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  • 1. Dahal, Karna
    et al.
    Brynolf, Selma
    Xisto, Carlos
    Hansson, Julia
    Grahn, Maria
    Grönstedt, Tomas
    Lehtveer, Mariliis
    Techno-economic review of alternative fuels and propulsion systems for the aviation sector2021Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Substitution of conventional jet fuel with low-to zero-carbon-emitting alternative aviation fuels is vital for meeting the climate targets for aviation. It is important to understand the technical, environmental, and eco-nomic performance of alternative aviation fuels and prospective engine and propulsion technologies for future aircraft. This study reviews alternative fuels and propulsion systems, focusing on costs and technical maturity, and presents conceptual aircraft designs for different aviation fuels.

    The cost review includes minimum jet fuel selling price (MJFSP) for alternative aviation fuels. Direct operating cost (DOC) is estimated based on the con-ceptual aircraft designs and the reviewed MJFSP. The DOCs for bio-jet fuel (5.0–9.2 US cent per passenger- kilometer (¢/PAX/km)), fossil and renewable liquefied hydrogen (5.9–10.1 and 8.1–23.9 ¢/PAX/km, respec-tively), and electro-methane and electro-jet fuel (5.6–16.7 and 9.2–23.7 ¢/PAX/km, respectively) are higher than for conventional jet fuel (3.9–4.8 ¢/PAX/km) and liquefied natural gas (4.2–5.2 ¢/PAX/km). Overall, DOC of renewable aviation fuels is 15–500 % higher than conventional jet fuels. Among the bio-jet fuels, hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (23–310 $/GJ) and alcohol-to-jet (4–215 $/GJ) pathways offer the lowest MJFSPs. The implementation of alternative fuels in existing aircraft engines and the design and development of appropriate propulsion systems and aircraft are challenging. The overall cost is a key factor for future implementation. Bio-jet fuel is most promising in the near term while hydrogen and electrofuels in the long term. The level of carbon tax on fossil jet fuels needed for the latter options to be competitive depend on the hydrogen production cost. 

  • 2.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    ). Electrofuels for the transport sector: A review of production costs2017Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 1887-1905Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrofuels (also called power-to-gas/liquids/fuels or synthetic fuels) are potential future carbon-based fuels produced from carbon dioxide (CO2) and water using electricity as the primary source of energy. This article assesses the production cost of electrofuels through: (i) a literature review, focusing on which steps that have the largest impact as well as the greatest uncertainty; (ii) a more comprehensive review, including the costs and efficiencies for the separate production steps (iii) calculations to compare the production costs of the different fuel options in a harmonized way, including a sensitivity analysis of the parameters with the greatest impact on the total electrofuel production cost.

    The assessment covers: methane, methanol, dimethyl ether, diesel, and gasoline. The literature review showed large differences among the studies and a broad range of production cost estimates (10–3500 €2015/MWhfuel), which is first and foremost as a result of how authors have handled technology matureness, installation costs, and external factors. Our calculations result in productions costs in the range of 200–280 €2015/MWhfuel in 2015 and 160–210 €2015/MWhfuel in 2030 using base cost assumptions from the literature review. Compared to biofuels, these estimates are in the upper range or above.

    Our results also show that the choice of energy carrier is not as critical for the electrofuels production cost as technological choices and external factors. Instead the two most important factors affecting the production cost of all electrofuels are the capital cost of the electrolyser and the electricity price, i.e., the hydrogen production cost. The capacity factor of the unit and the life span of the electrolyser are also important parameters affecting that production cost. In order to determine if electrofuels are a cost-effective future transport fuel relative to alternatives other than biofuels, the costs for distribution, propulsion, and storage systems need to be considered.

  • 3.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Kalagasidis A and Johnsson F, Sasic
    Contributions of Building Retrofitting in Five Member States to EU Targets for Energy Savings2018Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, s. 759-774Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To benchmark the contributions of building retrofits to the National Energy Efficiency Action Plans (NEEAPs) of the Member States (MS) of the European Union (EU) and to identify potential improvements to the general EU methodology, this paper presents homogenous mapping of the potential for energy savings and associated effects on CO2 emissions for the building stocks of five selected MS: France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The mapping is created using a verified building stock modeling methodology, and includes results related to technical and techno-economical improvements for ten energy conservation measures (ECMs) and six ECM packages. These results are compared to the corresponding estimates in the NEEAPs, as well as those in the literature.

    Although both our results and those in the literature show high variability for the cost-efficiency of the ECMs between the five national building stocks, the potential application of complete ECM packages generally appears to be more profitable than the application of individual ECMs. Certain challenges must be overcome before this potential can be realized. The energy savings for Year 2020 projected in the NEEAPs appear to be overly optimistic when one considers the efficiency trends, current regulatory framework, and techno-economical potential detailed in this study. Furthermore, the NEEAPs are not in full compliance with the requirements of the EU Energy Efficiency Directive. These requirements could be defined more specifically, so as to address the identified information gaps, thereby facilitating the implementation and monitoring of energy savings in existing buildings.

  • 4. Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    Mata, Érika
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Samperio, Álvaro
    Quijano, Ana
    Cuneo, Alessandra
    Social and market acceptance of photovoltaic panels and heat pumps in Europe: A literature review and survey2022Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 155, s. 111867-111867, artikel-id 111867Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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