IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svenson, Anders
    Modelling endocrine disruption. Quantitative structure-activity relationships for three estrogenic end-points2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormone regulated processes govern the larval development and reproduction in aquatic vertebrates. The involvement of pollutants in these processes needs to be examined in the evaluation of consequences of their release into the aquatic environment. Prognosis models may be used as a pre-screening step to predict such properties. This work describes the development of models to predict the properties involved in estrogenic hormone activity, i.e. induction (in absolute and relative figures) and binding affinity to the human estrogen receptor Models were developed using molecular hologram descriptors, i.e. derived only from the chemical structure of substances. Statistical molecular design (SMD) was used to select substances for experimental testing of receptor induction. Substances were then divided in a set for model construction and a validation set. Models were calculated for a large number of systematically varied hologram configurations to find those with the best data based on the predictive ability (Q2-value). The models with the best predictive ability were those based on holograms that considered chirality in the chemical structure. No other systematic effect of hologram length and fragment length was observed. The best models for each biological response were then further refined by a pruning procedure that resulted in exclusion of descriptors that did not contribute positively to the model. The three estrogenic responses were predicted within a factor 10 (root mean square error of prediction 0.7 - 1.0), which should be sufficient for the pre-screening purpose. A broad applicability characterises the three models, only the structural formula of a new substance is needed to be able to perform the prediction.

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  • 2.
    Lovisa Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grundestam, Catharina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Saagi, Ramesh
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av framtida inflödesscenarier för svenska reningsverk - Vilken effekt har tillskottsvatten på miljöpåverkan och driftskostnad?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenska avloppsreningsverk tar idag emot betydande mängder tillskottsvatten genom avrinning av dagvatten och infiltration i ledningsnäten. I framtiden förväntas även nederbörden öka till följd av klimatförändringar och högre flödestoppar vid regn är väntade. Förändrad utspädning av avloppsvatten på grund av infiltration eller dagvatten kan ha stor betydelse för reningsprocessernas effektivitet.

    Detta projekt har haft som uppgift att studera drift av avloppsreningsverk vid olika framtida inflödesscenarier och hur dessa scenarier påverkar reningsverkens miljöpåverkan och driftkostnader för tre svenska reningsverk.

    Resultaten visar att infiltrationen har större inverkan på hur miljöpåverkan förändras till följd av ett förändrat inflöde än ökade flödestoppar. Vid minskad infiltration minskade samtliga studerade miljöpåverkanskategorier för alla tre verken, beräknat per kg kväve som avskilts i reningsprocesserna i verket. Det omvända gällde vid ökad infiltration.

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  • 3.
    Lovisa Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åmand, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Samuelsson, Oscar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Instrumentera rätt på avloppsreningsverk2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Instrumenten på avloppsreningsverken blir allt fler och är viktiga för både övervakning och processtyrning. Ökat inslag av processtyrning och automation innebär att tillförligheten hos instrumenten måste vara hög. Det blir särskilt viktigt med pålitliga instrument när utsläppsvillkoren skärps och marginalerna krymper.

    Hittills har det saknats råd på svenska när det gäller avloppsreningsverkens instrumentering. Denna rapport sammanställer praktiska erfa¬renheter och kunskap kring instrumentering, och ska bidra till att renings¬verken i Sverige får tillräckligt god mätdatakvalitet från sina instrument för att de på ett resurseffektivt sätt ska kunna nå sina utsläppskrav.

    Arbetet har genomförts av forskare på IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet tillsammans med representanter från elva VA-organisationer. Inom projektet har även fem instrumentleverantörer deltagit. I rapporten samlas matnyttig information och rekommendationer om vad som bör ingå i ett systematiskt instrumenteringsarbete.

    Rapporten försöker besvara frågorna: ”Varför ska man mäta?”, ”Vad och var ska man mäta?” och ”Hur ska man mäta?”. De områden som täcks in är val av instrument, installation och placering, upphandling, organisato¬riska faktorer, underhåll samt givarkontroll och mätvärdesnoggrannhet.

    Instrumentfrågan är komplex och bör behandlas som sådan. Därför behöver den lösas av en grupp med blandad kompetens. Några nyckelfaktorer för att instrumenteringen ska fungera bra är engagerad och utbildad personal samt tydlig ansvarsuppdelning.

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  • 4.
    Lüdtke, Maximilian
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utvärdering av rötkammaromrörning2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently no clear definitions of what "good stirring" means in anaerobic digestion situations, and the term "good stirring" can be seen from several different perspectives. This report summarizes results from several experiments and theoretical considerations aimed at both mapping the stirring situation in the Syvab digestion chambers and estimating the potential for increases in gas production through improved stirring. Based on results from these, it is judged, at best, that Syvab's digestion chambers are just in line with what can be considered as a “good stirring”. Moreover, today's solution with round pumping is not considered a sustainable solution in the future. Round pumping as a single stirring solution also poses a risk from operational safety. The proposed measures are aimed at reducing the effect of short-circuiting currents in the digestion chambers and during sampling. In addition, important aspects are discussed in selecting a new stirring solution.

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  • 5.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Slutrapport VA-kluster Mälardalen 2017-20182019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    VA-kluster Mälardalen har skapat en regional mötesplats där VA-frågor kan diskuteras inom branschen bl.a. genom ledningsgruppsmöten och ett årligt internat. Klustret har även två aktiva ämnesgrupper som även är öppna för icke-medlemmar samt hemsida och nyhetsbrev.
    Genom samarbeten mellan VA-organisationer och lärosäten/institut främjas VA-organisationernas möjlighet att påverka prioritering och inriktning för FoU samt initiering samarbetsprojekt som är viktiga för den egna verksamheten. Inom VA-kluster Mälardalen utbildas studenter, doktorander och yrkesverksamma inom VA-området. Detta sker via grundutbildning, examensarbeten, forskarutbildning och utbildning för yrkesverksamma.
    Inom forskningen har klustret arbetat inom fokusområdet Resurseffektiv avloppsvattenrening och hållbar närings- och vattenåterföring för en bättre miljö. Klustrets prioriterade delområden under perioden var:
    • Innovativa och klimatsmarta processlösningar för resurseffektiv rening och biogasproduktion.
    • Systemanalytiska metoder för resurseffektiv avloppshantering.
    • Metoder för hållbar slamhantering och återföring av växtnäring och organiskt material till produktiv mark.
    • Metodik och kunskapsunderlag för uppströmsarbete.
    2016-2018 försvarades 11 doktorsavhandlingar och fyra licentiatavhandlingar.

    VA-kluster Mälardalen är ett av fyra projektprogram för högskolor och universitet som har stöd från Svenskt Vatten Utveckling. Klustret har också finansiellt stöd från de deltagande VA-organisationerna, Stiftelsen IVL och genom ett flertal externfinansierade projekt.

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  • 6.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Synthesis report on soft sensor activities at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many process parameters at a wastewater treatment plant are expensive, difficult or even impossible to measure online, limiting the possibilities for efficient process monitoring and control. One way to provide wastewater treatment plants with online process information is so-called soft sensors. A soft sensor is a virtual sensor in the form of a mathematical model that estimates the value of a parameter whose value is unknown, e.g. a parameter that is hard to measure online, solely based on values of other parameters whose values are known, e.g. parameters that are easier to measure online.

    This report summarizes results from IVL's soft sensor related activities at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk. It very briefly mentions two previous projects and focuses on the results from two master theses and two more recent soft sensor projects.

    The parameters for which soft sensors were developed within the projects were typically different fractions of phosphorous, nitrogen, organic matter and suspended solids in various process steps. All soft sensor models were PLS-models calculated on laboratory data as y-values and online process data from the control system as x-values. The most recent projects also included data from acoustic sensors.

    The performance of the soft sensors varied significantly and some of them showed promising results. The soft sensors that were based on acoustic data had in most cases comparable or better performance than corresponding models based on process data, suggesting that acoustic measurements is a promising approach. Furthermore, it was concluded that a crucial factor for successful soft sensor model development was access to large data sets from reliable online sensors and laboratory analyses. The data should represent a wide range of water characteristics and process conditions and there must also be enough for external validation of the models. It was also pointed out that well-maintained online sensors, automatic monitoring of model validity and re-calibration of models when necessary is important for well-functioning soft sensors when they are implemented in the process.

    Future considerations such as stricter effluent regulations, more extreme weather conditions and a change of focus from just treating the wastewater to viewing it as a resource are predicted to further increase the need for better monitoring and control of the wastewater treatment processes. The rapid progress of information technology and further improvements of both acoustic measurements and model development will probably facilitate the development of reliable soft sensors and make it a potential approach to meet wastewater treatment plant's current and future needs for process monitoring.

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  • 7.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Determination of oil contents in bilge water with acoustics in combination with multivariate data analysis2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bilge water is created when ship tanks are flushed and engine rooms are cleaned with water and detergents/degreaser. The resulting oil containing bilge water is usually treated in an on-ship waste water-treatment unit. To facilitate minimization of water-treatment chemicals and to assure that the oil concentration is low enough to allow discharge in the sea, it is important to know the oil concentration in the outflow. In this work we have tested and developed passive acoustic measurements for measurement of oil concentration in bilge water. The starting point was to make synthetic bilge water to test the concept and to get information about the system, including the properties of oils used and the specifics of applying acoustic measurement to them. We investigated the effect of salt in the bilge water by modelling synthetic bilge water with and without NaCl. The prediction errors obtained was 2.5 ppm oil (samples with salt), 0.6 ppm oil (samples without salt) and 4.5 ppm oil (samples with and without salt) (0.5-18 ppm calibration range). Thereafter real samples were collected from a ship. Since the samples had either high or low oil concentration, they were mixed in order to get a representative set of calibration samples with a large range of concentrations. The oil concentrations in the samples were determined by laboratory analysis, the experiments were performed and the calibration models developed. The best model was validated using a separate test set and yielded a test set prediction error of 7.3 ppm. This can be regarded as a good result, since the average absolute error for the laboratory measurement is around 5 ppm, and acoustic measurements is a promising technology to determine oil in bilge water. Recommendations for further work is to lower the error of the laboratory reference method used to determine the oil concentration, to improve the sampling handling chain and possibly also to improve the acoustic measurement equipment before new trials are performed.

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  • 8.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hallgren, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quicker response to quality changes in incoming water with decision support system for coagulant dosage at Görväln drinking water plant2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A decision support system (DSS) for control of the coagulant dosage at the Görväln drinking water plant has been developed and implemented. The goal with the DSS was to enable the transition from manual to automatic control of coagulant dosage. The DSS is based on a multivariate statistical regression (PLS) model mimicking the operators’ manual dosage of coagulant and is based solely on UV-absorbance, colour, COD, TOC and conductivity in the raw water. By external validation with two years of historical data, the model was proven to provide a good estimation of the manual dosage.

    When the model was implemented for dosage control, the variation of the quality of the treated drinking water was significantly reduced as a result of quicker and correct response to changes in the raw water and at the same time the coagulant consumption was maintained. The results pave the way for future optimization of the coagulant dose, resulting in reduced coagulant consumption while still maintaining or even increasing the drinking water quality. The approach presented is expected to be able to give positive results on other drinking water plants as well.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harding, Mila
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Baresel, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Feasibility Study of Passive Acoustic and Soft Sensor Based Monitoring of Biological Wastewater Treatment Processes2017In: International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR), Vol. 7, no 2, p. 22-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many process parameters in a wastewater treatment plant are expensive, difficult or even impossible to measure online, limiting the possibilities for efficient process monitoring and control. In this work, soft sensors were developed to provide on-line values for a number of parameters, primarily different fractions of phosphate (PO4 and total phosphorous), nitrogen (NO3, NH4 and total nitrogen), organic matter (COD) and suspended solids (TSS), at five different steps of the wastewater treatment process at the R&D-facility Hammarby Sjöstadsverk. The soft sensors were PLS (Partial Least Squares) models predicting the value of the hard-to-measure parameters based on easy-to-measure process parameters that were normally measured on-line or on acoustic data generated by acoustic sensors placed on the tanks of three of the five selected process steps.

    During a 13-day sampling campaign, data for the soft sensor development and validation were collected by laboratory analysis of the hard-to-measure parameters and combining them with corresponding 5 minute average values of the on-line parameters and the acoustic data. A majority of the soft sensors that were based on acoustic data had comparable or better performance than corresponding models using process data, indicating that data from acoustic sensors are of interest as input variables for soft sensors at WWTPs. The performance of the soft sensors varied significantly and some of them showed promising results.

    When removing the effect of the laboratory measurement error and the sampling error, 6 out of 26 soft sensor models had a so-called relative true prediction error less than 10% (NO3 in untreated water, COD, TSS and NO3 in the first bioreactor, NH4 in the last bioreactor and TSS in the membrane bioreactor). In combination with the proposed actions for further improvement of the models, the results suggest that soft sensors, that in many cases preferably could be based on acoustic data, is a possible approach to provide WWTPs with on-line process data.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Röttorp, Jonas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Resurseffektiv avloppsvattenrening. Samlad rapport över programmet 2002-20062007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det övergripande målet med projektet har varit att ta fram en resurseffektivare och mer hållbar avloppsvattenreningsteknik där miljövinsterna som erhållits genom reningen av vattnet som släpps ut till recipienten jämförs med miljöbelastningen som uppstår vid resursförbrukningen av t.ex. energi och fällningskemikalier i reningsprocessen. Målet var även att försöka identifiera brytpunkten för något verkligt fall där miljöbelastningen till följd av resursförbrukningen blir större än miljövinsten för det renade avloppsvattnet. Målet ur en teknisk aspekt var att ta fram nyckeltal för olika tekniska alternativ till t.ex. syresättning och kemisk fällning och andra typer av reningstekniker samt att ta fram modeller och reglerstrategier för att möta behovet av en resurseffektiv avloppsvattenrening. Projektet har genomförts i programstruktur med ett antal delprojekt som angriper frågeställningen med resurseffektiv avloppsvattenrening från olika håll. Följande delprojekt har utförts inom programmet: Resurseffektiv luftning Processidentifiering genom modellering av realtidsdata för en bättre övervakning Implementering av 'soft sensors' som ett alternativ till reella mätningar Identifiering av brytpunkter Avancerad styrning av fällningsprocessen i reningsverk Arbetet har bl.a. omfattat: Studie av luftarsystem med framtagande av relevanta mått på syreöverföringskapacitet och energiförbrukning. Delrapport 03-04-02. Processidentifiering genom modellering av realtidsdata på två reningsverk. Delrapport 03-01-13. Studie av alternativ till traditionell styrning av kemikaliedosering i kommunala reningsverk. Delrapport 04-11-18. 'Soft sensors' som ett komplement till traditionella mätningar i avloppsreningsverk. Delrapport 05-08-31. Ytterligare resultat redovisades på referensgruppsmöten 2006-04-21 och 2007-03-05. Delar av ett M.Sc. examensarbete. Kalibrering av en simuleringsmodell som ska användas i delprojektet Identifiering av brytpunkter. Implementering av LivsCykel Inventerings (LCI)-modeller on-line på Henriksdal, december 2006. Simuleringar av Henriksdals reningsverk kopplade till LCI-modeller för identifiering av brytpunkter.

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  • 11.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Larsson, Mathias
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Trafikverket inför klimatkrav i sina upphandlingar2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket ställer regelbundet klimatkrav i sina upphandlingar. Detta initiativ har rönt stort nationellt och internationellt intresse och visar på möjligheten att praktiskt använda LCA och EPD i offentlig upphandling.

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