IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Marint mikroskopiskt skräp längs Skånes kust2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marint skräp uppmärksammas allt mer av våra myndigheter, media och av allmänheten. Problemets omfattning tas på så stort allvar att marint skräp har utsetts som en av elva deskriptorer som används för att beskriva god havsmiljö i havsmiljödirektivet (2008/56/EG). Marint skräp omfattar enligt direktivet alla storleksfraktioner och alla typer av material som har mänskligt ursprung, d.v.s. som är antropogena. Skräp som förekommer i havet påverkar både de djur som lever i havet men också människor som vistas vid havet och de som får sin inkomst från havet genom exempelvis fiske och turism. Djuren i havet påverkas på flera sätt av skräp, de kan trassla in sig i skräpet och skadas eller strypas eller så får de försämrade möjligheter att söka föda.

    Det är också många djurarter som äter upp skräp vilket kan leda till en minskad tillväxt men också att djuret avlider om mängden skräp är för stor. Några av de djurarter som har visat sig äta upp skräp är fåglar, små valar och havssköldpaddor. Vid svenska västkusten har man exempelvis påträffat textilfibrer på gälarna hos blåmusslor. Enligt en artikel från 2015 är antalet marina djur som hittills har påträffats med skräp 693 stycken). Ett annat problem med skräp är att det finns en risk för att vissa skräptyper skulle kunna läcka ut giftiga kemikalier. Plastprodukter kan exempelvis innehålla giftiga additiv som mjukgörare och flamskyddsmedel. Det har också visat sig att engångsprodukter som omslagspapper till mat kan innehålla svårnedbrytbara och skadliga polyfluorerade föreningar. Vägdamm kan innehålla en mängd olika skadliga ämnen som polyaromatiska kolväten och olika metaller. Polyaromatiska kolväten förekommer i fordonsavgaser men också i däck- och asfaltspartiklar, och metaller kommer från bland annat avgaser och förslitning av däck och bilbromsar.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been assigned to identify important sources of microplastics in the sea and to work for reducing the production and emission of microplastics from these sources. Within the scope of this governmental assignment, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has been funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to review the sources of microplastics and the pathways microplastics take to reach the sea.

    A range of potential sources for microplastics and the pathways by which microplastics can reach the sea were selected for the review. The sources included both intentionally produced plastic pellets and plastic particles formed from fragmentation of larger plastic items. The pathways were primarily stormwater, wastewater and atmospheric deposition. For sea-based sources particles are discharged directly to the sea. Information was collected from scientific articles, reports and through personal communication with experts in relevant areas. Where the available data allowed, calculations were done to quantify the amounts of microplastics.

    The most important emissions for microplastics were found to be from road wear and abrasion of tyres. Approximately 13 000 tons of microplastics are released from tyres every year. Since data on microplastic content in stormwater from roads is very scarce it is however uncertain how much of these particles that is transported to water recipients and how much that is permanently deposited in the ground close to the road. The same is true for artificial turfs where the estimated loss was 2 300-3 900 tons per year, but data on the load reaching the sea is completely lacking. Loss of industrially produced plastic pellets in connection to manufacture and handling was estimated to amount to between 300 and 530 tons per year, but also here the volumes discharged to the sea are unknown. For several sources suspected to contribute with large amounts of microplastics to the sea, data is so scarce that no estimations on emissions could be done. This is for example the case for important categories related to waste management, recycling and littering.

    In summary it can be concluded that Swedish coastal waters receive substantial amounts of microplastics from both land-based and sea-based sources. Quantitative data is often scarce or completely lacking and it is not possible to summarize the total Swedish discharge of microplastics to the sea. An attempt to rank the sources according to their contribution was made but it should be kept in mind that data suffers from a large degree of uncertainty. Additional studies are needed to improve the bases for further assessments, in particular on microplastics in stormwater from different surfaces and sources.

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    FULLTEXT01
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