IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Electrofuels – a possibility for shipping in a low carbon future?2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The global share of anthropogenic CO2 emissions from ships is only about 2 percent, but there is a risk that this share will increase substantially if no action is taken. What are the possibilities for decarbonisation of the shipping industry, then? Some of the measures discussed are energy efficiency, use of biofuels and use of hydrogen. In this paper a fourth option is scrutinised – use of electrofuels. Electrofuels is an umbrella term for carbon-based fuels, e.g. methane or methanol, which are produced using electricity as the primary source of energy. The carbon in the fuel comes from CO2 which can be captured from various industrial processes such as exhaust gases, the sea or the air.

    The production of electrofuels is still in its infancy, and many challenges need to be overcome before electrofuels are brought to market on a large scale. First, this paper gives an overview of the current status of electrofuels regarding technologies, efficiencies and costs. Second, as electrofuels production requires significant amounts of CO2 and electricity, the feasibility to produce enough electrofuels to supply all ships bunkering in Sweden, with regionally produced electricity and regionally emitted CO2, and the amount of CO2 that is required to supply all ships globally is evaluated in two case studies assessing supply potential.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energy Integration of Domsjö Biorefinery Cluster2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Domsjö Biorefinery cluster in Örnsköldsvik, all the industries are cooperating regarding energy. The cluster consists of one wood pulp production facility, two bio-chemical facilities and one energy facility.

    In this study, we have analysed how efficient the steam is used within the industries. Are steam of right pressure and temperature used for the right purposes? To what extent could steam be replaced by district heating? And, how big is the potential to use simultaneous heat and cold demand for energy integration? The method for energy analysis was “pinch analysis”.

    It is found that steam of 7 bar(g) and 170 °C is used to supply a major part of the heat demand, sometimes even heat demands of low temperatures. Such demands would be more efficient to supply by district heating. Alternatively, a new utility with temperatures 40/120 °C could be introduced, either within the total site, or only within the biggest of the industries. The practical heat recovery potential is about 15 MW for the total site, and about 10 MW at the biggest of the industries.

    For all alternatives, steam capacity is released, which for example could be used for increased industrial production without investments in new steam boilers. Alternatively, the released capacity could be used to completely (or partially) offset the steam requirements of a new process plant at the Domsjö site.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Klugman, Sofia
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Harvey, Simon
    Energy Integration of Domsjö Biorefinery Cluster - Summary2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Domsjö Biorefinery cluster in Örnsköldsvik, all the industries are cooperating regarding energy. The cluster consists of one wood pulp production facility, two bio-chemical facilities and one energy facility.

    In this study, we have analysed how efficient the steam is used within the industries. Are steam of right pressure and temperature used for the right purposes? To what extent could steam be replaced by district heating? And, how big is the potential to use simultaneous heat and cold demand for energy integration? The method for energy analysis was “pinch analysis”.

    It is found that steam of 7 bar(g) and 170 °C is used to supply a major part of the heat demand, sometimes even heat demands of low temperatures. Such demands would be more efficient to supply by district heating. Alternatively, a new utility with temperatures 40/120 °C could be introduced, either within the total site, or only within the biggest of the industries. The practical heat recovery potential is about 15 MW for the total site, and about 10 MW at the biggest of the industries.

    For all alternatives, steam capacity is released, which for example could be used for increased industrial production without investments in new steam boilers. Alternatively, the released capacity could be used to completely (or partially) offset the steam requirements of a new process plant at the Domsjö site.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
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