har också visat att antibiotika som hamnar i miljön kan bidra till uppkomsten av antibiotikaresistenta gener i bakterier, vilket är ett allvarligt globalt hot mot möjligheten att bota livshotande sjukdomar.

    Eftersom nuvarande vattenreningstekniker har utvecklats främst för att avlägsna partikulärt material samt kväve och fosfor är de oftast inte anpassade för att rena bort mikrobiellt stabila kemiska föroreningar. Utvärderingar av effektiviteten hos olika behandlingstekniker för avlägsnande av sådana ämnen baseras vanligtvis på analyser av förekomst av ett ämne i inkommande och utgående vatten från reningsverket. Det finns dock problem med detta tillvägagångssätt eftersom vissa ämnen metaboliseras till potentiellt mer skadliga substanser, som då inte automatiskt fångas i analysen. Dessutom kan vissa ämnen spontant bildas i reningsverken, vilket kan resultera i högre nivåer i utgående än i inkommande vatten. Ett ytterligare problem är att de utgående koncentrationerna ibland kan vara lägre än detektions-gränserna, men trots det ändå vara högre än eller nära etablerade risknivåer.

    This report is only available in Swedish.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Baresel, Christian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Heléne
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Westling, Klara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wahlberg, Cajsa
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söhr, Sara
    Pharmaceutical residues and other emerging substances in the effluent of sewage treatment plants2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Många läkemedelsrester och andra prioriterade föroreningar passerar igenom avloppsreningsverk (ARV) och hamnar i recipienten och slam, ibland i nivåer som kan påverka vattenlevande organismer. Kemikalier som släpps ut via avloppsreningsverk kan också anrikas i den akvatiska näringskedjan och orsaka effekter i högre organismer såsom fiskätande fåglar eller däggdjur inklusive människor. Studier har också visat att antibiotika som hamnar i miljön kan bidra till uppkomsten av antibiotikaresistenta gener i bakterier, vilket är ett allvarligt hot mot vår möjlighet att bota livshotande sjukdomar på den globala skalan. Eftersom nuvarande behandlingstekniker har utvecklats främst för att avlägsna partikulärt material samt kväve och fosfor är de inte alltid anpassade för att rena bort mikrobiellt stabila kemiska föroreningar. Utvärderingen av effektiviteten av olika behandlingstekniker för avlägsnande av sådana ämnen baseras vanligtvis på analyser av förekomst av ett ämne i inkommande och utgående vatten. Det finns dock problem med detta tillvägagångssätt eftersom vissa ämnen metaboliseras till potentiellt mer skadliga substanser som inte automatiskt fångas i analysen. Dessutom kan vissa ämnen bildas i reningsverken, vilket kan resultera i högre nivåer i utgående än i inkommande vatten. Dessutom kan de utgående koncentrationerna ibland vara lägre än detektionsgränserna, men trots det ändå vara högre än eller nära etablerade riskkoncentrationer. This report is only available in English, but the popuar version B2226-P is written in Swedish.

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  • 7. Ejhed, Helene
    et al.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karl-Axel Reimer, Södertälje kommun.
    Enskilda avlopp som källa till läkemedelsrester och andra kemikalier2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns cirka 700 000 fastigheter med enskilda avlopp, varav cirka 75 % utgörs av markbaserade anläggningar där det renade avloppsvattnet direkt eller via grundvattnet når ytvattenrecipienter. Syftet med detta projekt har varit: att undersöka om halter av läkemedel och andra kemikalier från enskilda avlopp är detekterbara i en recipient med känd påverkan av enskilda avlopp, att kvantifiera spridning av ett antal substanser av läkemedel från enskilda avlopp samt att undersöka reningseffektivitet i enskilda avlopp avseende läkemedel och andra kemikalier. Projektet har genomförts i samarbete med Södertälje kommun.  Provtagning genomfördes i Lillsjön med tillflöden, i Hölö inom Södertälje kommun. Analyser genomfördes av vatten, sediment och biota av ett urval läkemedel- och andra hushållrelaterade kemikalier som perfluoroktansulfonsyra (PFOS) och etylendiamintetraättiksyra (EDTA). Provtagning genomfördes även av läkemedelsubstanser i inkommande och utgående vatten i två markbäddar. I den ena anläggningen tillsattes manuellt (spikades) en känd mängd läkemedelssubstanser och bromid som spårämne. I den andra anläggningen analyserades läkemedelsubstanser som användes av brukarna. Analyser genomfördes även av pH, total fosfor, "biochemical oxygen demand" (BOD) och totalt organiskt kol (TOC) för att kontrollera markbäddarnas funktion.  Analyserna av vatten och sediment i Lillsjön uppvisade endast små mängder läkemedelsrester, PFOS och EDTA. Läkemedelsrester påvisades dock i det tillflöde som sammantaget är mest befolkat med enskilda avlopp samt i ett utlopp med utsläpp från Hölö församlingshem, vilket visar att enskilda avlopp bidrar till spridning av läkemedelsrester till miljön. Markbäddarna uppvisade en god reduktion av de femton analyserade läkemedlen och låg generellt sett över den genomsnittliga reduceringsgraden avseende dessa ämnen i fyra stora svenska reningsverk. Undantagen var diklofenak och ketoprofen där reduceringsgraden var betydligt lägre än för de fyra svenska reningsverken. Orsaken tros vara problem att detektera substanserna i ingående avloppsvatten och att reduktionen därmed inte kunde bestämmas på ett rättvisande sätt.  Beräkning av total mängd som passerade användare med enskilda avlopp har beräknats baserat på nationell statistik om permanentboende med enskilda avlopp, statistik från Apotekens service avseende försåld mängd och uppmätt reduktion i markbäddarna. Enskilda avlopp står för en betydande del av avloppsflödet i Sverige. Cirka tio gånger större mängder av karbamazepin och diklofenak sprids från enskilda avlopp avseende hela Sverige än från Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Paracetamol är den substans som står för störst utsläpp enligt beräkningarna, cirka 12 ton år 2010.  Reduktion av läkemedelsubstanser i markbaserade anläggningar beror på utformning och skötsel av avloppsanläggningen. God syresättning och lång uppehållstid i markbaserade anläggningar är gynnsamma förutsättningar. Reduktionen sker dock inte i lika hög grad för samtliga substanser och anläggningar som brister i utformningen kan ge utsläpp till vattenmiljön och grundvatten, vilket har noterats i både denna studie och i internationell litteratur. Ytterligare studier behövs för att bestämma om substanserna bryts ner och hur de bryts ner i de enskilda avloppen. Risker med avseende på spridning av läkemedelsrester och andra kemikalier från enskilda avlopp bör undersökas vidare.

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  • 8.
    Ek, Mats
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bergström, Rune
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harding, Mila
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Aktivt kol för avlägsnande av läkemedelsrester ur behandlat avloppsvatten2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Här rapporteras om ett långtidsförsök med aktivt kol i kolonner/bäddar för att bestämma avskiljning och kolets kapacitet. Kolfiltret sattes in som ett extra polersteg efter den normala reningen vid Henriksdals avloppsreningsverk i Stockholm. Försöken genomfördes under 19 månader 2011-2012 vid försöksanläggningen Hammarby Sjöstadsverk. Avskiljningen av analyserade läkemedelssubstanser var generellt mycket bra. Vid en belastning motsvarande 50 m3 vatten/kg kol (20 g kol/m3 vatten) passerade 5-10 % av vissa föreningar den första kolonnen. Även vid över 70 m3/kg kol i första kolonnen kunde man inte påvisa kvantifierbara mängder ut från kolonn 2. Det största problemet för teknisk drift var den begränsade hydrauliska kapaciteten, till stor del beroende på mikrobiell tillväxt i kolonnerna. Kolet måste regelbundet rensas genom backspolning med luft och vatten. Baserat på förbrukningen av kol och andras beräkningar av totalkostnaden inklusive investeringar kommer man fram till en totalkostnad för reningen med aktivt kol kring 1 kr/m3 vatten i ett sort avloppsreningsverk. Det är högre än för ozonbehandling, men lägre än för andra metoder med samma effektivitet. Vid en bedömning av olika metoder bör också andra faktorer än de rent ekonomiska vägas in. Fortsatta studier av hydraulisk kapacitet, nödvändig uppehållstid och avskiljning av andra organiska föreningar föreslås, och har delvis påbörjats.

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  • 9.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Royen, Hugo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Membrane distillation pilot plant trials with pharmaceutical residues and energy demand analysis2016In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, no 306, p. 471-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) system at pilot scale is applied for purification of effluent from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A district heating network (DHN) is considered as a heat source for the membrane distillation system. Removal performance of pharmaceutical residuals, specific heat demand, and economic assessments were analyzed on the membrane distillation plant. Almost all targeted pharmaceutical compounds were removed to a very high degree, often below the method detection limit.

    The heat requirement for the MD process could be sufficiently supplied by the low-temperature district heating return line. Specific heat demands for the AGMD ranges from 692 to 875 kWh/m3 without heat recovery and as low as 105 kWh/m3 when heat recovery is possible. Different approaches to integrating the MD within the DHN system were analyzed; the advantages and shortcomings of each are discussed with emphasis on the MD system’s capacity requirement and annual heat demand. The thermoeconomic analyses from this study presented the potential for energy optimization regarding heat recovery and module design improvement of the current MD equipment.

  • 10.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Royen, Hugo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klingspor, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekengren, Östen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Membrane Distillation pilot tests for different wastewaters2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate membrane distillation as an alternative separation technology for different water purification applications. Membrane distillation (MD) is a unit operation that uses water repellent (hydrophobic) membranes as a barrier for contaminated water. The driving force for the process is the vapor pressure over the membrane achieved by applying a temperature differences between a warm and a cold side. The process takes place at temperatures below 100 °C and at ambient pressure.

    Pilot studies were performed at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk to test the separation of pharmaceutical residues from municipal wastewater after biological treatment as well as final treatment of flue gas condensate. In both cases, most target compounds were separated to a very high degree, often more than 90 %. The project also included energy studies that showed some potential for energy optimisation of the current equipment and provided input for energy efficient set-up, e.g. by using waste heat such as the return flow from district heating. Varying results for the single modules also indicated optimisation potential. The project was performed in cooperation between IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Xzero AB as technology provider, and KTH (Royal institute of technology) for energy studies.

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  • 11.
    Fång, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2014 - Analysis of pharmaceuticals and hormones in samples from WWTPs and receiving waters2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report shows result of a screening study on selected pharmaceuticals and hormones.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    In Vitro Inhalation Bioaccessibility of Phthalate Esters and Alternative Plasticizers Present in Indoor Dust Using Artificial Lung Fluids2018In: Environmental Science and Technology Letters, E-ISSN 2328-8930Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) are used as plasticizers in consumer products. Their low migration stability has resulted in the classification of PEs as major indoor contaminants. Because of PE’s ubiquity and adverse health effects on humans and especially children, non-phthalate alternative plasticizers have been introduced into the market.

    This is the first study of in vitro inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs (e.g., DMP, DEP, and DEHP) and alternative plasticizers (e.g., DEHT and DINCH) via indoor dust to assess inhalation as an alternative route of exposure. Two artificial lung fluids were used, mimicking two distinctively different pulmonary environments: (1) artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF, pH 4.5) representing the intracellular acidic lung fluid inhaled particle contact after phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and (2) Gamble’s solution (pH 7.4), the extracellular healthy fluid for deep lung deposition of dust. DMP and DEP were highly bioaccessible (>75%), whereas highly hydrophobic compounds such as DEHP, DINCH, and DEHT were <5% bioaccessible via both artificial lung fluids.

    Our findings show that the inhalation bioaccessibility of PEs is primarily governed by their hydrophobicity and water solubility. Further research is necessary to develop unified and biologically relevant inhalation bioaccessibility tests, employed as part of human risk assessment of volatile and semivolatile organic pollutants.

  • 13.
    Giovanoulis, Georgios
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluation of exposure to phthalate esters and DINCH in urine and nails from a Norwegian study population2016In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, no 151, p. 80-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phthalate esters (PEs) and 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) used as additives innumerous consumer products are continuously released into the environment, leading to subsequenthuman exposure which might cause adverse health effects. The human biomonitoring approach allows thedetection of PEs and DINCH in specific populations, by taking into account all possible routes of exposure(e.g. inhalation, transdermal and oral) and all relevant sources (e.g. air, dust, personal care products, diet).

    We have investigated the presence of nine PE and two DINCH metabolites and their exposure determi-nants in 61 adult residents of the Oslo area (Norway). Three urine spots andfingernails were collectedfrom each participant according to established sampling protocols. Metabolite analysis was performed byLC-MS/MS. Metabolite levels in urine were used to back-calculate the total exposure to their correspondingparent compound. The primary monoesters, such as monomethyl phthalate (MMP, geometric mean89.7 ng/g), monoethyl phthalate (MEP, 104.8 ng/g) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, 89.3 ng/g) wereobserved in higher levels in nails, whereas the secondary bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and DINCHoxidative metabolites were more abundant in urine (detection frequency 84–100%). The estimated daily intakes of PEs and DINCH for this Norwegian population did not exceed the established tolerable dailyintake and reference doses, and the cumulative risk assessment for combined exposure to plasticizers withsimilar toxic endpoints indicated no health concerns for the selected population.

    We found a moderatepositive correlation between MEP levels in 3 urine spots and nails (range: 0.56–0.68). Higher frequency ofpersonal care products use was associated with greater MEP concentrations in both urine and nail samples.Increased age, smoking, wearing plastic gloves during house cleaning, consuming food with plasticpackaging and eating with hands were associated with higher levels in urine and nails for some of themetabolites. In contrast, frequent hair and hand washing was associated with lower urinary levels ofmonoisobutyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5-OH-MEHP), respectively.

  • 14.
    Graae, Lisette
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vestergren, Robin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljönyttan av uppströmsåtgärder för minskad spridning av läkemedel till miljön2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det övergripande målet med denna kartläggning har varit att undersöka ett urval av uppströmsåtgärder som genom optimerad användning eller utökad rening av läkemedel kan bidra till en minskning av den totala konsumtionen och därmed utsläppen av läkemedel till miljön och samtidigt öka patientsäkerheten samt bidra till minskade kostnader för samhället. De uppströmsåtgärder som studerats är: i) Återinföra recept på vissa läkemedel/klasser av läkemedel; ii) Utföra läkemedelsgenomgångar på personer/patienter som står på recept och äter fem eller fler mediciner per dag, oavsett ålder eller boendesituation; iii) Förskriva fysisk aktivitet och andra hälsobringande insatser; iv) Installera extra rening av utgående avloppsvatten från sjukhus och vårdinrättningar där behandlingsspecifika läkemedel hanteras; v) Använda offentlig upphandling för att förhindra överanvändning och därmed spridning av läkemedel som kan vara skadliga för miljön.

    Att göra en kvantitativ uppskattning och jämförelse av samtliga uppströmsåtgärder är inte möjligt i dagsläget då det i många fall saknas tillförlitlig data på hur olika åtgärder skulle påverka utsläppen av läkemedel. Däremot kan en kvalitativ bedömning av den relativa miljönyttan av flertalet av de studerade åtgärderna göras. Baserat på resultatet från studien är bedömningen att effekterna av läkemedelsgenomgångar och separat rening av läkemedelsrester kan uppskattas med relativt god säkerhet. Osäkerheten för vilken effekt dessa åtgärder skulle ha på den totala belastningen av läkemedel till kommunala reningsverk beror framförallt på i vilken utsträckning de tillämpas. Att receptbelägga ett receptfritt läkemedel har troligtvis en tydligt mätbar effekt på användandet av just de läkemedel som får en ändrad receptstatus, men denna effekt varierar också beroende på om det finns ersättningssubstanser med samma verkningsmekanism. För åtgärderna hälsa på recept och offentlig upphandling är det svårare att uppskatta vilken effekt de skulle ha på utsläppen av läkemedel till miljön, men att alla åtgärder som i någon form begränsar överanvändningen av läkemedel i slutänden även uppfyller en miljönytta.

    Jämförelsen mellan olika åtgärder visar att de verkar på olika tidsskalor. Receptbeläggning, läkemedelsgenomgångar och separat rening från sjukhus skulle ha en nästan omedelbar effekt på läkemedelsutsläpp från det att åtgärden införs. Att förskriva hälsa på recept, å andra sidan, skulle ha en förebyggande effekt på framtida läkemedelsanvändning men med en fördröjning på flera år från det att åtgärden införts.

    De potentiella miljövinsterna, i form av minskad läkemedelsbelastning, som dessa åtgärder ger måste också utvärderas utifrån konflikt med hälsoaspekter. Hälsa på recept och läkemedelsgenomgångar är åtgärder som i första hand tagits fram med patienthälsan i fokus och därmed ses inga konflikter kring hälsoaspekterna av dessa åtgärder. Separat rening från sjukhus och upphandling skulle troligtvis inte påverka patienthälsan överhuvudtaget. Den enda åtgärd där en eventuell konflikt med hälsoaspekter kan föreligga är vid receptbeläggning av enskilda läkemedel, dvs. beroende på tillgången till läkemedelssubstitut till det läkemedel som receptbelagts.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

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  • 15.
    Graae, Lisette
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Örtlund, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Self-declarations of environmental classification at Fass.se2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2005 Sweden has a unique environmental classification system for pharmaceutical products. It is a self-declaration system where each pharmaceutical company is responsible for their own environmental information. The environmental risk assessments are published on the web based portal www.Fass.se, which is open to the public. Prior to publication the environmental risk assessments are reviewed by IVL as an independent, external part to make sure that the classifications are based on a scientifically acceptable interpretation of the guidance for the pharmaceutical companies.

    The review of pre-published environmental risk assessments and system evaluation is an on-going task and the present report describes the experiences from the review process during the year 2014. With its iterative process, IVL gives feedback to LIF regarding the system as such, both from a scientific perspective as well as from a quality assurance perspective.

    In 2015, 400 environmental risk assessments were sent in for review. Of these 41% received the comment no remarks and were recommended to be published. Another 41% received the assessment remark and were recommended to be corrected before publication and 19% needed to be corrected and sent in for another review before publication. The number of times a document is re-sent in for revision has decreased during the last three years. One of the reasons is the development and implementation of the assessment tool, which has improved the review process and clarified the comments sent to the companies. The statistical calculations of the environmental risk assessments in this report are based on documents that were published at Fass.se during 2015. The total number of unique substances was 391 and 19% of these were classified regarding environmental risk. 50% were exempted from classification and 31% were reviewed, but no classification could be made due to lack of data. The work of improving the review system is an on-going process.

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  • 16.
    Graae, Lisette
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Örtlund, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Self-declarations of environmental classification in www.fass.se2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2005 environmental information was published for the first two groups of substances in www.fass.se, to test a new model for classification, developed on an initiative from LIF (The Research-Based Pharmaceutical Industry in Sweden). The initiative was a response to an increasing public demand for environmental information on pharmaceuticals and an attempt to develop a model accepted by Swedish stakeholders, but also by the global pharmaceutical industry. In 2010, all groups of pharmaceuticals (ATC codes) on the Swedish market had been the subject of an environmental risk assessment.

    The review of pre-published environmental risk assessments and system evaluation is an on-going task and the present report describes the experiences from the review process during the year 2014. With its iterative process, IVL gives feedback to LIF regarding the system as such, both from a scientific perspective as well as from a quality assurance perspective.

    Den här rapporten finns endast på engelska. Svensk sammanfattning finns i rapporten.

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  • 17.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Self-declarations of environmental classification in www.fass.se2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    AA

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  • 18.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish Screening programme 20122013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study of pyrithiones and their major degradation products has been performed by IVL during 2012/2013. Zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) is a broad-spectrum biocide effective against bacteria, fungi and algae. ZnPT is commercially used as anti-dandruff agent in shampoos and as preservatives in cosmetics. Due to ZnPTs solubility in water it is suitable for use in outdoor and marine paints. Sodium pyrithione (HPT) is used as a preservative in cosmetics and as protective agent for fluids used in the metal industries. The objective of the present screening was to determine concentrations and to illuminate the fate of pyrithiones in sewage treatment plants and in small boat marinas by broadening the chemical analysis also to 2-pyridinesulfonic acid (PSA) and other pyrithione residues. ZnPT and/or cupper pyrithione (CuPT) were detected in 79% of influent and in 7% of effluent wastewaters from sewage treatment plants (STPs). A decrease in concentration from influent to effluent indicates that ZnPT and CuPT are degraded in the STPs. The absence of ZnPT and/or CuPT in sludge suggests that degradation will take place in contact with sludge. The degradation product PSA was the most abundant compound in the study. PSA was present in the majority of the wastewater samples and in all the sludge samples analysed. The concentration range of PSA in influents were 73 - 480 (median 240) ng/L (n=14), in effluents <2 - 330 (median 59) ng/L (n=28) and in sludge 25 - 280 (median 110) µg/kg dw (n=21). The decrease in concentration of PSA from influent to effluent wastewater shows that PSA may be further degraded or adsorbed to sludge in the STP. In a small boat marina where ZnPT is probably constantly emitted from anti-fouling paints, (and could be trans-chelated to the even more toxic CuPT) none of these species could be detected in the water or in the sediment. PSA, however, was detected in the sediment. In the sediments from Gothenburg, where the ZnPT load is of a more diffuse character, accumulation of PSA was not detected. As the acute toxicity of pyrithiones decreases with increased degradation and PSA is the least toxic of the known pyrithione residues, the result indicates that a process leading to less toxic sediments is taking place. However, the absence of chronic tests of PSA in the scientific literature makes it impossible to estimate the long-term effect on the marine environment.

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  • 19.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rosenqvist, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Graae, Lisette
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Örtlund, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fång, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fate of pharmaceutical residues - in sewage treatment and on farmland fertilized with sludge2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical products constitute a fundamental part of modern medicine and are in many cases crucial for health and wellbeing in our everyday life. However, the benefits from pharmaceutical come with drawbacks for the environment. These chemicals are designed to have a biological effect, which they unfortunately also might have on other living organisms than humans. They are moreover also considered to be semi-persistent due to the continuous discharge from our society. These characteristics make them problematic if they end up in the environment.

    For the last ten years pharmaceutical companies on the Swedish market can choose to publish environmental information about their products on the public web-based portal www.fass.se. Prior to publication the environmental information is reviewed by an external part (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute). Within the context as third party reviewer, IVL also performs research to increase the knowledge of pharmaceuticals in the environment to improve the reviewing process. This report describes the Fass research study conducted in 2014 and 2015. The focus of this study was to investigate the distribution and removal of a selection of pharmaceuticals within a sewage treatment plant (STP) and their final fate in the environment. For unclear reasons residues of pharmaceuticals can be represented in higher concentration in the effluent wastewater compared to the influent, which limits correct conclusions to be drawn regarding their removal during sewage treatment.

    Several studies on matrix effects and metabolism were performed to test different hypothesis that could explain the phenomena and to be able to estimate the “true” concentrations of pharmaceuticals within a STP. A mass balance was also performed to further study the pharmaceutical distribution. To assess the dispersion and fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment a farmland fertilized with sludge from the investigated STP were studied. Soil and sludge samples were analyzed as well as soil water collected by lysimeter techniques. In addition laboratory based soil sorption tests of the farmland soil exposed to pharmaceutical and sewage sludge were also performed.

    The result of the study showed that analytical interferences (ion-suppression) due to competition with co-eluting matrix components during instrumental analysis was the main contributor to the observed increase in concentration of pharmaceuticals from influent to effluent wastewater, with an average ion-suppression of 49% in influent wastewater and 35% in effluent wastewater of the investigated pharmaceuticals.

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  • 20.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandberg, Jasmin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ejhed, Helene
    Bodin, Hristina
    Utvärdering av Alnarp Cleanwater Technology AB:s avloppsreningsanläggning ACT NaturalTM med avseende på läkemedelsrester2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 21. Sehlén, Robert
    et al.
    Malmborg, Jonas
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yang, Jingjing
    Pilotanläggning för ozonoxidation av läkemedelsrester i avloppsvatten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce the loads of pharmaceutical residues from wastewater to receiving waters (mainly Stångån), Tekniska verken in Linköping has in collaboration with IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute conducted pilot scale tests with ozonation. The results are to be used as a basis for the design, implementation and operation of a full-scale facility at Linköping's largest sewage treatment plant (STP), Nykvarn. The set-up consists of an ozonation step in-between the bio-sedimentation and post-denitrification. In addition to the definition of process parameters, possible negative impacts of ozone treatment on subsequent biology were also examined as well as the effect of the biological process on reducing eventual problems with toxic oxidation products. The ultimate objective was to achieve a removal rate of the highest priority pharmaceuticals to levels in the effluent water that will not cause adverse effects in the recipient, also considering the natural dilution. Tests with a pilot plant of the intended process configuration at Nykvarn STP were carried out during the second half of 2014. The study included daily variation mapping, STP mass flows, dose-response studies for ozonation, load-control tests and eco-toxicological studies. From initial investigations of emissions, a priority list was created with substances that an additional ozonation step would help to remove. The list was based on the risk ratio between the concentration in the effluent water (average) and the lowest concentration of a substance at which toxic effects on the aquatic environment are not found, according to available scientific literature. In addition, various safety factors and the dilution in the receiving water (Stångån) were considered. A high risk was defined when the risk ratio was 1 or higher and in the range of 0.1-1, the risk was considered moderate. Five substances (oxazepam, metoprolol, estrone, trimethoprim, ethinyl-estradiol) were classified as high risk and seven substances were classified as moderate risk. The pilot tests indicated that at an ozone dose of 5 mg O3/L only one substance classified at high risk (oxazepam, risk ratio 2) and two compounds with moderate risk (metoprolol, risk ratio 0.5 and estrone, risk ratio 0.13), remained. At higher doses, the concentration of these substances can be reduced even further, however; also the risk of increased ecotoxicity caused by oxidation during ozonation might increase. Eco-toxicological tests consisting of estrogenic activity, green and red algae, nitocra- and Ames Tests showed no negative effect with the tested ozone doses (up to 18.4 mg O3/L). High levels of the carcinogenic compound bromate could not be detected at reasonable ozone doses (10 mg O3/L). High levels of oxygen in the inflow to the denitrification due to ozonation could be rapidly reduced in the biological step without affecting the denitrification. The number of bacteria in the treated water was reduced significantly even at relatively low ozone doses (<8 mg O3/L). Performed activity measurements in the biology following ozonation showed no negative effect. A slightly increased availability of organic matter and earlier organically bound nitrogen was observed. Nitrogen removal during the pilot tests has been very good except for periods of malfunctions in the dosing of carbon source. The tests also indicated the possibility of a load-control via a feedback from ozone-residual in the gaseous phase and absorption (UVA). Based on these results, the technology department has now initiated the planning of a full-scale implementation of the system at Nykvarn STP.

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  • 22.
    Örtlund, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wallberg, Petra
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Self-declarations of environmental classification in www.fass.se2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2005 environmental information was published for the first two groups of products in www.fass.se, to test a new model for classification, developed on an initiative from LIF (The Research-Based Pharmaceutical Industry in Sweden). The initiative was a response to an increasing public demand for environmental information on pharmaceuticals and an attempt to develop a model accepted by Swedish stakeholders, but also by the global pharmaceutical industry. In 2010, all groups of pharmaceuticals (ATC codes) on the Swedish market had been the subject of an environmental risk assessment. During the implementation of the environmental classification system IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) performed a project with the aim to identify and address the pitfalls of the system. This project was financed by LIF and the Foundation for IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (SIVL). IVL reviewed the pre-published data and took part in a discussion, led by LIF, with the pharmaceutical companies about how to implement the guideline for environmental risk assessment, developed by LIF (LIF Expert Group Environment) in cooperation with stakeholders and the international industry. The goal of this reviewing process was to establish a common praxis for the implementation of the guideline among the different companies and to feed back the experience from the self-declaration process to the system owners, LIF. The review of pre-published environmental risk assessments and system evaluation is an on-going task and the present report describes the experiences from the review process during the year 2013. With its iterative process, IVL gives feedback to LIF regarding the system as such, both from a scientific perspective as well as from a quality assurance perspective.

    Den här rapporten finns endast på engelska. Svensk sammanfattning finns i rapporten.

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