IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Palm, David
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Lina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Physical and environmental assessment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project DYNAMIX aims to identify and assess dynamic and robust policy mixes to shift the European Union (EU) onto a pathway to absolute decoupling of long-term economic growth from resource use and environmental impacts and to a sustainable future. To support this objective we established the following five targets for the year 2050: * Reduce the consumption of virgin metals by 80% * Limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 2 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita per year * Eliminate net demand of non-EU arable land * Reduce nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in the EU to levels that can be achieved by the best available techniques * Eliminate water stress in the EU

    Our results indicate that R&D, changes in diets and feebate systems have a large potential for resource efficiency and/or environmental improvements. We carried through a material pinch analysis to estimate how improved car dismantling can increase actual copper recycling and the maximum recycling of steel in the very long term. We assumed that an improved dismantling process can reduce the copper content in the steel scrap from cars by 75%. If such improved car dismantling is applied globally, the increase in copper recycling corresponds to 5-10% of the current use of virgin metals in the EU. Our results indicate that the long-term increase in maximum steel recycling is in the same order of magnitude. Spending on R&D on improved car dismantling alone could potentially give noticeable contributions to reducing the dependency on extraction of metal ores.

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  • 2.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thornéus, Joakim
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Environmental implications of Swedish food consumption and dietary choices2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, a growing interest from consumers to know the origins and contents of foods has put alternative choices such as organic foods and dietary changes in the agenda. Dietary choices are important to address as many studies find that activities related to food production account for nearly 20-30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, while GHG emissions are important, often other environmental impact categories are not used to assess the sustainability of different foods, diets and choices. This study therefore aims to understand the implications of dietary choices for Swedish food consumption on a broad range of environmental impact categories to provide insight into the impacts associated with certain food products and dietary choices.

    The study reviews dietary choices based on Swedish consumption statistics and assesses the implications using a number of scenarios. These include scenarios related to increasing organic and regional food consumption in addition to reducing meat, vegetarian diets and eating based on nutritional guidelines. Life cycle methodology is used to review environmental impacts of Swedish food consumption (from both domestic and imported products) in the year 2015 and 2020.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EcoWater report - Populated Technology Inventory2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the populated technology inventory, i.e. the database compiled after collecting information on the technologies relevant to the EcoWater Case Studies. In addition to the generic database information, the inventory holds data on technology economic parameters, technology environmental parameters and technology efficiency parameters. The actual technology inventory is delivered as an Excel workbook, holding one sheet per EcoWater Case Study. Each Case Study worksheet follows the same structure, but they differ in terms of which parameters are considered of importance to the technologies added. This technology inventory (Deliverable 1.3), has been populated with data from the Case Studies. This report also describes the theory around the water system and innovative technologies researched in the project, as well as the environmental midpoint impact categories used to assess the environmental performance of technologies in the Case Studies. This report is only available in English.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fortkamp, Uwe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    EcoWater report - Results of the 3rd targeted event -Policy links2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is only available in English.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustavsson, Mathias
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    On environmental LCA for selected transport fuels2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This short report is part of the project ”Integrated assessment of vehicle fuels with sustainability LCA - social and environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective” financed by the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) and the Swedish Energy Agency. The project aims at a Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA) of a few selected transport fuels including biomass based and fossil based fuels. The selected transport fuels include (i) Petrol from crude oil originating from oilfields in Nigeria, (ii) Petrol from crude oil originating from oilfields in Russia, (iii) Ethanol based on sugar cane from Brazil and (iv) Ethanol based on corn produced in the USA. The purpose with this report is to present comparable life cycle inventory results for a selection of environmental aspects for the studied transport fuel chains. A brief review of a few existing life cycle assessments of the four selected transport fuel chains was performed. It was found that the reviewed studies did not provide results that are easily comparable. Thus, in order to obtain comparable life cycle assessments, judged crucial for the continued analysis in the project, adapted life cycle inventories from the Ecoinvent centre (Ecoinvent centre, 2014) were adopted and presented in this study. The result will be further analysed in the project.

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  • 6.
    Åmand, Linda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lovisa Andersson, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rahmberg, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Junestedt, Christian
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nya utsläppskrav för svenska reningsverk – effekter på reningsverkens totala miljöpåverkan2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Käppalaverket i Lidingö, Henriksdals reningsverk i Stockholm och Kungsängsverket i Västerås har varit projektets tre fallstudier. Miljöpåverkan har undersökts med hjälp av matematiska processmodeller och livscykelanalys (LCA). Fokus har varit att undersöka kategorierna klimat, övergödning, försurning, fossila resurser och materialresurser. När utsläppsvillkoren skärps kan det få stor effekt på miljöpåverkan från reningsverkens processer i förhållande till mängden vatten som renas, men det behöver inte få det. Det som framför allt påverkar utfallet är vilken reningsprocess man har i dag och i framtiden, hur den direkta lustgasavgången ändras vid skärpta utsläppskrav samt varifrån kolkällan kommer.

    Ökad kemikalieanvändning, ökad dosering av kolkälla och en ökning av direkta utsläpp av växthusgaser leder till ökad användning av fossila resurser och materialresurser samt ökad klimatpåverkan. Alla reningsverk i studien behövde tillsätta kolkälla för att nå ner till 6 mg/l kväve i utgående vatten. Om kolkällan har fossilt ursprung kan det ge upp till tre gånger större påverkan från användning av fossila resurser jämfört med idag.

    Aktivslamprocessen var det processteg som oftast bidrog mest till klimatpåverkan, förbrukning av fossila resurser och materialresurser. Däremot var slamlagret det processteg som bidrog mest till ökad försurning på grund av läckage av ammoniak. Exemplen visar att avloppsreningsverk som i dag använder aktivslamprocessen kan få kraftigt ökad negativ miljöpåverkan till följd av ändrad processlösning, till exempel vid införande av membranbioreaktor med stort behov av luftning och kemikalier. En ändring kan också bidra till minskad negativ miljöpåverkan. Ett exempel är införande av separat rening av rejektvatten från slamrötningen med anammoxprocess, om det kan bidra till minskad avgång av lustgas. Metoden som tagits fram i projektet kan användas för att se hur val av reningsteknik, driftstrategi och val av kemikalier inverkar på miljöpåverkan från svenska avloppsreningsverk. Den är bäst lämpad för att studera effekten av skärpta utsläppskrav på kväve.

    Resultaten av systemanalyser och simuleringar av det här slaget påverkas i hög grad av val när det gäller metod och utförande. I rapporten har resultaten från livscykelanalysen inte sammanvägts till ett sammanfattande mått på total miljöpåverkan. Därmed har det inte gjorts en rangordning av vilken miljöpåverkan som är viktigast att undvika. En sådan avvägning behöver göras om resultaten ska kunna fungera som beslutsunderlag.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

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