IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

ivl.se
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Arnell, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolin, Lisa
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Förutsättningar för ökad nytta av restvärme2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Restvärme från industrin står idag för nära 5 TWh levererad värme till fjärrvärmenäten i Sverige. Efter att interna effektiviseringar av den industriella processen har genomförts finns dock ytterligare potential för tillvaratagande av restvärme från svensk industri. Ett ökat nyttiggörande av industriell restvärme är därför önskvärt för såväl energibranschen, industrin och samhället; både för att optimera resursanvändandet i hela samhället, samt att minska miljöpåverkan. Projektet syftar till att redogöra för olika tekniska lösningar som finns för att tillvarata restvärme från industriella processer för utnyttjande för i första hand fjärrvärme. Genom att i denna studie belysa möjliga tekniska lösningar, dels generellt och dels genom faktiska samarbeten i form av tre fallstudier, ges en ökad kunskap och visar på möjligheten till ytterligare leveranser av restvärme från industriella processer. Flera studier har genomförts inom området och denna rapports mervärde ligger dels i att samla den tekniska kompetens och erfarenhet som finns kring nyttjande av restvärme, dels göra kvantitativa analyser samt kompletterande intervjuer. För att utreda vilka så kallade mjuka faktorer som är betydelsefulla vid denna typ av avtal och samarbeten har även en intervjustudie genomförts. Leverantörer av restvärme samt energibolagen har fått komma till tals och ge sina erfarenheter i frågan. Ett antal reella fall har analyserats för att besvara frågeställningar kring affärsmässiga lösningar och tekniska möjligheter kring restvärmeleveranser till fjärrvärmenätet. De tre fallstudierna är ett fall som täcker Stenungsundsklustret, Kungälv och Göteborg ner till Värö (dvs. ingående systemen i ett möjligt framtida regionalt fjärrvärmesystem på västkusten), Oskarshamns fjärrvärmesystem samt Oxelösunds fjärrvärmesystem. Olika frågeställningar för respektive fall har ställts upp för att ge en bred bild över hur leveranser av restvärme fungerar och vilka effekter det för med sig.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2. Belhaj, Mohammed
    et al.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldanova, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Konsekvensanalys av skatter och avgifter för flyget2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I denna studie analyseras de samhällsekonomiska konsekvenserna av att införa skatter och avgifter för svenskt inrikes samt utrikesflyg. Koldioxidskatt, bränsleskatt och NOx-avgifter analyseras. Utifrån två uppsatta scenarier med tänkta emissionsmål för koldioxid och NOx beskrivs kostnaderna för flygsektorn, staten och samhället.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3. Belhaj, Mohammed
    et al.
    Jonasson, Lars
    Paulrud, Susanne
    Brännlund, Runar
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mål och styrmedel för produktion av energigrödor från jordbruket2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inom svensk el- och värmeproduktion används stora mängder biobränslen från skog. Bioenergin från skogen (och även från avfall) har fått en allt större betydelse till följd av stigande oljepriser och miljöavgifter på konkurrerande bränslen (CO2-skatt, energiskatt, utsläppsrätter). Dessa ekonomiska styrmedel har inte haft samma effekt på utbudet av biobränslen från jordbruket. Inte heller kompletterande ekonomiska styrmedel som engångsstöd (etableringsbidrag) eller kontinuerliga stöd (årligt bidrag) har räckt för att få fart på odlarnas intresse för energigrödor. I denna studie tas fram förslag på styrmedel som på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt uppfyller ett mål om ökat utbud av biobränslen från jordbruksmark. Syftet med projektet är att utifrån nuvarande energi- och jordbrukspolitiska mål och befintliga styrmedel belysa förutsättningarna för energiproduktion från jordbruket. Syftet är också att ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv beskriva vilken typ av styrmedel som bör användas för att på ett kostnadseffektivt sätt nå de klimatpolitiska målen om reduktion av växthusgasutsläpp och vilka konsekvenser sådana styrmedel får för jordbruket som bioenergiproducent. Därtill är syftet att analysera vilka styrmedel som är kostnadseffektiva för att ett sektorsmål för bioenergiproduktion från jordbruket skall uppnås. Projektet är begränsat till att belysa nya energigrödor, främst salix, rörflen och hampa och behandlar endast översiktligt odling av stråsäd (havre) eller tillvaratagande av halm för förbränning.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Gode, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Konsekvenser för bränsleförsörjningen av klimatförändringar. Biobränslen och naturgas2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Projektet som presenteras i denna rapport omfattar analys av konsekvenser för biobränsle- och naturgasförsörjningen av klimatförändringar samt identifiering av åtgärder för att säkerställa säker leverans av bränslen

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Gode, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Lars-Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Energisystem i en resursknapp framtid2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människans användning av jordens resurser behöver nå långsiktigt hållbara nivåer. Resurseffektivitet är ett av sju så kallade flaggskeppsinitiativ som EU-kommissionen lanserat inom ramen för Europa 2020-strategin (EU-kommissionen 2010). Initiativet för ett resurseffektivt Europa syftar till att stödja en resurseffektiv och koldioxidsnål ekonomi och hållbar utveckling. Initiativet riktas mot ett flertal områden – klimat, energi, transporter, industri, råvaror, jordbruk, fiske, biodiversitet och regional utveckling (EU-kommissionen 2011). Ökad resurseffektivitet i energisystemet är en del av detta och innefattar exempelvis energieffektivisering, minskad energikonsumtion, ökad användning av förnybar energi och minskad användning av fossila bränslen. De sektorer som huvudsakligen berörs är el- och värmeproduktion, industri, transporter, bostäder och avfall.

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har, med finansiellt stöd från Energimyndigheten, i denna broschyr gjort en sammanställning av kopplingen mellan resurseffektivitet och energisystem. Dennasammanställning gör inte anspråk på att vara heltäckande utan syftar till påbörja en diskussion om resurseffektivitet kopplat till energisystemet.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Gode, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindfors, Lars-Gunnar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Energisystem i en resursknapp framtid - Underlag till en workshop 16 januari 20162014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in Swedish.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7. Hagberg, Linus
    et al.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The climate impact of future energy peat production2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission aftertreatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation).

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8. Hagberg, Linus
    et al.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    The climate impact of future energy peat production2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to estimate total greenhouse gas emissions and climate impact of different peat utilisation scenarios, using a life cycle perspective. This and previous studies show that the climate impact from energy peat utilisation is more complex than just considering the emissions at the combustion stage. There are important emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases that occur on the peatland before, during and after peat harvest. The results show that the climate impact of future peat utilisation can be significantly reduced compared to current utilisation and will be lower than the climate impact resulting from only the combustion phase. This can be achieved by choosing already drained peatlands with high greenhouse gas emissions, using a more efficient production method and by securing a low-emission aftertreatment of the cutaway (e.g. afforestation).

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Hansen, Karin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Liljeberg, Marcus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Valley, Stephan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wisell, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Zetterberg, Therese Sahlén
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Öberg, Mona Olsson
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Torvutvinningens miljöpåverkan2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete har varit att klargöra aktuellt kunskapsläge gällande torvutvinning och dess miljöpåverkan i Sverige, att identifiera brister i underlag som behövs för att ge en bild av de svenska torvtäkternas miljöpåverkan och att föreslå, om möjligt, åtgärder för hur torvtäkters och efterbehandlingsmetoders miljöpåverkan kan minimeras.

    Torv är en organisk jordart som bildas genom ofullständig nedbrytning av främst växtmaterial i våt, syrefattig miljö. Torven bildas i myrar som antingen uppstått genom igenväxning av sjöar eller genom försumpning av fastmark. Sverige är ett av jordens torvmarkstätaste länder. De vanligaste användningsområdena för torv i Sverige är för energiändamål (energitorv) och som odlingssubstrat (odlingstorv). Dessutom används även torv som stallströ vid djurhållning (strötorv).

    Miljöpåverkan vid torvtäktverksamhet uppstår vid dikning och utvinning som medför förändrade vattenflöden (mark- och grundvatten) och vattenkemi (suspendering, surhet, näringsämnen och metaller), vilket kan förändra de biologiska förutsättningarna nedströms och bidra till övergödning och förlust av akvatisk biodiversitet. Annan viktig miljöpåverkan vid täktverksamhet är risk för brand, damning samt buller och emissioner till luft från arbetsmaskiner och vid förbränning.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Climate impact of energy utilisation scenarios of forestry drained peatlands2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the climate impact of energy utilisation scenarios of forestry drained peatlands from a lifecycle perspective has been calculated. In the calculations the peat is utilised for energy and thereafter the cutaway peatland is used for biofuel production in the form of wood fuel or reed canary grass. The scenarios where the fuel for heat and electricity production is peat and biomass are compared to scenarios where the fuel is coal. Estimates of emissions and other conditions are chosen in order to be representative for Finnish conditions. All peat scenarios concerns areas that initially are forestry-drained peatlands. The results show that the climate impact of scenarios where the cutaway peatland is afforested is higher than the climate impact of corresponding coal scenario. At least as long as the forest productivity of the peatland is not significantly affected by the peat cutting. Measurements of forest productivity at cut away peatlands show higher average values than productivity at forestry drained peatlands, which might indicate that the productivity in general can be increased. If the forest productivity is significantly increased after the peat cutting, the climate impact of the peat - biomass scenario is somewhat higher than that of corresponding coal scenario during the first 100-200 years and then somewhat lower. How much lower depends on how much the forest productivity is increased. An important factor for the results of the scenarios is also the initial decomposition rate of the peat layer at the forestry drained peatland. The higher the rate of decomposition of peat at the initial production reserve, the lower the climate impact of the energy utilisation scenario.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Integration Aspects of Biomass Gasification in Large Industrial or Regional Energy Systems – Consequences for Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Economic Performance2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass gasification has been pointed out as a technology with significant potential to produce motor fuels with low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a life cycle perspective. In addition, other chemicals can also be produced by this technology but so far biofuel and chemical production by this route is still under development and not commercially implemented. This thesis identifies and evaluates important parameters for future large-scale solid biomass gasification systems and their integration with existing industry and infrastructure to reduce the GHG emissions and to improve the economic performance of these systems compared to stand-alone configurations. Three development routes, each consisting of one gasification-based biofuel production system and a specific case study location with integration potential with a district heating system or nearby industry are analysed. The included biofuels are: SNG (synthetic natural gas), methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels.

    The considered integration options are; heat integration or integration of material streams, such as CO2 for storage, and co-utilisation of process equipment. The feedstock used in the systems is forest residues and different raw material supply chains and pretreatments were analysed. Future energy market scenarios that correspond to a wide range of possible future energy and fuel prices under different climate policy scenarios are used in the evaluation. For the investigated cases and energy market scenarios, heat integrating the gasification-based systems with industry show robust GHG emissions reductions and increases in profitability. On the other hand, the results of integration with district heating systems varies depending on the replaced heat production technology and energy market scenario.

    The results also show that connecting the biofuel production system to future infrastructure of CO2 storage significantly improves the GHG emission reduction potential and can also contribute to important cost-reductions in scenarios with strong climate policies. The analysis of raw material supply chains showed that the GHG emissions are lower for the systems with onsite biomass drying. Systems using pellets transported by ship and dried by other excess heat could result in just slightly increased emissions. Only some of the analysed SNG cases and one of the Fischer-Tropsch cases showed profitability for some of the investigated scenarios and economic assumptions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 12.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Investment cost estimates for gasification-based biofuel production systems2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains supplementary data for the work presented in Holmgren et al. (2015) in which investment costs for three gasification based biofuel production systems, producing SNG, methanol and Fischer-Tropsch fuels respectively, are estimated and compared to other estimates for similar systems in literature. The paper Holmgren et al. (2015) was also presented at the Conference on Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2015) in Kuching, Malaysia, 22-27 August 2015. This report is only available in English.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Belhaj, Mohammed
    Gode, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Särnholm, Erik
    Zetterberg, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wråke, Markus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport sector2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases , allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector .....

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hagberg, Linus
    Life cycle assessment of climate impact of Fischer-Tropsch diesel based on peat and biomass2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining biomass gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis it is possible to produce biodiesel. Vapo is investigating the possibilities for a plant where a mixture of different biomass fractions and peat would be used as raw material. In this study the climate impact of such synthetic diesel is calculated in terms of radiative forcing. The calculations show that the following parameters have large impact on the results: ' the emission factors associated with external power demand (purchased electricity) ' the use of carbon capture and storage ' the time perspective used in the analysis ' the raw material mix (amount of peat vs. amount of forest residues) ' the reference scenario for the peat production (type of peatland) All the FT-diesel scenarios with a peat input of 90% will have higher climate impact than fossil diesel after 100 years, except when CCS is applied and Swedish electricity mix is assumed for the external power demand. In order to have lower climate impact than conventional diesel after 100 years, the peat input must be significantly lower than the biomass input. Substantial reductions of the climate impact can be achieved by applying CCS. With CCS, all peat based FT-diesel scenarios (except the ones based on 90% peat) result in lower climate impact than fossil diesel after both 100 and 300 years. For scenarios with marginal electricity, the reductions are 50-84% after 100 years compared to conventional diesel. For scenarios with Swedish electricity mix the reductions are 100-135% (i.e. zero or negative radiative forcing). The scenarios in this study are based on the assumption that the biodiesel refinery is located close to a harbour so that transportation of captured CO2 to a storage site can be made by ship. An inland location would require truck transport or pipelines and the cost, infrastructure and logistics for this might not be feasible.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kirkinen, Johanna
    Savolainen, Ilkka
    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain (peat production, storing, transport, combustion and after-treatment of the peat production area). Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. Both sinks and sources are considered in the calculations. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain (i.e. the reference scenario where the peat reserve is left in its initial state). The calculation methodology of the climate impact of energy peat utilisation is similar in the Swedish and the Finnish study. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain (i.e. reference scenario). There are many similarities between the results of Swedish and Finnish studies. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kirkinen, Johanna
    Savolainen, Ilkka
    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain (peat production, storing, transport, combustion and after-treatment of the peat production area). Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. Both sinks and sources are considered in the calculations. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain (i.e. the reference scenario where the peat reserve is left in its initial state). The calculation methodology of the climate impact of energy peat utilisation is similar in the Swedish and the Finnish study. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain (i.e. reference scenario). There are many similarities between the results of Swedish and Finnish studies. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klingspor, Magnus
    Ribbenhed, Malin
    Sternhufvud, Catarina
    Thorén, Mathias
    Utredning om möjligheterna att minska utsläppen av fossil koldioxid från järn- och stålindustrin2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket genomfört föreliggande projekt avseende möjligheter att minska utsläppen av fossil koldioxid från järn- och stålindustrin. Projektet har upphandlats av Naturvårdsverket genom anbudsinbjudan med diarienummer 231-1773-05 Rm. Projektets omfattning och utförande är mycket väl definierat av upphandlingsunderlaget. Projektet omfattar i huvudsak tre olika delar, nämligen: 1. En beskrivning av befintliga produktionsprocesser och dess nuvarande status i Sverige. 2. Redovisning av tekniska möjligheter att reducera koldioxidemissioner inklusive redovisning av CO2-emissioner och dess utveckling i industrin. 3. Ekonomiska beräkningar av olika reduktionsmöjligheter i syfte att beräkna reduktionskostnaden i t.ex. kr/ton reducerad CO2. Tidshorisonten för analyserna är definierad som den handelsperiod som nästa fördelningsplan omfattar (2008-2012). För projektet innebär detta år 2010 som ligger mitt i nästa handelsperiod. Men det är också av intresse att få en bild av potentialen något längre fram i tiden. Därför har vi också inkluderat en bedömning för en tidshorisont som sträcker sig till år 2020.....

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 18.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klingspor, Magnus
    Ribbenhed, Malin
    Sternhufvud, Catarina
    Thorén, Mathias
    Utredning om möjligheterna att minska utsläppen av fossil koldioxid från järn- och stålindustrin2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Svenska miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket genomfört föreliggande projekt avseende möjligheter att minska utsläppen av fossil koldioxid från järn- och stålindustrin. Projektet har upphandlats av Naturvårdsverket genom anbudsinbjudan med diarienummer 231-1773-05 Rm. Projektets omfattning och utförande är mycket väl definierat av upphandlingsunderlaget. Projektet omfattar i huvudsak tre olika delar, nämligen: 1. En beskrivning av befintliga produktionsprocesser och dess nuvarande status i Sverige. 2. Redovisning av tekniska möjligheter att reducera koldioxidemissioner inklusive redovisning av CO2-emissioner och dess utveckling i industrin. 3. Ekonomiska beräkningar av olika reduktionsmöjligheter i syfte att beräkna reduktionskostnaden i t.ex. kr/ton reducerad CO2. Tidshorisonten för analyserna är definierad som den handelsperiod som nästa fördelningsplan omfattar (2008-2012). För projektet innebär detta år 2010 som ligger mitt i nästa handelsperiod. Men det är också av intresse att få en bild av potentialen något längre fram i tiden. Därför har vi också inkluderat en bedömning för en tidshorisont som sträcker sig till år 2020.....

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berntsson, T.
    Profitability and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Gasification-based Biofuel Production - analysis of sector specific policy instruments and comparison to conventional biomass conversion technologies.2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part A, p. 997-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The required level of a sector specific CO2e-cost in the transport sector to make the net annual profit (NAP) of three different gasification based biofuel production systems positive (systems profitable) is investigated. The analysis is made for two different energy market scenarios for 2030 and 2040. The results show that the additional required sector specific CO2e-cost (additional to a sector wide general cost) is not higher than the current level of CO2e-tax in Sweden. The required total level of CO2e-cost for the transport sector is in the 450 ppmv scenario in general higher than the current CO2-tax level but not higher than the fuel tax level (including also energy tax).The study also compares the NAP and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction potential of the gasification-based systems to a system where the biomass is used in conventional bio-CHP to produce heat and power and where the power is used in the transport sector (in battery electric vehicles (BEV)). Under the investigated energy market scenarios the bio-CHP and BEV system has higher NAP and higher GHG emission reduction potential. However, the bio-CHP system has a stronger dependency on the availability of large heat sinks and profits from a high price of delivered heat.

  • 20.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Comparison of integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems - economic and greenhouse gas emission implications2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 272-294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of different integration options for gasification-based biofuel production systems producing synthetic natural gas, methanol and FT (Fischer-Tropsch) fuels on the NAP (net annual profit), FPC (fuel production cost) and the GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reduction potential are analysed. The considered integration options are heat deliveries to DH (district heating) systems or to nearby industries and integration with infrastructure for CO2 storage.

    The comparison is made to stand-alone configurations in which the excess heat is used for power production. The analysis considers future energy market scenarios and case studies in southwestern Sweden. The results show that integration with DH systems has small impacts on the NAP and the FPC and diverging (positive or negative) impacts on the GHG emissions. Integration with industries has positive effects on the economic and GHG performances in all scenarios. The FPCs are reduced by 7–8 percent in the methanol case and by 12–13 percent in the FT production case. The GHG emission reductions are strongly dependent on the reference power production. The storage of separated CO2 shows an increase in the GHG emission reduction potential of 70–100 percent for all systems, whereas the impacts on the economic performances are strongly dependent on the CO2e-charge.

  • 21.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energy Integration of Domsjö Biorefinery Cluster2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Domsjö Biorefinery cluster in Örnsköldsvik, all the industries are cooperating regarding energy. The cluster consists of one wood pulp production facility, two bio-chemical facilities and one energy facility.

    In this study, we have analysed how efficient the steam is used within the industries. Are steam of right pressure and temperature used for the right purposes? To what extent could steam be replaced by district heating? And, how big is the potential to use simultaneous heat and cold demand for energy integration? The method for energy analysis was “pinch analysis”.

    It is found that steam of 7 bar(g) and 170 °C is used to supply a major part of the heat demand, sometimes even heat demands of low temperatures. Such demands would be more efficient to supply by district heating. Alternatively, a new utility with temperatures 40/120 °C could be introduced, either within the total site, or only within the biggest of the industries. The practical heat recovery potential is about 15 MW for the total site, and about 10 MW at the biggest of the industries.

    For all alternatives, steam capacity is released, which for example could be used for increased industrial production without investments in new steam boilers. Alternatively, the released capacity could be used to completely (or partially) offset the steam requirements of a new process plant at the Domsjö site.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 22.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energy Integration of Domsjö Biorefinery Cluster - Summary2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Domsjö Biorefinery cluster in Örnsköldsvik, all the industries are cooperating regarding energy. The cluster consists of one wood pulp production facility, two bio-chemical facilities and one energy facility.

    In this study, we have analysed how efficient the steam is used within the industries. Are steam of right pressure and temperature used for the right purposes? To what extent could steam be replaced by district heating? And, how big is the potential to use simultaneous heat and cold demand for energy integration? The method for energy analysis was “pinch analysis”.

    It is found that steam of 7 bar(g) and 170 °C is used to supply a major part of the heat demand, sometimes even heat demands of low temperatures. Such demands would be more efficient to supply by district heating. Alternatively, a new utility with temperatures 40/120 °C could be introduced, either within the total site, or only within the biggest of the industries. The practical heat recovery potential is about 15 MW for the total site, and about 10 MW at the biggest of the industries.

    For all alternatives, steam capacity is released, which for example could be used for increased industrial production without investments in new steam boilers. Alternatively, the released capacity could be used to completely (or partially) offset the steam requirements of a new process plant at the Domsjö site.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Lindblom, Erik
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Den småskaliga vattenkraftens miljöpåverkan och samhällsnytta2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Den här studien analyserar det tänkbara scenariot att ett stort antal små vattenkraftverk rivs ut. Idag finns det knappt 2 000 små vattenkraftverk i drift och ytterligare flera tusen fördämningar orsakade av nedlagda kraftverk, flottningsföretag och väg- och järnvägsnätet. Skulle det bidra till en hållbar samhällsutveckling om några hundra av dessa kraftverk revs ut? För att svara på det måste både miljöpåverkan och samhällsnytta studeras. Analysen har gjorts utifrån tre perspektiv – EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten, ekosystemtjänster och nationella miljömål – och för tre aspekter – kultur och rekreation, miljö samt elförsörjning. Under studiens litteraturgenomgång blev det tydligt att det i publicerad litteratur finns en övervikt mot beskrivningar av den befintliga vattenkraftens miljöpåverkan. Den småskaliga vattenkraften beskrivs sällan separat utan klumpas oftast ihop med den storskaliga, vilket kan ge en felaktig eller svårtolkad bild. Den här studien har utöver miljöpåverkan fokuserat på den småskaliga vattenkraftens betydelse för kulturmiljön och elförsörjningen.

    Många småskaliga vattenkraftanläggningar har höga kulturhistoriska värden. De är de äldsta tekniska installationerna som fortfarande är i drift och de påminner tydligt om hur Sveriges industrialisering och elektrifiering gick till. Värdena hänger starkt samman med en bibehållen verksamhet. Under de senaste åren har flera länsstyrelser arbetat med att dokumentera kulturmiljöer längs vatten, bland annat vattenkraftanläggningar. En av studiens slutsatser är att kunskapen om de här kulturhistoriska värdena bör fortsätta att dokumenteras, tillgängliggöras och användas professionellt vid beslut som rör anläggningarna.

    Idag bidrar den småskaliga vattenkraften med enstaka procent till Sveriges totala elförsörjning. Samhällsnyttan av det här begränsade bidraget bedöms vara större än vad procentsatsen antyder och kunna bli än viktigare i framtiden. Till allra största del finns de små vattenkraftverken i södra Sverige, det vill säga i de elområden där elförbrukningen är större än elproduktionen. Den här obalansen kommer att öka i takt med att fler kärnkraftsreaktorer stängs. Dessutom kan vattenkraftverken försörja lokala elnät vid stora strömavbrott, till exempel efter stormar. Så kallad ö-drift ställer särskilda tekniska krav som bara vissa anläggningar uppfyller idag, men som fler kan uppgraderas med om det bedöms vara tillräckligt angeläget. Enligt flera bedömningar finns det också möjlighet att öka elproduktionen från små och medelstora vattenkraftverk om Sverige i framtiden skulle välja en sådan energipolitisk väg. Dessa möjligheter går i praktiken förlorade om de befintliga anläggningarna rivs ut. Tyvärr har det varit svårt att hitta den här informationen om just den småskaliga vattenkraften. Det beror på att elförsörjningen främst beskrivs på systemnivå. Det gör det svårt att ta ställning till både nytta och potential för enskilda anläggningar eller för olika delområden.

    Den sammantagna slutsatsen blir att en helhetsbedömning krävs vid beslut om miljöförbättrande åtgärder och att den här bedömningen måste göras både på avrinningsområdesskala och för den enskilda anläggningen. Var i avrinningsområdet bör åtgärder prioriteras för att uppnå önskad miljöeffekt? Vilka hänsyn måste tas för att inte hota andra värden eller nyttor? Vilka krav är rimligt att ställa i det enskilda fallet utifrån vad som är miljömässigt motiverat, tekniskt möjligt och ekonomiskt rimligt? (Slutsatsen är giltig oavsett om det handlar om utrivning eller faunapassage och ekologisk reglering.) Den nationella strategin för hållbar vattenkraft utgår också från det nationella perspektivet och ska framöver konkretiseras genom ett antal pilotprojekt i avrinningsområdesskala. I stor utsträckning finns det redan tillräckligt kunskapsunderlag, men i flera fall beskrivs inte den småskaliga vattenkraftens roll eller betydelse specifikt. Inte minst därför är det viktigt att utnyttja expertis inom de olika ämnesområdena vid helhetsbedömningarna, så att den kunskap som finns tas till vara. Eftersom en helhetsbedömning måste väga samman vitt skilda aspekter – miljö, kulturhistoria, elförsörjning – är det viktigt att tydligt redovisa vilka prioriteringar som har gjorts och hur de motiveras.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Assessing the aggregated environmental benefits from by-product and utility synergies in the Swedish biofuel industry2017Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels in Sweden has increased significantly in the past years in order to reduce fossil dependence and mitigate climate impacts. Nonetheless, current methodological guidelines for assessing the GHG savings from the use of biofuels do not fully account for benefits from by-products and other utilities (e.g. waste heat and electricity) from biofuel production.

    This study therefore reviews the aggregated environmental performance of these multi-functional biofuel systems by assessing impacts and benefits from relevant production processes in Sweden in order to improve the decision-base for biofuel producers and policy makers in the transition to a bio-based and circular economy. This was done by conducting (1) a mapping of the Swedish biofuel production portfolio, (2) developing future production scenarios, and (3) application of life cycle assessment methodology to assess the environmental performance of the production processes.

    Special focus was provided to review the potential benefits from replacing conventional products and services with by-products and utilities. The results provide evidence that failure to account for non-fuel related benefits from biofuel production leads to an underestimation of the contribution of biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts when replacing fossil fuels, showing the importance of the multi-functionality.

  • 25. Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rosenqvist, Håkan
    Börjesson, Pål
    Förutsättningar för nya biobränsleråvaror. System för småskalig brikettering och pelletering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I projektet analyserades vilka biobränsleråvaror som har bäst förutsättningar för vidareförädling till briketter och pellets i mindre produktionsanläggningar (1 000-10 000 årston producerat bränsle) i nära anslutning till råvaran. I studien gjordes dels övergripande analyser kring olika råvarors förutsättningar, dels en fallstudie där en kostnadskalkyl för hela produktionskedjan för brikettering av rörflen på en specifik gård (Låttra gård) har tagits fram.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 26.
    Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Harmonising New Entrant allocation in the Nordic Energy Sectors - current principles and options for EU ETS phase II2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study finds that current allocation rules does have an impact on investment decisions, and can significantly distort competition if they remain unchanged. As a first best solution, the authors recommend that the Nordic countries do not allocate free allowances to new entrants in the energy sector. Instead operators would have to buy allowances, either from the government or on the open market. This should be combined with adjusted rules on allocation to existing installations in order to avoid putting new installations at a disadvantage compared to existing installations. Finally, the authors recommend that the Nordic countries investigate what options are available to provide greater certainty in the allocation, for instance through allocating allowances for longer periods into the future

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Wråke, Markus
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    New Entrant Allocation in the Nordic Energy Sectors: incentives and options in the EU ETS2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), the treatment of new entrants has proven to be one of the most contentious issues. This paper analyses the impact of allocation to new entrants in the energy sector, and identifies options for improved regulation in this field. The point of departure for the discussion is a comparative analysis of the allocation in phase I and phase II of the EU ETS to two hypothetical energy installations should they be located in different EU Member States. The study focuses on the Nordic countries due to their integrated energy market. The quantitative analysis was complemented with interviews with policy makers and industry representatives. The results suggest that current allocation rules can significantly distort competition. The annual value of the allocation is comparable to the fixed investment costs for a new installation and is not insignificant compared to expected revenues from sales of electricity from the installation. The study finds that the preferred option would be that Nordic countries should not allocate free allowances to new entrants in the energy sector. This should be combined with adjusted rules on allocation to existing installations and closures in order to avoid putting new installations at a disadvantage. A second less preferred choice would involve harmonised benchmarks across the Nordic countries

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 28.
    Zetterberg, Lars
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sectoral agreements and competitive distortions - a Swedish perspective2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to: 1. Give an overview of the current discussion concerning competition distortion in relation to climate policy, 2. Describe results from some studies estimating the actual competition situation for selected activities, 3. Describe what sector agreement models are suggested/ discussed by EU, 4. Describe what sectors are most interesting to target with a sector agreement from a Swedish point of view, 5. Analyse what parameters are important for reducing competition distortion for Swedish Industry. Two studies, for the United Kingdom (Hourcade et al 2008) and Germany (Graichen et al 2008), have recently assessed the potential cost impact for different industrial sectors of CO2-prices due to the EU ETS. Maximum value at stake was used as metrics. The sectors with high potential impact, with a maximum value at stake larger than 10%, are in the United Kingdom Lime and cement, Basic iron and steel, Starches, Refined petroleum, Fertilizers and Nitrogen compounds and Aluminium. In Germany, the sectors with a maximum value at stake larger than 10% are: Cement and lime, Fertilizers and nitrogen compounds, Basic iron and steel, Aluminium, Paper and board, Other basic inorganic compounds and Coke, refined petroleum and nuclear fuels. Ex-ante studies of the impacts of competitiveness and carbon leakage due to the EU ETS fail to find actual impacts. However, that does not mean that there will be no impact in the future, which hold changes both in the EU ETS (method for allowance allocation, allowance prices etc) and possibly also other important circumstances (global demand for certain products and global product prices). In this study, based on official Swedish statistics, the maximum value a stake has been calculated for 52 Swedish sectors. Seven sectors have a maximum value a stake of more than 4%: Coke and refined petroleum (21%), Pulp and paper (11%), Basic metals (10%), Non-metallic mineral (9%), Metal ore mines (6%), Air transport (5%) and Electricity, gas and heat (4%). If Air transport and Electricity, gas and heat are omitted, the five remaining sectors account for 22% of Sweden's carbon emissions. In the Swedish Non-metallic mineral sector (including Cement and lime) the maximum value at stake is considerably lower than for Cement and lime in the UK and Germany. This is most likely due differences in system boundaries. In the Swedish statistics, the Cement and lime industry is a minor part (in terms of value added) of the Non-metallic mineral sector, a sector that also includes Stone, sand and soil industry. The calculated maximum value at stake for Non-metallic mineral is therefore a poor proxy for the Cement and lime sector since other sub sectors may 'dilute' the maximum value at stake. Differences in system boundaries may also explain the significant difference in maximum value at stake between the Swedish steel industry and UK and German steel industries. Other possible explanations may be a higher value added per unit, differences in how value added is calculated, different years applied for the analysis and lower CO2-intensity for Swedish products. In late 2008, the EU proposed three types of sector approaches to be discussed under the Ad-hoc Working Group on future commitments for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP): i) Sector CDM - a CDM crediting mechanism with a previously established baseline ii) Sectoral no-lose mechanism - Sectoral crediting against a previously established no-lose target iii) Sectoral emission trading based on a sector emissions cap Based on these three sectoral models, we have analysed what parameters are important for reducing competition distortion for Swedish industry. We have assumed that these sector agreements are implemented in a developing country (DC). We conclude that if sector agreements are to reduce distortions on competition, it is important that the sector agreements create a real carbon price in the DC, i.e. that emissions of carbon dioxide are associated with a cost for the emitter. All three sector agreement-models suggested by the EU can potentially create a carbon price. The driver for emission reductions are in all three cases the international demand for offsets. As a potentially large buyer of off-sets, the EU demand for off-sets is likely to increase the carbon price in the DC sector. The choice of EU policy with respect to imports of off-set will therefore have great importance. Other buyers, such as other countries, emission trading systems or the voluntary credit market will of course also be important. Moreover, imports of off-sets may reduce the price on EU ETS allowances, thus further narrowing the carbon price gap between the two markets. If an important objective of a sectoral agreement is to reduce competition distortion it should be implemented in sectors where the corresponding Swedish industry has significant carbon related costs and where there is significant trade intensity between Sweden and regions outside the EU. Our preliminary analysis indicates that Swedish sectors with potentially high maximum value at stake (direct carbon and indirect electricity cost) are Refineries; Pulp and Paper; Iron and Steel;Cement and Lime; and Metal ore mining. The sectors Aluminium and Fertilizers may be important, but have not been assessed explicitly in this study. In addition, electricity production can be important to include in a sectoral agreement since the electricity price may be a significant cost for certain sectors exposed to international competition. Pass-through of costs - consumer incentives. If a sectoral agreement is to reduce competition distortion it is important that the sector participating in the sectoral agreement can pass through the additional carbon costs on the commodity so the carbon intensive products become more expensive for the consumer. A full pass through of the carbon cost could be compromised in countries with centrally regulated prices on carbon intensive commodities or other measures that shield the true price of carbon from the consumer. Target setting - producer incentives. The rules for setting the targets in the DC sector are crucial from a producer incentive point of view. There are two main options here: 1) absolute targets and 2) intensity targets. Absolute targets create high incentives for carbon reductions as long as the targets are not re-negotiated. The disadvantage is that they might be difficult to negotiate due to difficulties in finding an appropriate emission level, risk for hot air and the inflexibility to future adjustments. Intensity targets are based on output times an intensity factor (called benchmarking). But benchmarking leads to reduced incentives: i) as a production subsidy it encourages overproduction and ii) dis-incentivises the substitution to carbon efficient products. A third, theoretical, option would be absolute targets that are updated according to historic emissions. This model would, however, seriously undermine the incentives for emission reductions. In this study, we have argued that from a competition point of view, it's important to create a carbon price in the developing country. A different issue relates to how different sector agreement models influence the compliance costs of participating firms. We describe a situation where a DC industry sector is linked to the EU ETS, and where the EU industry pays for allowances (no free allocation). For a Sector emission trading system where the DC industry has to pay for allowances, the compliance costs could be compatible in the two regions. For Sector CDM and Sector no-lose mechanism, if the government implements a domestic carbon tax, the compliance costs may also be compatible in the two regions. However, if allowances are allocated freely to the DC industry and no tax is implemented, the DC industry would have no costs associated with the carbon emissions below the compliance level. There could here be a significant difference in compliance costs between the industries in the two regions. We have, however, not analysed if significant asymmetries in compliance costs can lead to competitive distortions between regions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
1 - 28 of 28
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf