IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Ekvall, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Palm, David
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Danielsson, Lina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Oliveira, Felipe
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Physical and environmental assessment2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project DYNAMIX aims to identify and assess dynamic and robust policy mixes to shift the European Union (EU) onto a pathway to absolute decoupling of long-term economic growth from resource use and environmental impacts and to a sustainable future. To support this objective we established the following five targets for the year 2050: * Reduce the consumption of virgin metals by 80% * Limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 2 tonnes of CO2 equivalent per capita per year * Eliminate net demand of non-EU arable land * Reduce nitrogen and phosphorus surpluses in the EU to levels that can be achieved by the best available techniques * Eliminate water stress in the EU

    Our results indicate that R&D, changes in diets and feebate systems have a large potential for resource efficiency and/or environmental improvements. We carried through a material pinch analysis to estimate how improved car dismantling can increase actual copper recycling and the maximum recycling of steel in the very long term. We assumed that an improved dismantling process can reduce the copper content in the steel scrap from cars by 75%. If such improved car dismantling is applied globally, the increase in copper recycling corresponds to 5-10% of the current use of virgin metals in the EU. Our results indicate that the long-term increase in maximum steel recycling is in the same order of magnitude. Spending on R&D on improved car dismantling alone could potentially give noticeable contributions to reducing the dependency on extraction of metal ores.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    LCA on NTR treated wood decking and other decking materials2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An evaluation of the environmental impact of an NTR Class AB terrace construction was done in a life cycle perspective. NTR (Nordic Wood Preservation Council) is an industrial trade organization comprising the wood preservation councils of the Nordic countries. Wood preservation plants which fulfil the requirements set forth by NTR can label their products with the NTR label. This study concerns NTR class AB, for products intended for outdoor use, above ground.

    Main focus was on the global warming potential (GWP). All parts of the terrace were considered including foundation and substructure. Results were compared with alternative terrace materials, Sibe-rian larch, Ipé, WPC (Wood Polymer Composites), and Concrete. Of the different terrace alternatives, NTR Class AB showed the lowest global warming potential (GWP) while WPC showed the highest. The full 30-year life cycle GWP of the 30 m2 NTR AB terrace was 172 kg CO2-eqv corresponding to the CO2 emissions caused by driving an average sized car 1433 km.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Product waste footprint2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste is generated along the production of products (i.e. during extracting resources, processing and production) and also when unwanted products are discarded. Although most consumers are aware of the amount of waste they dispose of, relatively few are aware of the waste generated in the course of producing the goods that they consume. This project builds upon previous work to advance a methodological approach for quantification and communication of the pre-consumer waste footprint of products. The purpose is to address the main criticism that the work received in a peer-review process: how to deal with the subjectivity of waste, are the indicator appropriated for communicating results, what is the usefulness of a product waste footprint.

    An online open consultation was carried out in order to gather opinions and inputs of several stakeholder groups (e.g. life cycle assessment (LCA) experts and practitioners, waste management experts, consumers, and authorities) on 5 methodological details (MDs) of the approach: MD1 effectiveness for differentiating waste and by-products, MD2 effectiveness for defining which material flow shall be accounted for, MD3 adequacy for representing an indicator to convey environmental significance of waste types, MD4 usefulness of a product waste footprint metric for stakeholder groups and MD5 usefulness of a product waste footprint metric in different contexts.

    Most of the respondents expressed that the guidelines described in the methodology are good enough for the purposes of MD1-2. Part of the respondents found the draft guidelines for MD1-2, which were based the Interpretative Communication on waste and by-products of the European Commission, to be unnecessarily complex for the exercise; hence not sufficiently adequate.

    Furthermore, some responses from prominent LCA experts and practitioners declared that qualitatively attributing environment significance to different types of wastes may not be adequate (MD3). The results also suggested that a product waste footprint metric would be mostly useful and/or needed (MD4) for (1) consumers and (2) government; and in contexts (MD5) of (a) improving environmental awareness of consumers, (b) environmental policy making, (c) visualising waste flows in a circular economy and (d) improving resource efficiency in industry, and less useful/needed (MD5) in a (e) business-to-business context.

    Finally, although the PWF is fundamentally a simple measure of resource use and not of eventual environmental damage (e.g. abiotic resource depletion, eutrophication, land use change), further studies could examine whether the PWF is a good proxy of life cycle environmental impacts in specific categories of product or manufacturing process. The LCA community is encourage to devote more attention to how consumers may or may not use product related environmental information and apply this knowledge in advancing metrics that are useful for consumers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Produkters totala avfall - studie om avfallsfotavtryck och klimatkostnad2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förutom det avfall som uppstår då en förbrukad produkt slängs, så uppstår avfall under tillverkningen av produkten. Konsumenter kan ha svårt att se den totala påverkan som deras konsumtionsbeteenden har på miljön eftersom de direkt bara kan se det avfall som uppkommer hos dem själva när de slänger sina uttjänta produkter. Utan någon mer detaljerad information om olika produkters totala miljöpåverkan, är det svårt för konsumenter att ändra sina beteenden till mer konsekvent hållbara. I denna studie har vi utvecklat en metod för att beräkna produkters avfallsfotavtryck med syfte att förbättra kunskapen och medvetenheten hos konsumenter om den totala mängden avfall som uppkommer i samband med produktionen av de produkter som de konsumerar. For an English version, read report B2244E.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    The total waste of products – a study on waste footprint and climate cost2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Except from the waste that results as a produced is used and discarded, waste is generated during production of the product itself. Consumers may have difficulties to in realizing the full extent of the impact that their consumption behaviors have on the environment as they only see the waste generated in the household. Without comprehensive information about the lifecycle impacts of goods, consumers cannot adopt consistent sustainable conducts. In this study we developed a waste footprint metric in order to improve understanding and awareness of consumers about the total waste generated in the course of producing the goods they consume.

    We calculated the waste footprint of 11 products and estimated the climate cost due to the greenhouse gas emissions related to the production processes. The consumer goods assessed were chicken and beef, an electric drill, a laptop computer, a liter of milk, a pair of trousers, a pair of leather shoes, a smart phone, training clothes (a T-shirt and a pair of shorts in polyester), carton milk packaging and a newspaper.

    The results demonstrate that there are great environmental benefits by producing less consumer goods and use the products more efficiently because only then it is possible to reduce the overall waste footprint from our consumption. We thus argue for the importance of changing consumption patterns, and advocate for novel business models based on a use-oriented consumption (sharing and reusing) that encourage different ways of consuming and more sustainable life styles.

    Den här rapporten är på engelska. För svensk version, läs B2244.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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