IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hynning, Per-Åke
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Neilson, Alasdair
    The Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Heterocyclic Compounds Originating in the Terrestrial Environment or in Solid Waste: an Initiatory Study1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Strains of bacteria have been obtained from samples of soil and sediment by enrichment with dibenzofuran, dibenzothiophene, acridine, carbazole and pyrene. Pure cultures were used to determine the persistence of these compounds in aqueous solutions under aerobic conditions in sealed ampoules. Some strains degraded the substrates totally while others accomplished only partial degradation or biotransformation. Intermediate metabolites were identifiable only from dibenzofuran. Some of the experimental procedures that had to be adopted are discussed and the results of the experiments examined in the wider context of bioremediation

  • 2.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmberg, Marianne
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Platsspecifik bedömning av förorenad mark - biologiska tester i kombination med kemiska analyser2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns många förorenade markområden i Sverige och varje område är unikt. Det är viktigt av miljömässiga och ekonomiska skäl att göra en riktig bedömning av dessa områden. Förutsättningarna för en adekvat riskbedömning är att relevanta metoder används för karakterisering av den förorenade jorden och att resultatet av denna karakterisering utgör grund för en platsspecifik bedömning. För att bidra till en säkrare riskbedömning har IVL utvecklat ett testsystem bestående av biologiska tester, kemiska analyser och laktester. De biologiska testerna är riktade mot aktuella föroreningars toxicitet, persistens och biotillgänglighet i förorenade markområden. Systemet bygger på naturligt förekommande marklevande organismer som testas under så realistiska förhållanden som möjligt. Föroreningarna kan ha olika effekter på de olika organismerna i marken. I testsystemet ingår därför bakterier, växter och daggmaskar som representerar flera nivåer i näringskedjan. De biologiska testerna har tillsammans med de kemiska analyserna används på ett antal förorenade jordar och rena substanser. Tester av grobarhet och rot- och skottillväxt har utförts med engelskt rajgräs, vitklöver och rädisa. Masken Enchytraeus crypticus har testats för toxicitet och reproduktionsstörningar. Undersökningar av metabolitbildning vid bakteriell omvandling av PAHer har gjorts. Ett antal förberedande upptagstester med växter och maskar har utförts både med rena substanser och med en förorenad jord. Där det varit möjligt har resultaten från testerna jämförts med Naturvårdsverkets riktvärden.

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  • 3.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Neilson, Alasdair
    Evaluation of Microcosm System for Determining the Persistence of Chlorocatechols in the Aquatic Environment1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under aerobic conditions, the spiked 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol was partitioned into the sediment phase, and during the course of the experiment, its concentration diminished by ca. 95 % during 50d without evidence for the synthesis of metabolites. By contrast that of the endogenous substrate diminished by only ca. 60 %. Under anaerobic conditions, the concentration of the endogenous chlorocatechols was essentially constant during 8 w, during which time the exogenous 3,4,5-trichlorocatechol was transformed by ca. 70 % plausibly to a mixture of dichlorocatechol isomers. 6-chlorovanillin was retained in the aqueous phase and under aerobic conditions its concentration diminished to zero within 15 d. The concentrations of endogenous C12 to C18 fatty acids and a range of diterpenes diminished during the later part of the experiments, although in separate experiments, the concentrations of dissolved dehydroabietic acid and 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid were reduced to zero during incubation with pure cultures of aerobic bacteria. All of these results underscore the environmental signficance of bioavailability in determining the persistence of organic compounds in the environment

  • 4.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Neilson, Alasdair
    The Aerobic Biodegradation of Tert-Butyl Methyl Ether and Tert-Butanol: an Initiatory Study1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A single sample of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was enriched under aerobic conditions in a mineral medium supplemented with tert-butanol (1 g/L) as sole carbon source, or with methylamine (2 g/L) as main carbon source and tert-butanol (0.1 g/L) as cosubstrate. The mixed cultures obtained after four serial transfers were used for further experiments. In a growth experiment, the concentration of tert-butanol declined slowly after an initial lag phase. Cell suspensions of the mixed culture or of methylamine-grown cells incubated with tert-butyl methyl ether showed no similar decline in substrate concentration during 6 weeks. The results suggested the possible persistence of tert-butyl methyl ether, and that the tertiary butyl group is not itself the determinant of resistance to aerobic biodegradation

  • 5. Andersson, Jeanette
    et al.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Svenson, Anders
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening programme 2005. Sub report 1 Antibiotics, Anti-inflammatory substances and Hormones2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of pharmaceuticals were performed in 179 samples of water, sludge, manure, sediment and biota at background sites, municipal STPs, landfills, hospital effluents and recipient water from STPs. Bioassays of hormone activity were performed for a selected number of water samples. The NSAIDs were the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals and occurred in the highest concentrations. There were large differences in concentrations both between substances and between sampling sites. A regional trend in the STP effluent water could be observed for the NSAIDs and for some antibiotics with increased concentrations in samples originating from the north. No pattern could be seen for the hormones. Estrogenic effects were detected in STP outlets to the aquatic environment while values obtained for androgenicity were in most samples close to or below the detection limit. Based on the risk asessment (MEC/PNEC) risk quotients >1 was obtained for estradiol, estriol, ethinylestradiol and ibuprofen.

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  • 6. Bjuggren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laktest för organiska ämnen i jord - utveckling av testmetod1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Målet med projektet har varit att utveckla laktest för lakning av organiska föroreningar från förorenad jord, både för att bedöma miljöfarligheten och för att kunna ge en indikation på möjliga åtgärder. Det utfördes en litteraturstudie och försök med 3 jordar spikat med 6 olika organiska ämnen med olika egenskaper. Försöksparametrar som varierades var laktid och förhållandet vätska/fast fas (LS): Utifrån den multivariata analysen kunde inte några allmänna slutsatser dras hur jord- respektive ämnesegenskaper påverkar försöksresultaten. Samband som hade nämnts i litteraturen kunde inte bekräftas. Resultaten tyder dock på att ämnets löslighet och jordens lerinnehåll påverkar utlakningen. Försöksresultaten visade för de undersökta fallen att det var tillräckligt att laka i 6 till 24 timmar. Filtreras provet innan analys kan det påverka mätresultatet avsevärt. Om inte mättnad för ett utlakat ämne nås, kan både LS 5 eller 10 användas i försök. Resultaten angående försöksutförandet bör dock verifieras med hjälp av försök med reala förorenade jordar. Det finns fortfarande frågor som inte kunde besvaras och där det skulle behövas kompletterade undersökningar

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  • 7.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Andersson, Rolf
    Liljelind, Per
    Grabic, Roman
    Screening of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicyclohexylamine and benzotriazoles 20092012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study of benzothiazoles, benzenediamines, dicycyclohexylamine,and benzotriazoles has been carried out in the framework of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency´s screening program.The overall objective of a screening study is to determine the concentrations of the selected substances in a variety of media in the Swedish environment. Additional aims are to assess the possible emission sources and to highlight important transport pathways in the environment.This screening has been carried out in collaboration with the research program ChEmiTecs “Organic Chemicals Emitted from Technosphere Articles" (www.chemitecs.se, financed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency). The aim of ChEmiTecs is to increase the scientific understanding of the magnitude of the problem regarding emissions of organic substances from articles with the objective to support policy development in Sweden and Europe.The benzothiazoles MBT, CBS, DBS and DBD were found in one or more of the sample matrices. The detection frequencies varied both among the substances and the different media. The distribution pattern was most likely affected both by substance properties, i.e. the chemical stability and the tendency of a substance to partition to a certain media, and the use and emission pattern. MBT had the highest detection frequency while the other benzothioazoles were more occasionally found. An important pathway of MBT to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products. The occurrence in storm water indicates traffic related emissions. MBT and the other benzothiazoles did mainly occur in the aquatic environment. Air transport seems to be of minor importance.The benzenediamine DPP was occasionally detected in some of the matrices e.g surface water, storm water and sludge. DCHA was widespread in the environment and it occurred in all sample types except crops. The findings of DCHA in air and deposition indicate that this substance is emitted to air and that atmospheric transport is an important pathway in the environment. The occurrence in storm water as well as in soil indicates that traffic related emissions are important. DCHA was however not found in crops collected in the vicinity to busy roads. Another important pathway for DCHA to the environment is via WWTPs, an indication that the occurrence is due to diffuse emission from e.g. consumer products.There is a widespread occurrence of benzotriazoles in the environment both at background and urban areas. The substances occurred in all the included environmental matrices, air, deposition, surface water, sediment, soil and biota.The results also showed that diffuse spreading through WWTPs, landfills and storm water may be important for the occurrence in the environment. This indicates that these substances are distributed via use of products. UVP is the benzotriazole with the highest usage volume followed by UV 328 and UV327. These substances were also most often found in the highest concentrations. In a brief risk assessment for the aquatic pelagic ecosystems no major risks were identified, i.e. concentrations were generally below the PNEC in surface water and effluents if dilution was considered. DPP did however occur in concentrations above its PNEC in River Viskan and concentrations of DPP and DCHA in the different effluents did at some occasions exceed the PNEC undiluted. No toxicity or ecotoxicity data has been found for any of the benzotriazole substances in the available literature. Any risk estimates have therefore not been carried out.

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  • 8.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haglund, Peter
    Ghebremeskel, Mebrat
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Screening of unintentionally produced organic contaminants2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report considers the screening of unintentionally produced substances. Substance groups included in the screening program were oxygenated and nitrated forms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen containing heterocyclic compounds. Polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDD) and furans (PBDF), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDT) and dibenzotianthrenes (PCDTA) were also included in the study. PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were included as reference substances. The results of the screening showed that oxidized and nitrated forms of PAHs as well as heterocyclic analogues of PAHs were frequently found in background and urban areas and in most of the environmental matrices included in the study. PCDTs were found in most abiotic samples while PCDTA generally was below the limit-of-detection. The concentrations of PBDDs were generally below the limit-of-detection but were found in deposition, urban sediment, background sediment, and fish from Kvädöfjärden. The PBDF concentrations in air varied widely in time and space. OBDF occurred in similar concentrations as PCBs in air, deposition, sediment and soil.

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  • 9.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svenson, Anders
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Bjerke, Arve
    Schlabach, Martin
    Measurements of Sucralose in the Swedish Screening Program 2007 -PART I; Sucralose in surface waters and STP samples.2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of sucralose on commission from the Swedish EPA. Sucralose is a chlorine containing derivative of sucrose, manufactured by selectively substituting three hydroxyls with chlorine. The substance is used as a sweetener in food products; on a weight basis it tastes ca. 600 times sweeter than the parent compound. The objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of sucralose in media in the Swedish environment related to wastewater effluents and to highlight important transport pathways. In total 57 samples were analysed representing wastewater and sludge from sewage treatment plants as well as surface waters.

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  • 10.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svensson, Anders
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dye, Christian
    Bjerke, Arve
    Schlabach, Martin
    Measurements of Sucralose in the Swedish Screening program 2007. PART II; Sucralose in Biota samples and regional STP samples2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of sucralose on commission from the Swedish EPA, reported in two consecutive parts. Sucralose is a chlorine containing derivative of sucrose, manufactured by selectively substituting three hydroxyls with chlorine. The substance is used as a sweetener in food products; on a weight basis it tastes ca. 600 times sweeter than the parent compound. The objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of sucralose in media in the Swedish environment such as biota, wastewater effluents and to highlight important transport pathways. In total 84 samples were analysed. This report constitutes part 2 of the study.

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  • 11. Ejhed, Helene
    et al.
    Magnér, Jörgen
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karl-Axel Reimer, Södertälje kommun.
    Enskilda avlopp som källa till läkemedelsrester och andra kemikalier2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns cirka 700 000 fastigheter med enskilda avlopp, varav cirka 75 % utgörs av markbaserade anläggningar där det renade avloppsvattnet direkt eller via grundvattnet når ytvattenrecipienter. Syftet med detta projekt har varit: att undersöka om halter av läkemedel och andra kemikalier från enskilda avlopp är detekterbara i en recipient med känd påverkan av enskilda avlopp, att kvantifiera spridning av ett antal substanser av läkemedel från enskilda avlopp samt att undersöka reningseffektivitet i enskilda avlopp avseende läkemedel och andra kemikalier. Projektet har genomförts i samarbete med Södertälje kommun.  Provtagning genomfördes i Lillsjön med tillflöden, i Hölö inom Södertälje kommun. Analyser genomfördes av vatten, sediment och biota av ett urval läkemedel- och andra hushållrelaterade kemikalier som perfluoroktansulfonsyra (PFOS) och etylendiamintetraättiksyra (EDTA). Provtagning genomfördes även av läkemedelsubstanser i inkommande och utgående vatten i två markbäddar. I den ena anläggningen tillsattes manuellt (spikades) en känd mängd läkemedelssubstanser och bromid som spårämne. I den andra anläggningen analyserades läkemedelsubstanser som användes av brukarna. Analyser genomfördes även av pH, total fosfor, "biochemical oxygen demand" (BOD) och totalt organiskt kol (TOC) för att kontrollera markbäddarnas funktion.  Analyserna av vatten och sediment i Lillsjön uppvisade endast små mängder läkemedelsrester, PFOS och EDTA. Läkemedelsrester påvisades dock i det tillflöde som sammantaget är mest befolkat med enskilda avlopp samt i ett utlopp med utsläpp från Hölö församlingshem, vilket visar att enskilda avlopp bidrar till spridning av läkemedelsrester till miljön. Markbäddarna uppvisade en god reduktion av de femton analyserade läkemedlen och låg generellt sett över den genomsnittliga reduceringsgraden avseende dessa ämnen i fyra stora svenska reningsverk. Undantagen var diklofenak och ketoprofen där reduceringsgraden var betydligt lägre än för de fyra svenska reningsverken. Orsaken tros vara problem att detektera substanserna i ingående avloppsvatten och att reduktionen därmed inte kunde bestämmas på ett rättvisande sätt.  Beräkning av total mängd som passerade användare med enskilda avlopp har beräknats baserat på nationell statistik om permanentboende med enskilda avlopp, statistik från Apotekens service avseende försåld mängd och uppmätt reduktion i markbäddarna. Enskilda avlopp står för en betydande del av avloppsflödet i Sverige. Cirka tio gånger större mängder av karbamazepin och diklofenak sprids från enskilda avlopp avseende hela Sverige än från Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm. Paracetamol är den substans som står för störst utsläpp enligt beräkningarna, cirka 12 ton år 2010.  Reduktion av läkemedelsubstanser i markbaserade anläggningar beror på utformning och skötsel av avloppsanläggningen. God syresättning och lång uppehållstid i markbaserade anläggningar är gynnsamma förutsättningar. Reduktionen sker dock inte i lika hög grad för samtliga substanser och anläggningar som brister i utformningen kan ge utsläpp till vattenmiljön och grundvatten, vilket har noterats i både denna studie och i internationell litteratur. Ytterligare studier behövs för att bestämma om substanserna bryts ner och hur de bryts ner i de enskilda avloppen. Risker med avseende på spridning av läkemedelsrester och andra kemikalier från enskilda avlopp bör undersökas vidare.

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  • 12.
    Ek, Mats
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmberg, Marianne
    Olsson, Jenny
    Kompostering av förorenad sand1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Till en ren och homogen sand sattes 3-metylbensoesyra, p-kresol, m-xylenol, karbazol och fluoranten, vardera till en halt kring 100 mg/kg fuktig sand. Föreningarna valdes för att de ofta förekommer i mark förorenad med kreosot och petroleumprodukter. Den förorenade sanden ympades med slam från ett kommunalt avloppsreningsverk och fördelades på 10 olika tunnor för komposteringsförsök. Fukthalt (33-59% av fältkapacitet), temperatur (25-35°C) och till-sats av extra substrat och närsalter varierades i ett faktorförsök. Prover togs ut från sanden under nedbrytningsförloppet, och utgående luft från tunnorna analyserades också. Som jämförelse behandlades samma förorenade sand i slurryform, med och utan en inhibitor för biologisk aktivitet. De mest svårlösliga föreningarna, karbazol och fluoranten, blev så ojämnt fördelade i sanden att det inte gick att säga något om deras eventuella nedbrytning. Av de övriga föreningarna avlägsnades i de flesta fall 60-100% under 16 veckors försök. Både hastigheten och sluthalten påverkades av fukthalt och temperatur, däremot hade extra tillsats av substrat och närsalter ingen inverkan. Fukthalt och temperatur påverkade förhållandet mellan avgång till luft och biologisk (kemisk) omvandling. De kemiska analyserna kompletterades med biologiska test med växter och maskar. Den hämmande effekten av den ursprungliga förorenade sanden och ett par behandlade prover var ungefär den som man kunde vänta sig från tidigare försök med rena substanser. I de fall den toxiska effekten var större än den förväntade, kan skillnaden bero på synergistiska effekter eller på toxiska metaboliter

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  • 13.
    Ek, Mats
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Biological degradation of EDTA in pulping effluents at higher pH - a laboratory study1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological degradation of EDTA at different pH, sludge load and sludge age has been investigated in laboratory experiments. The experiments showed that relatively fast degradation of EDTA in the form found in this waste water (from production of TMP) took place at least at pH around 8,5 with moderate COD load and high sludge age. In continuous reactors the degradation of EDTA in a pulp and paper waste water was 2-3 mg EDTA/g SS*day at both pH 7 and 8,5, and at sludge ages from 5 to 21 days. The degradation was dependent on sludge load, and no degradation was seen above 1 g COD/g SS*day. In kinetic experiments with half strength waste water the same degradation rate (1,5-2 mg EDTA/g SS*day) was found at pH 7 and at pH 8,5 with sludge of low age (9 and 5 days SRT). Much faster degradation was found at pH 8,5 with sludge of high age (21 days in the continuous experiment). The mean degradation rate was over 10 mg EDTA/g SS*day from 20 to 5 mg EDTA/l. vmax was determined to be 35 mg EDTA/g SS*day and KM to 31 mg EDTA/l. COD removal was at least as good at pH 8,5 as at pH 7. Sludge properties were best at pH 8,5 and long sludge retention time (giving low sludge load). Both sludge volume index and residual suspended solids after sedimentation were lower than under normal conditions at pH 7. The direct cost for caustic lime would be about 15 SEK per ton of TMP, with a water like the one investigated here. This can vary a lot dependent on starting pH and buffering capacity. Costs for addition of nitrogen source could probably be omitted, but this is normally not more than 1-2 SEK per ton of TMP

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  • 14.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Regional screening 2008. Analys av fenolära ämnen, ftalater, kvartära ammoniumföreningar, tennorganiska föreningar och ytterligare antifoulingämnen i miljöprover2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prov från svensk yttre miljö har analyserats på en eller flera av ämnesgrupperna fenolära ämnen, ftalater, kvartära ammoniumföreningar och tennorganiska föreningar. Proven omfattar främst vatten och slam från kommunala reningsverk, ytvatten och sediment. Sediment har även analyserats på diuron, irgarol 1051, DCOIT (Sea nine 211) och capsaicin

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  • 15.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 4: Siloxanes2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study of siloxanes. The substances included were three cyclic polydimethylsiloxanes (D4, D5, and D6) and four linear analogues (MM, MDM, MD2M and MD3M). The overall objectives of the screening were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, and to assess the possibility of current emissions in Sweden. A total of 138 samples of air, water, sludge, sediment and fish were analysed. D4 that is classified as a phase out substance was found in 37 out of 54 municipal sludge samples in concentrations from 130 to 2 300 ng/g DW and in various air samples in concentrations up to 300 ng/m3. D4 was not found in any of the water, sediment or fish samples. MM, which is on the OSPAR candidate list for dangerous substances, was found in leachate water from landfills and in low concentrations in air in the Stenungsund chemical industrial area. D5 was the dominating siloxane in most samples. It was found in all sludge samples from municipal treatment plants. The average concentration was 11 000 ng/g DW. Siloxanes were not found in aquatic biota (fish muscle).One or more of D4, D5 and D6 were found in 11 out of 49 samples of human breast milk. The maximum concentration of D4 was 10 µg/L, of D5 4.5 µg/L and of D6 4.8 µg/L.

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  • 16.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dusan, Brita
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2006. Subreport 2: 1,5,9-cyklododecatriene2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has during 2006/2007 performed a 'Screening Study' of 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene. The screening programme included measurements in background areas and in the vicinity of potential point sources. Measurements were also done in urban areas reflecting diffuse emission pathways from society. Sample types were air, soil, sediment, sludge and biota (fish). A total of 55 samples were included. CDDT was not found in any of the samples. The reported detection limits were 0.04 - 0.05 ng/m3 in air, 10 ng/g DW in sediment and soil, 20 ng/g DW in sludge and 1-4 ng/g WW in fish. The overall conclusion is that 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene is generally not present in the Swedish environment in concentration that is of environmental concern. The substance is thus not recommended as a candidate to be included in regular monitoring.

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  • 17.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schlabach, Martin
    Screening 2004 - uppföljningsprojekt. Analys av oktaklorstyren, flyktiga metylsiloxaner, vissa fenoler och endosulfan2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    - Oktaklorstyren samt penta- och hexaklorbensen har analyserats i strömming från 17 lokaler längs Norrlands- och Svealandskusten. Oktaklorstyren kunde påvisas i samtliga prov. - Flyktiga metylsiloxaner samt 4-nonylfenol, 4-t-oktylfenol, triclosan och bisfenol A har analyserats i in- och utgående vatten samt slam från Borlänge reningsverk. Transporterade mängder har beräknats. - Flyktiga metylsiloxaner har analyserats i förpackade livsmedel. Låga halter av cykliska siloxaner kunde påvisas i ett av tio prover. - Endosulfan har analyserats i luft- och depositionsprov från bakgrundsstationerna Råö och Pallas. Medelkoncentrationen i luft var högst under sommarhalvåret: 22 pg/m3 i Råö och 11 pg/m3 i Pallas. Deponerade mängder var också högst under sommarhalvåret: 1,0 ng/m2/dygn i Råö och 0,26 ng/m2/dygn i Pallas. - En översikt har gjorts över tidigare analyserade endosulfanhalter i svenska livsmedel. Antalet varor som innehöll halter av endosulfan över detektionsgränsen (0,01-0,04 mg/kg) har minskat under perioden 1995-2005 vilket speglar den minskade användningen i Europa. Efter år 2000 finns inga rapporter om endosulfan i svenskodlade grönsaker. Några gånger per år hittas importerad frukt och grönsaker med endosulfanhalter som vid stor konsumtion bedöms kunna ge barn akuta hälsoeffekter. Beräkningar av kroniskt intag visar att intaget i Sverige ligger på ca 1 % av 'acceptabelt dagligt intag' dvs under risknivån för kroniska hälsoeffekter

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  • 18.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2007. Subreport 4: Linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS)2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    LAS (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate) is an anionic sufactant mainly used in laundry- and dishwashing detergents and lubricant additives. The annual amount used in Sweden is about 900 tonnes. As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study of LAS. The overall objective of the screening was to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment.

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  • 19.
    Kaj, Lennart
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 2. Dechlorane Plus2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning Dechlorane Plus (DP). DP is a chlorinated flame retardant that has been used for a long time but has not been noticed as an environmental contaminant until recently. The main reason for its concern is its similarity to other known chloro organic chemicals with adverse effects to the environment. DP was present in air at background locations (Råö, Aspvreten, Pallas) and in higher concentrations in urban air (Stockholm). This supports that DP is capable of long range transport and, as no traditional point sources are known, supposedly emitted from products used in urban areas, such as plastics in electrical insulators. DP was also deposited from the atmosphere. The concentration in air was in the same magnitude as for the brominated diphenyl ether congeners BDE-47 and BDE-99.

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  • 20. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Leknes, Henriette
    Schlabach, Martin
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme. Subreport 3: Pigments2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of the ester octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the screening were to determine if octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate is present in different matrices in the Swedish environment, and if so, at what concentrations. In total 64 samples were analysed representing soil, surface water, sediment, biota (fish), influent and effluent waters and sludge from STPs, storm waters, and leachate water and sludge from landfills. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate was found in all analysed STP sludge samples. It was also found in all analysed influent water samples, but concentrations were generally lower or below the detection limit in effluent water. Thus, removal of the substance from the water phase takes place during the waste water treatment process, plausible by absorption to sludge. Concentrations in the same range as in influent waters or higher was also found in the storm water samples. The chemical could also be detected just above the detection limit in two out of three fish samples, but not in soil, surface water or sediment from the city of Stockholm. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate could not be detected in any of the samples from background areas. All together, this screening study shows that diffuse emissions of octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate in the urban environment take place, resulting in exposure to and uptake in biota. Due to the limited ecotoxicological data available, it is not possible to determine the risk of its presence in the environment, but based on animal studies the chemical is considered to have a low hazard potential for human health.

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  • 21. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Egelrud, Liselott
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junedahl, Erika
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schlabach NILU, Martin
    Ghebremeskel, Mebrat
    Screening study on occurrence of hazardous substances in the eastern Baltic Sea2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL and NILU have during 2008/2009 as an assignment from HELCOM, performed a screening study in the eastern Baltic Sea environment on the occurrence of eight of the substances/substance groups identified as hazardous under the Baltic Sea Action Plan.     Of the eight substances or substance classes included in the study, six of them were found above LOQ; organic tin compounds, PBDEs, PFAS, nonylphenol, chlorinated paraffins and endosulfan (endosulfan sulphate). Substances that occurred in fish samples from all sampling sites were; TBT, PBDEs (BDE 47 and BDE 100), PFAS (PFOS), chlorinated paraffins (SCCP), and endosulfan (endosulfan sulphate). Additionally, bisphenol A was found in fish from almost all sampling sites. PFAS (PFOS and PFOA), octyphenol and nonylphenol were found in one, one and six water samples, respectively. No obvious differences in concentrations could be seen between the sampling sites classified as background areas and affected areas. Furthermore, no clear general differences between affected sites could be seen. Concentrations found for the different substances were lower or in the same range as previously reported from other areas of the Baltic Sea, thus the eastern Baltic Sea environment does not seem to be more polluted compared to the Baltic Sea in general. For all the substances, except TBT, concentrations found were below reported PNEC values. However, for TBT, concentrations in several fish muscle samples were close to or above the PNEC value estimated for protection of human health considering consumption of fishery products. Additionally, PFOS levels in fish liver exceeded the PNEC value regarding secondary poisoning of predators in six samples, but PFOS levels in fish muscle were not measured in this study.

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  • 22. Lilja, Karl
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Chemical and biological monitoring of sewage effluent water2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has conducted a study with the overall aim to present basic data for decision-making regarding a monitoring program for STP effluents. A program for chemical and biological monitoring in effluent water from municipal sewage treatment plants is important for the understanding on spreading of chemicals in the environment, to identify changes in the use or substitution of chemicals, to identify possible emissions of 'new' emerging substances to the environment, and also for the implementation and follow up of directives. The study consisted of several parts; a chemical characterization of STP effluents consisting of both the analysis of specific compounds but also the identification of 'unknown' compounds, measurements of estrogenic and androgenic activity with the bioassays YES and YAS, evaluation of seasonal variability in chemical composition, and chemical measurements in recipient water. Further, a literature survey of potential additional bioassays suitable for monitoring purposes was conducted. Based on the results a recommendation for a monitoring program for municipal STP effluent is given.

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  • 23. Malmberg, Marianne
    et al.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utveckling av biologiska metoder för bedömning av förorenad mark1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns ett ökande behov av att använda förorenade markområden för bebyggelse och rekreation. För att kunna utföra adekvata riskbedömningar av dylika områden krävs utveckling av biologiska marktestsystem av den typ som används för den akvatiska miljön. Ett testpaket för bedömning av mikrobiell persistens och toxicitet mot bakterier, växter och maskar har tagits fram. Persistenstesten visar föroreningarnas stabilitet mot bakteriella angrepp och kan vägleda vid val av saneringsmetod. Toxicitetstesterna visar på behov och effektivitet av sanering. För de bakteriella testerna används naturliga, i testjorden befintliga bakterier. Engelskt rajgräs (Lolium perenne), vitklöver (Trifolium repens) och rova (Brassica rapa) ingår i växttesten som bedömer rot- och skottillväxt. Masktesten mäter dödlighet och reproduktion hos ringmasken Enchytraeus crypticus. Testsubstanserna utgjordes av fluoranthen, karbazol, p-kresol och m-xylenol, representerande kreosotföroreningar, 4-klorbifenyl, surrogat för PCB och 3-metylbensoesyra, omvandlingsprodukt från m-xylen. Persistensförsöken visade att 3-metylbensoesyra var den substans som snabbast minskade i koncentration och fluoranthen var den som minskade långsammast. Inga metaboliter kunde påvisas vid de kemiska analyserna. Toxiciteten mot bakterierna var högst hos de fenolära före-ningarna, medan ingen toxicitet kunde påvisas för karbazol, fluoranthen och 4-klorbifenyl. Toxicitet mot växterna uppvisades av de vattenlösliga substanserna p-kresol, m-xylenol och 3-metylbensoesyra. De i vatten svårlösliga ämnena gav ingen effekt, möjligen beroende på att de inte var tillgängliga för växterna. De fenolära föreningarna och 3-metylbensoesyra var akut toxiska mot maskarna och reproduktionen på-verkades av karbazol och 4-klorbifenyl. Ingen toxisk effekt kunde påvisas för fluoranthen. Undersökningen visar att det framtagna testpaketet kan användas för bedömning av markföroreningar och är väl anpassat för att ingå på basnivån i ett hierarkiskt marktestsystem

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  • 24. Neilson, Alasdair
    et al.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hynning, Per-Åke
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    On the Bio-Transformation of high molecular Weight chlorinated Lignin and the Bio-Degradation of chlorinated aromatic Compounds1981Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of sediment from two localities subject to discharge of bleachery effluents were enriched continuously with high molecular weight (>l000) fractions from C- and E-stage liquors. After enrichment, bacteria were isolated on a selection of defined media containing substrates structurally related to that of lignin. In total, 18 pure strains were obtained from the E-stage enrichments, 28 from C-stage. 17 of the first and 2 of the second group together with 3 miscellaneous strains were examined for their ability to degrade ether-extracted liquors to tri- and tetrachloroguaiacols (or catechols) and to bring about degradation of 4:5:6 trichloro- and tetra-chloroguaiacol,2:4 dichloro-phenol, 2-chloro-, 2:4-dichloro- and 3:5-dichloro-4-hydroxy-benzoate.Of the 12 strains examined, only three showed any metabolic activity towards the three monomeric substrates tested. All of these strains brought about degradation of the monomeric substrates albeit at differing rates. None of the strains, however, showed any capability of producing polychloroguaiacols or catechols from the C- and E-stage liquors. For the latter, however, evidence was found for the formation of a metabolite similar to tetracholorcatechol

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  • 25.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Subreport 3. Biocider: Difenacoum2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has performed a 'Screening Study' of difenacoum and related compounds as an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Difenacoum is used as a second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGAR). It is mainly used to control rodents around buildings and inside transport vehicles. Difenacoum is uptaken via ingestion and acts by disrupting the blood clotting process. In addition to difenacoum, the current study also includes another six substances with similar functions. The overall objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of the selected substances in the Swedish environment. A sampling programme was developed and 60 samples were included in the study, representing surface water, sediment, fish, soil, in- and effluent water from sewage treatment plants, sludge, storm water, storm water and sludge, and eagle-owl tissues. All of the seven anticoagulant rodenticides were below detection limit in all abiotic samples and in fish. This shows that these substances are not widely distributed in the Swedish environment. However, difenacoum and three of the related compounds (coumatetralyl, bromadiolone and bromadifacoum) were found in three of the eagle-owl individuals. Coumatetralyl and bromadiolone were found in highest levels followed by difenacoum and the liver sampled contained higher concentrations compared to muscle samples. This shows that secondary poisoning of animals feeding on rodents not can be excluded. Additional studies focusing on areas with known usage could reveal if other non-target organisms other than eagle-owls are likely to be exposed to rodenticides. The study also confirms that the liver is the main target for retention of these rodenticdes.Version 2 april 2012

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  • 26.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Subreport 1. Biocides: 3-Iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) and 2,2-dibromo-2-cyanoacetamide (DBNPA)2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has performed a 'Screening Study' of IPBC and DBNPA as an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. IPBC belongs to the category preservatives/disinfectants and is used as a fungicide. It is used in the paper and pulp industry to prevent the formation of slime and as a preservative in cosmetics, paints, coatings etc. DBNPA is mostly used to reduce the occurrence of slime forming microorganisms with in the paper and cellulose industry. It is also used a biocide in cooling systems. IPBC is moderately soluble and not very persistent in water, hydrolysis is expected to be main route of dissipation. DBNPA has high water solubility, a short half-life and is rapidly degraded in water by hydrolysis. The overall objectives of the study were to determine the concentrations of IPBC and DBNPA in the Swedish environment. A sampling strategy was developed and the selection was based on the usage pattern of the substances. IPBC was found in air at two paint companies representing point sources and in the centre of Gothenburg, representing an urban diffuse source. In water, IPBC was found in high levels in the influent water at two paint companies and in both the in- and effluent water from three STPs. It was not found in background areas or in urban surface water, storm water and sediment, STP sludge or storm water sludge. The results indicate that if IPBC is being used, there is a possibility for the compound to be distributed to the environment since in can be detected in air and influent and effluent water from the paint industries and in STP waters. However, IPBC does not seem to reach other urban or background areas which may be due to the fact that IPBC is not very persistent in water. DBNPA was found below LOD in all samples.

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  • 27.
    Norström, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 1. Bis(4-Chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS)2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study has been performed concerning bis(4-Chlorophenyl) sulfone (BCPS). BCPS is a high production volume chemical and is mainly used in the polymer production. It has been detected in biota in several species from the Baltic Sea environment but the source for its detection is unknown. Air, deposition, sediment, fish, effluent and surface were sampled mainly from the Baltic sea region. BCPS was present in all fish samples (perch and herring) and in similar levels as PCB 138 and PCB 153. There was no trend in concentrations between species, country or sampling location. BCPS was detected in all three marine surface samples which may explain the bioaccumulation in biota. It was detected in one air sample in the same magnitude as individual PCB congeners and in one of the WWTP samples. This screening did not clarify the pathways of BCPS to the Baltic Sea. However, the results indicate that distribution is more waterborne rather than airborne

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  • 28.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Katarina
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 5: Mirex and Endosulfan2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements of the pesticides mirex and ensosulfan were performed in 49 samples of air, deposition, sediment, sludge, water and biota at background sites and at diffuse sources. Mirex was not detected in any of the samples analysed, and was concluded not to occur in elevated concentrations in the Swedish environment. Endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate were detected in air and deposition and the latter also in sediments, biota and leachate water. Endosulfan seems to mainly enter the environment via long-range atmospheric transport. There may be other diffuse emissions resulting in observed levels of endosulfan sulphate. In order to address remaining questions, further analysis of e.g. outgoing sewage water, sewage sludge, biota and/or food stuffs as well as regular air monitoring of endosulfan is suggested.

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  • 29.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2006. Subreport 1: Phthalates2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of phthalates on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the study were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, to assess the possibility of current emissions, to investigate the likelihood of atmospheric transport and uptake in biota and humans. In total 66 samples were analysed representing air, sediment, sludge, biota (fish), foodstuffs and human urine both in background and source areas. The phthalates included in the study were di-(2-ethyl)hexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and di-(2-ethyl)hexyl adipate (DEHA). In air, also di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butylphthalate (DIBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP) were analysed. DEHP was most commonly occurring substance. The iso-phthalates were detected in all matrices apart from human urine and biota. The results show that there are on-going emissions of iso-phthalates as well as the other substances to the Swedish environment. Long-range atmospheric transport does not seem to be of major importance. The atmospheric levels of iso-phthalates were lower than DEHP levels with the exception of urban air, where DIDP dominated. In sediments and sludge the DINP levels were similar or higher than the DEHP levels. In sediments this was true also for DIDP, whereas DIDP levels in sludge corresponded to about 50 % of the DEHP levels. Uptake of phthalates in biota seems to be limited. Human exposure via food seems to be low, but other routes of exposure are possible, e.g. inhalation of indoor air. Iso-phthalates were not detected in human urine, bur detection limits were relatively high and a direct comparison to DEHP exposure was not possible. The current pattern of environmental levels mirrors the consumption pattern 5 years ago, thus reflecting a time lag which may be explained by the large amounts of DEHP still present in the technosphere. As there are no set risk levels of iso-phthalates, it is not possible to determine the risk of their presence in the environment.

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  • 30. Parkman, Helena
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Phthalates in Swedish Sediments1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of the study were to produce reliable 'background' data of phthalate concentrations in sediments, and to assess the relaive importance of phthalate inputs from both diffuse sources and from point-sources.

  • 31. Parkman, Helena
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöövervakningsprojekt i Södertälje kanalområde för bedömning av effekterna från muddring och tippning av förorenade sediment - lägesrapport 19971998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    De inledande undersökningarna om effekterna av muddring och tippning av ca 60.000 m3 sediment i Södertälje trafikområde har avslutats under hösten 1997. Resultaten visar att muddringen i området samt tippningen av muddermassor i Hallsfjärden påverkade vattenkvaliteten samt det akvatiska ekosystemet från Linasundet i Mälaren ned till Hallsfjärden i Östersjön. De inledande analyserna av 'blivande' muddermassor visade framförallt på förhöjda kvicksilverhalter ( Hg) 3-4,5 mg/kg (TS) vilket skall jämföras med Naturvårdsverkets bedömningsgrunder där >1 mg/kg (TS) sediment anses som höga. Muddringen och tippningen innebar följande: * Förhöjd grumlighet i området och förhöjda Hg-halter i vattnet. * Sedimentfällor utplacerade under muddringsperioden visade att sedimenterande material innehöll förhöjda halter tungmetaller. * Registrering av bildning av metylkvicksilver ( biologiskt aktivt) i bottenområdet runt tippningsplatsen * Förhöjda Hg-halter i ettårig abborre jämfört med fisk fångade före muddringen startade. - Indikationer om försämrad abborrlek i området runt tipplatsen * Sediment från tidigare samt den aktuella tipplatsen påverkade embryonalutvecklingen hos abborre från ett referensområde. Andelen deformerade yngel uppgick till mellan 20-50% vid muddrings- och tipplatserna jämfört med normala 0-6%

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  • 32.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EDTAs öde i miljön: interaktion med partikulärt material och sedimenten2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna undersökning beskriver betydelsen av partikel-bunden transport av komplexbildarna EDTA i vattenmiljön. EDTA-halten i partiklar i vattenmassan, i sedimenterande material och i sediment har analyserats. Utifrån dessa data har en enkel massbalans gjorts för EDTA i Edeboviken. Sedimentens och den fotokemiska nedbrytningen betydelse som EDTA-fällor belyses. Vidare redovisas resultaten från en omfattande kartläggning av EDTAs-förekomst och ursprung i Vättern. En enkel budget och prognos för EDTA-omsättningen i sjön redovisas också.

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  • 33.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Förekomst och omsättning av selen i inlandsvatten.1980Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under 1977-79 studerades selenets förekomst och omsättning i sjön Erken. Resultaten från fält jämfördes med några algkulturförsök i laboratoriet. För selenanalysen användes en modifierad fluorimetrisk mätteknik. Undersökta inlandsvatten i Sverige innehöll som väntat låga halter löst selen.

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  • 34.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Dusan, Brita
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2004. Subreport 1: Adipates2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurements were performed of 7 adipates in 128 air, water, sludge, sediment and fish samples near source areas and at background locations. Human breast milk samples were also analysed. Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) was found in sludge, sediment, fish and in one water sample. Di-iso-butyl and di-decyl adipate were detected in a few samples of sediment and sludge. Two potential point sources were identified; Stenungsund industrial area and Gislaved plastics/rubber production plant, which showed elevated levels in sediments, sludge and/or fish. Current diffuse emissions via municipal sewage treatment plants are likely, but the factors governing the occurrence of DEHA in sludge are unclear. Sediment and biota data indicate DEHA presence in the dissolved phase of surface water, however, it was not detected in any surface water samples. The absence in air confirms that adipates have no potential for long-range atmospheric transport. Although adipates are not very persistent, the high usage and observed occurrence in sediments and fish indicate that they may locally reach high levels. Considering that there are no restrictions of their usage, the environmental releases of adipates are not expected to cease in the near future.

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  • 35.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening 2014 - Analysis of UV-filters (and fragrances) used in cosmetics and textiles2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A screening study concerning mainly substances used as UV-filters in sunscreen lotions.

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  • 36.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cousins, Anna Palm
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme - Antibacterial substances2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 37.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bibi, Momina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening of Emerging Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) and Polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs)2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, a screening study of selected emerging brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) has been carried out. Additional substances in the screening were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzodioxins (PBDDs) and chlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDDs and PCDFs).

    Measurements have been carried out both at background- and urban sites. The sampling was mainly performed at the Swedish west coast with Göteborg representing the urban area. Sediment and biota was sampled in the estuary of Göta Älv and in a background area. For identification of pathways to the environment storm water/sludge and samples from WWTPs were collected. Dust samples from different indoor environments were taken both at public spaces and in homes. Air and dust samples were collected at a recycling industry for electronic waste. Fire extinguishing water from a fire at a recycling industry was included in the sampling program.

    The emerging BFRs, PBDEs and PBDFs occurred in “high” concentrations in air and dust from the recycling industry. The occurrence of BFRs at this electronic waste facility shows that electronic articles contain these chemicals. BDE-209 and DBDPE were found in highest concentrations. DBDPE has similar applications as BDE-209 and it has been marketed as a general substitute for this chemical. The occurrence of PBDFs may indicate that the BFRs are contaminated or that PBDEs are transformed to PBDFs in the recycling processes.

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  • 38.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sternbeck, John
    Kvernes, Eva
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Screening tertiary butylphenols, methylphenols, and long-chain alkylphenols in the Swedish environment2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    En screeningstudie har utförts med avseende på 30 fenoliska ämnen, däribland 14 tertiära butylfenoler och besläktade substanser, 7 metylfenoler och 9 långkedjiga (C8, C9, C12) alkylfenoler. De huvudsakliga syftena med studien var att bestämma koncentrationer av dessa ämnen i ett flertal olika matriser i den svenska miljön, att spegla viktiga källtyper och att koppla förekomsten i miljön till den nuvarande användningen i Sverige. Ytterligare ett syfte var att undersöka möjligheten för atmosfärisk transport och upptag i biota. Mätningarna utgjordes av ett nationellt samt tre regionala mätprogram om totalt 130 prov fördelade mellan luft, mark, sediment, vatten, avloppsslam och fisk och inkluderade bakgrundsområden, urbana områden, punktkällor och reningsverk.

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  • 39.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2007. Subreport 2: Ester2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a 'screening study' of the ester octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate on commission from the Swedish EPA. The objectives of the screening were to determine if octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate is present in different matrices in the Swedish environment, and if so, at what concentrations. In total 64 samples were analysed representing soil, surface water, sediment, biota (fish), influent and effluent waters and sludge from STPs, storm waters, and leachate water and sludge from landfills. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate was found in all analysed STP sludge samples. It was also found in all analysed influent water samples, but concentrations were generally lower or below the detection limit in effluent water. Thus, removal of the substance from the water phase takes place during the waste water treatment process, plausible by absorption to sludge. Concentrations in the same range as in influent waters or higher was also found in the storm water samples. The chemical could also be detected just above the detection limit in two out of three fish samples, but not in soil, surface water or sediment from the city of Stockholm. Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate could not be detected in any of the samples from background areas. All together, this screening study shows that diffuse emissions of octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate in the urban environment take place, resulting in exposure to and uptake in biota. Due to the limited ecotoxicological data available, it is not possible to determine the risk of its presence in the environment, but based on animal studies the chemical is considered to have a low hazard potential for human health.

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  • 40.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2009. Subreport 3: UV-filters2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryAs an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a screening study concerning UV-filters. Sunscreen lotions are used to protect the skin against sunburn and skin cancer caused by the UV (ultra violet) radiation of sunlight. The active moieties in sunscreens (UVfilters) are usually aromatic compounds which absorb UV-radiation and release the energy as low energy rays. Surface water collected on bathing places in the summer contained 12 UV-filters out of 13 measured whereas in sediment 10 out of 13 were found. Four of the UV-filters were also found in fish samples. UV-filters were detected in surface water early in the spring (before swimming season) but the concentration and frequency clearly increased during the summer. All measured UV-filters were found in STP effluent water, and all but two in STP sludge. Comparisons of measured concentrations of UVfilters with QSAR derived PNECs and also available experimental ecotoxicity data indicate that several of the included UV-filters pose a potential environmental risk.

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  • 41.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sternbeck, John
    Strömberg, Katarina
    Screening av triclosan och vissa bromerade fenoliska ämnen i Sverige2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Förekomsten av triclosan, tetrabrombisfenol A (TBBPA), och tre bromfenoler har studerats i den svenska miljön och i livsmedel. Dessutom beskrivs hur triclosan och TBBPA används i samhället. Triclosan och TBBPA används på helt olika sätt och har därmed olika tendens till spridning, vilket delvis återspeglas i de halter vi uppmätt i miljön. Båda ämnena har en allmän spridning i miljön och återfinns såväl i avlägsna bakgrundsmiljöer som i tätorter. Ämnena har återfunnits i luft, deposition, vatten, sediment, mark, biota, slam samt i ett antal livsmedel.

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  • 42.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Svenson, Anders
    The fate of EDTA and DTPA in aquatic environments receiving waste waters from two pulp and paper mills1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diaminepropanetetraacetic acid (PDTA) are two complexing agents that form strong complexes with divalent and trivalent metal ions. This property has been utilised technically in pulp bleaching processes to inhibit decomposition of the bleaching agent. The metal complexes and excess of complexing agents are discharged through the mill effluents. As EDTA and DTPA are not readily degraded by micro-organisms and not significantly interacting with sludge or sediment, they may be accumulated in receiving waters. Ferric complexes of EDTA and DTPA are known to be converted photolytically. In order to evaluate the fate of the complexing agents in receiving waters, two basic questions have to be addressed: (i) are EDTA and DTPA found in the aquatic environment after discharge into receiving waters and (ii) are they photolytically converted? Two mills, one pulp mill localised at a fresh water lake and one pulp and paper mill at a brackish water were investigated, both mills using bleaching technologies with EDTA and DTPA as complexing agents. Samples were collected at the discharge point and along a gradient in the receiving waters at two occasions: summer at solstice and winter with low light intensity. Samples were taken from surface water, an intermediate depth, and bottom water. A new analytical method was applied which made it possible to quantify the analytes at sub-µg/l level but could without any difficulty be extended to low ng/l level by using a greater sample. The method is robust and not sensitive to high ionic strength or dissolved organic matter. The complexing agents EDTA and DTPA and their first degradation products were detected in the effluent and the receiving waters in the vicinity of the mills. DTPA and the degradation products could only be detected a few kilometres from the effluent point while EDTA could be detected in more remote locations at fairly constant concentrations. The occurrence of EDTA in these samples was conclusively identified by means of GC-MS comparison of the sample with the authentic reference compound.

  • 43.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Norström, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lilja, Karl
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish National Screening Programme 2008. Sub-report 2. Biocides: Glutaraldehyde2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As an assignment from the Swedish EPA, IVL has during 2008/2009 performed a 'Screening Study' of glutaraldehyde. In addition, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were also measured. In Sweden the major usage of glutaraldehyde is as a slimicide in the paper and pulp industry. The compound is also used as a disinfectant in hospitals, as a biocide for water treatment in water recirculating systems and off-shore operations, in the petroleum industry, in the live stock and aquaculture industries, as a fixative in histology, as hardener in x-ray film processing, for tanning of leather, and also in cosmetics. The compund has high water solubility, is reactive and is of low persistence. It is not expected to accumulate in soil, sediment or biota. Thus in the environment, water is the compartment that may be of concern. In previous studies, glutaraldehyde has been found in air and effluent water sampled at hospitals, and in water from pulp and paper industry. A sampling program was developed based on usage pattern, chemical properties and fate, and results from previous studies. It included samples from the vicinity of potential point sources, samples representing diffuse emission pathways, and samples from background areas. Glutaraldehyde could only be found in samples associated with the identified point sources related to the usage of the compound, i.e. in effluent water from a paper mill and in air and effluent water from an hospital. It could however not be found in samples from potential point sources representing the end of product life cycles, i.e. air and water from recycling companies or leachate water from a landfill. Further, it could not be found in samples representing diffuse sources or background areas. Glutaraldehyde may thus affect the environment at the site of usage, but the results indicate a low potential for dispersal in the environment. Concentrations found were below toxicity values found in the literature. Thus, all together glutaraldehyde does not appear to pose a risk to the environment.

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  • 44.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wiklund, Per
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anti-inflammatory drugs in WWTP influents and effluent and the occurrence in the aquatic environment2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL has performed a follow-up study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs on commission from the Swedish EPA. In the first project was sewage water and sludge investigated. This investigation was focused on the occurrence of these drugs in surface water, sediment and fish in a watercourse influenced by the local WWTP. For this purpose was an analytical method developed capable to concentrate, separate and detect free and conjugated anti-inflammatory drugs. Eight pharmaceutical drugs were analysed: paracetamol, acetyl salicylic acid, salicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, diclofenac and two metabolites of ibuprofen. Conjugated anti-inflammatory drugs were detected at low concentrations (< 1 % of total) in influent and effluent. In the water and sediment samples were all the analysed drugs detected but at somewhat different pattern than in the sewage water. The anti-inflammatory drugs and paracetamol were not detected in fish collected in the vicinity of the WWTP discharge point.

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  • 45.
    Remberger, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Woldegiorgis, Andreas
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dusan, Brita
    Ekheden, Ylva
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Results from the Swedish Screening 2005. Subreport 2. Biocides2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    .As an assignment from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, IVL has performed a 'Screening Study' of the following biocides: bronopol, 4-Chloro-3-cresol, 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole, N-didecyldimethylammoniumchloride (DDMAC), Propiconazole, Resorcinol, 2-(Tiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, triclosan, Methyl-, Ethyl-, Propyl-, Butyl- and Benzylparabene. The overall objectives of the screening were to determine concentrations in a variety of media in the Swedish environment, to highlight important transport pathways, and to assess the possibility of current emissions in Sweden. In total, 132 samples of air, precipitation, effluent water, surface water, sludge, sediment, fish, foodstuff and human urine have been analyzed. The background sites were generally non-contaminated, only 2 out of 17 background samples contained detectable amounts of biocides, and in these samples only two substances were found;namely triclosan and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Due to regular presence in samples of wastewater effluents, sludge and urban sediments, on-going emissions are likely to occur for 2-mercaptobenzothiazole, triclosan, DDMAC and parabenes. Observed concentrations were, however, below risk levels. The atmosphere was identified as a possible transport matrix for triclosan, 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and parabenes. Bronopol, resorcinol and 2-(tiocyanomethyltio)-benzothiazole were not detected in any of the samples analyzed, and were considered to pose no environmental risks. Propiconazole may be of local concern but at present it is unlikely to cause any problems on a national level.

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  • 46.
    Röttorp, Jonas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Allard, Ann-Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Solyom, Peter
    Eriksson, L
    DIKA. Driftstörningar i kommunala avloppsreningsverk - en studie av syreöverföring, ytaktiva ämnen, slamegenskaper och styrmöjligheter 1996-19981999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Under de senaste 5-10 åren har driftstörningarna ökat i många kommunala avloppsreningsverk. Det har främst varit problem med syresättning, slammets sedimenteringsegenskaper och skumning, med ökade utsläpp som följd. Det här projektet startade med teorin att en del av problemen hade samband med den ökade användningen av biologiskt lätt nedbrytbara tensider. En viktig del i projektet var också att testa möjligheterna till övervakning och styrning av verken med multivariata metoder. En mycket stor mängd data har samlats in från fem reningsverk (Borlänge, Gävle, Haparanda, Karlstad och Örebro). Prover har tagits varannan timme under särskilda intensivprovtagningsdygn. Förutom de vanliga variablerna har då också halten av tensider och fettsyror analyserats, liksom syreöverföringen. Dessutom har verken varje vecka sammanställt en mängd driftdata inklusive mikrobiell och fysikalisk karakterisering av bioslammet. Projektet har visat att: * Tensider och fettsyror i avloppsvattnet stör syreöverföringen. * Problemen kan minskas genom att minska slambelastningen (höja slamhalten), och/eller genom att adsorbera en del av inkommande fettsyror på överskottsslammet. * Mikroskopering av bioslammet och mätningar av dess separationsegenskaper ger värdefulla upplysningar om processens tillstånd. *Det finns möjligheter att övervaka, och styra, processen i realtid med hjälp av några extra givare och multivariata modeller. Ett exempel är modellering av halten totalfosfor i inkommande vatten, som kan beräknas utifrån andra variabler.

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  • 47. Solyom, Peter
    et al.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Viktor, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ek, Mats
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Further investigatiions on the influence of sediment-associated phthalate esters (DEHP and DINP) on hatching and survival of the moorfrog Rana arvalis2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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  • 48.
    Staffas, Louise
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pettersson, Eva
    Norrström, Hans
    Ericsson, Tomas
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Komplexbildare och miljömärkning av pappersprodukter2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the role of, use of and the risks associated with the chelating agents DTPA and EDTA in the production of pulp and paper. The background for the study is the criteria set by the Nordic Ecolabel regarding the use of chemicals in the pulp and paper processes, valid since 2014. According to these criteria, the use of certain chemicals classified with specified risk labels is prohibited in amounts above 0.05 kg/tonne product if the product is to be labeled with the Swan. An exception for DTPA and its salts is given until June 2016. Companies using DTPA and who need to continue doing so and still be able to label their products with the Swan, must present data supporting the necessity of DTPA in their processes. This report is only available in Swedish.

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  • 49.
    Staffas, Louise
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Chelators and eco-labelling of paper products2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n the present report, DTPA and EDTA are described from several aspects: chelating functions, their role in the pulp and paper making process, degradation, effects in aquatic environment and teratogenic effect. Analyses of DTPA and EDTA in several pulp and paper products are presented. The results show that <2 percent of added chelating agent is found in the final products. An exception is when DTPA is added at the last stage of the process with the aim of reducing formation of odor and flavor generating substances that can harm what is packaged in the product. In this type of product, all added DTPA is found in the final product.

    Earlier performed studies on aqua-toxicity of DTPA and EDTA show no observed effects from the low amounts emitted to recipient from pulp and paper mills in Sweden. To protect pregnant women working in the pulp and paper mills, there are already regulations in place that include actions such as changing to work tasks not presenting certain risks. Exposure to DTPA and EDTA can easily be included among such risk factors. Calculations performed on earlier results regarding DTPA and EDTA in recipient water together with results from reproductive toxicity tests show that a volume of 700 L of water in immediate proximity to a mill effluent has to be ingested in order to pose any risk to the unborn child. Calculations based on DTPA content in paper-based food packaging (paper mug) regarding DTPA intake through hot beverage consumption show that such exposure is by far below levels supposed to present any risks to the unborn child.

    No technically feasible alternatives to EDTA and DTPA are available today – despite intense research. Furthermore, these two chelating agents are not completely exchangeable with each other. The economic consequence of a ban of DTPA above 0.05 kg/tonne in the production process is estimated to be between 5 and 10 billion SEK for the Swedish pulp and paper sector. Based on the above, the authors recommend that a continued exception for DTPA and its salts is given in the Nordic Ecolabel criteria for use of chemicals in pulp and paper products.

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  • 50. Sternbeck, John
    et al.
    Brorström-Lundén, Eva
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Remberger, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kaj, Lennart
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cato, Ingemar
    Palm Cousins, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rehngren, Erika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    WFD Priority substances in sediments from Stockholm and the Svealand coastal region2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The EC Water framework directive priority substances were analysed in surface sediments from urban, suburban and coastal areas in Stockholm and the Baltic Sea. The results are discussed in terms of spatial trends, local impact and ecological risk

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