IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akujärvi, Anu
    SYKE.
    Forsius, Martin
    SYKE.
    Holmberg, Maria
    SYKE.
    Austnes, Kari
    NIVA.
    de Wit, Heleen
    NIVA.
    Bak, Jesper
    AAU.
    NKL-1915 National Nitrogen Budgets in Scandinavia: consequences for climate change and for eutrophication – synthesis report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a project undertaken by Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark related to the National Nitrogen Budget (NNB) with a focus on the NNB pool Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The NNB involves calculations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inflows and outflows within the FS pool, and the study compares these calculations to reports of carbon sequestration in climate reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Norway and Finland initiated their work on NNB, concentrating on Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The UNECE LRTAP Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) methodology was also used for compiling the FS pool for Denmark, while Sweden had established its FS pool prior to the project.The FS pool comprises three sub-pools: forests, wetlands, and other lands. Inflows of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the FS pool are primarily from deposition and biological N-fixation, with major outflows being leaching, harvest, and denitrification.In Finland, Sweden, and Denmark, the inflows and outflows are in balance, while in Norway, there is an accumulation of Nr, indicating a surplus of nitrogen. Wetland sub-pools in all four countries and the forest sub-pool in Norway show nitrogen accumulation.All four countries report carbon sequestration in forests to UNFCCC.

    There is a link between nitrogen and carbon cycles, since the organic matter forming the carbon stock in forests and wetlands relies on nitrogen. The origin of nitrogen contributing to the estimated C-stock increase needs further investigation.There is a discrepancy between the calculated nitrogen changes in the FS pool and the nitrogen needed to support reported carbon stock changes. Possible explanations for the discrepancies are re-location of nitrogen within pools, changes in the C/N ratio, expansion of forested areas, and uncertainties in N-fixation rates and denitrification.There is a need for better integration of carbon and nitrogen flux and stock change estimates in natural ecosystems. Understanding the interactions between carbon and nitrogen is deemed crucial for predicting future developments in carbon sequestration and impacts of nitrogen deposition, especially for the Nordic countries with their significant forests playing roles as carbon and nitrogen sinks.

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  • Wisell, Tomas
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Glebe, Dag
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Framtidsgator- Miljöaspekter vid omvandling av gaturum2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med projektet Framtidsgatan är att ta fram modeller för och genomföra snabb omvandling av gator, till mångfunktionella, inkluderande och estetiska stadsmiljöer. Projektet tar fram strategier och principer för snabb gatuomvandling i stor skala, modeller för enkla gatuprojekt och bygga prototyper på plats i Stockholm, Göteborg och Umeå. Dessa ska utvärderas och utgöra underlag till en designguide. 

    För att gatuomvandling skall kunna skalas upp och genomföras i stor skala behöver projekten vara resurseffektiva ur ett miljö- och klimatperspektiv, dvs. luftkvalitet, buller och utsläpp av klimatgaser ur ett livscykelperspektiv bör utvärderas. Principiellt sker denna utvärdering genom att jämföra gaturummets ”miljöprestanda” i dessa avseenden före och efter omvandlingen.

    Utsläppen av kväveoxider i gaturummen varierar över dygnet med mycket små utsläpp på natten och större under dagen, särskilt på morgonen när många åker till jobb och skola, för att sedan sjunka något mitt på dagen och därefter uppvisa en ny topp på eftermiddagen när de flesta åker hem. Denna dygnsvariation är typisk för trafikrelaterade luftföroreningar i städer.För luftföroreningssituationen, visar resultaten av omvandlingen på kraftigt sänkta halter i Västra Esplanadens gaturum med avseende på kvävedioxid till följd av omvandlingen, detta gäller särskilt extremvärdena för timme. Även årsmedelhalten sjunker betydligt. För PM10 på Västra Esplanaden blir effekten på halten till följd av omvandlingen betydligt mindre, detta är en följd av att bakgrundshalterna är mycket högre än för kvävedioxid och utgör en betydligt högre andel av den totala halten.

    För Roslagsgatan är den antagna trafikflödesminskningen relativt liten och det är osäkert om det blir någon betydande effekt på kvävedioxidhalten. Dagens halter ligger redan tydligt under miljömålet, så omvandlingen bedöms inte bidra med något i avseendet att klara MKN och miljömål. För Helsingforsgatan ligger halterna för både kvävedioxid och PM10 tydligt under både MKN och miljömålen, även om det för årsmedelvärdet för PM10 ligger ganska nära. På Herkulesgatan i Göteborg sjunker halterna något för kvävedioxid både för år, dygn och timme, en följd av något minskad trafik, dock är förändringarna marginella men kan eventuellt hjälpa till att uppnå miljömålet för timme.

    I fallet Storgatan i Umeå har inte omvandlingen någon effekt på halterna, framför allt eftersom trafikflödet antas vara samma. Dagens halter av kvävedioxid ligger för årsbasis precis på miljömålet, för dygn precis på MKN, och för timme tydligt under MKN.

    Angående befolkningens vistelsetid är det stor skillnad på de utvalda gatorna i Stockholm jämfört med de i Umeå, och av den totala vistelsetiden på Västra esplanaden i Umeå utgör besökare ca en tredjedel och på Storgatan dominerar den över de få boende. Efter omvandlingen ökar besökstidens andel ytterligare till nästan hälften för Västra esplanaden och i fallet Storgatan ökar besökstiden och dominerar helt. På Roslagsgatan och Helsingforsgatan dominerar boendevistelsen helt då gaturummen är omgärdade av bostäder och har mycket lite verksamheter, och besöksvistelsen är försumbar. Omvandlingen påverkar inte detta nämnvärt. På Herkulesgatan i Göteborg utgör besökare en relativt stor del av vistelsetiden och ökar marginellt med omvandlingen.

    Utgångspunkt vid utvärdering av bullersituationen har varit Trafikverkets riktvärden för trafikbuller i samband med nybyggnationer. Bullerminskningarna efter omvandlingen räcker i sig inte för att nå upp till Trafikverkets rekommenderade MKN, utom på det lugna partiet av Roslagsgatan i Stockholm. På alla tungt trafikerade sträckor blir skillnaden i bullernivå tydlig. Även om MKN inte uppnås är minskningen ändå viktig eftersom bullerpåverkan i dessa fall är mycket hög, och en sänkning med några decibel innebär en betydande minskning av bullerbelastningen för befolkningen. Bullret före omvandling ligger på nivåer som påverkar hälsa, försvårar samtal och som kan anses vara allmänt besvärande.

    Dessa effekter kan förutsättas mildras av omvandlingarna.De planerade förändringarna av trafikförutsättningarna på Herkulesgatan i Göteborg beror även på hur trafiken kan flyta utan hastighetsförändringar vid enkelriktning, avsmalning och åtgärder. Accelerationer genererar kortvarigt mycket höga bullernivåer vilka dagens bullerberäkningsprogram inte klarar av att representera. Detta kan resultera i ökade störningar som inte framgår av ekvivalentnivåer eller maxnivåer om de är vanligt förekommande. Avseende det totala klimatavtrycket är vägtrafiken inklusive bränsleanvändning och bränsleproduktion precis som förväntat den största källan för klimatgaser i samtliga undersökta gaturum.

    Emellertid är skillnaderna i jämförelse med andra utsläppsdelar mycket stora. På Västra Esplanaden och Storgatan i Umeå dominerar vägtrafikens utsläpp totalt både innan och efter omvandling, vilket förklaras av stora trafikflöden och lite vegetation. Övriga källor och upptag av växtlighet är i stort sett försumbara. På Västra esplanaden minskar det totala utsläppet drastiskt genom omvandlingen till följd av minskade flöden av trafik, vilket inte sker på Storgatan, som i stort får likvärdiga totala utsläpp på grund av oförändrad trafikmängd.     På Helsingforsgatan domineras helt av utsläpp från vägtrafiken, men även med tydligt bidrag från vägunderhåll. Klimatavtryck från fysiska objekt och verksamheter är försumbara, men i stället framträder upptaget från växtlighet tydligt och kompenserar för ca 25% av de totala utsläppen innan omvandling, och över halva (ca 60%) efter omvandling.

    Detta mycket betydande upptag i relation till utsläppet kan förklaras med att trafikflödena är låga och sjunker i samband med omvandlingen samtidigt som gaturummet innehåller betydande antal träd samt busk- och gräsytor.  I fallet Roslagsgatan har ett lågt trafikflöde och relativt omfattande omvandling. Vägtrafiken står för ca 55% av klimatutsläppet men sjunker till 40% efter omvandling, även vägunderhåll sjunker betydande. Klimatavtryck från fysiska objekt ökar dock från 12% till 35%. Samtidigt ökar upptaget kraftigt till följd av nya växtplanteringar och kompenserar för hela 37% av det totala klimatutsläppet efter omvandling.

    Detta illustrerar att upptag från växtlighet i ett gaturum kan kompensera en mycket betydande del av ett gaturums hela klimatavtryck, under vissa förutsättningar.  För Herkulesgatan påverkar omvandlingen klimatavtrycket på ett liknande sätt som för Helsingforsgatan men mindre uttalat till följd av en mindre trafikminskning. Samtidigt ökar avtrycket något för de tillkommande fysiska objekten i gaturummen. Sammantaget blir det ändå en tydlig sänkning av klimatavtrycket och växtlighetens kompensation ökar från 20% till 30%. 

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  • Henriksson, Elisabet
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Volta Greentech’s Factory 022024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a Life Cycle Assessment of Volta Greentech’s upcoming algae production facility, Factory 02.

    It was performed within the AlgAIe project, with the purpose of assessing the environmental impacts of Factory 02 and to highlight  hotspots for potential improvement. 

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  • Fransson, Nathalie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Särnbratt, Mirjam
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Investor perspectives on hydrogen investments2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Investment volumes directed to hydrogen projects need to increase drastically for the market to take off. Investors were interviewed for their perspectives on the emerging market, risk management and evaluation criteria applied to hydrogen investments and what needs to be done to attract more investors. The conclusion of the investor interviews is that hydrogen investments are perceived as high-risk investments and that investors that are able to invest in hydrogen in this nascent phase are more risk tolerant. The investment is made to learn more about the technology and the main driver is the belief that hydrogen could contribute to achieving necessary greenhouse gas emissions. . Considerable uncertainty surrounds the hydrogen investments of today, making it difficult for investors to approach the investment case in the same way as they do the more established technologies.  The informants therefore requested a more predictable and stable policy landscape to accelerate hydrogen investments.

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  • Fridén, Håkan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jacobson, Anton
    Nilsson Energy före detta IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uni- och multiderivata metoder för upptäckt av avvikelser i dammar2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam monitoring is a large and important area for Swedish dam owners. It is a challenge to continuously monitor a dam construction with its sensors and be able to quickly react to changes that indicate a deviation in the dam. The report covers methods for computer-based detection of sensor and communication errors and the application of multivariate methods to detect and visualize anomalous states for a dam.The report is an account of the third of a series of research projects. The project has been run by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute AB during 2022–2023. All projects have been funded by Energiforsk and the SIVL foundation and with the aim to implement monitoring, detection, and visualization of sensor errors as well as overall condition monitoring of dams including warnings when the condition is moving towards a non-normal area.

    One purposes of this project has been to deepen the knowledge of the methods through an additional case study which has a different character both regarding the dam and its monitoring sensors. A second purpose has been to increase knowledge and competence both in breadth and depth for the involved industry. A third purpose has been to find ways to improve the accessibility of the results that our methods provide.In the previous two projects in the series, it was reported how we developed and installed a general monitoring application that runs in real time at two of the dam owners with data transfer from and to their signal databases. We have developed methods for independent monitoring of individual signals, univariate monitoring and started the development of multivariate monitoring.In this project, the accumulated experience has been used to connect a third dam, Case Study III, and to continue the development of the methodology. A large part of the project has also been devoted to dissemination of results in the form of webinars, a deeper course for staff at the power companies on the methodology used and the underlying theory.The project series now has three case studies and through the plant owners the project has gained access to more than 5 years of historical data for each dam. These data form the basis for further development and evaluation of monitoring methods. Collecting, building a common understanding of and pre-processing this data requires a lot of time and good cooperation between data specialists and dam owners, a foundation that has now been laid.

    This report is published both in Energiforsk's report series and in IVL's report series B.

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  • Halling, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ProScaleE - user needs and perspectives: Interview study for the development of the ProScaleE methodology2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra SafeChem toolbox includes several tools, among them is the ProScale method that was developed as a scoring system based on both hazard and exposure for assessing direct chemical risks to workers, professionals and consumers associated with products in a life cycle perspective. However, a need for a sibling, ProScaleE, that focuses on the effects on the environment was identified. The aim of the task reported herein is to continue the work of developing the ProScaleE method by collecting user needs and perspectives from the members of the ProScale consortium and other stakeholders. The work has been performed by interviews focusing on expectations, thoughts, and ideas on how the ProScaleE method can be developed and what features it should include.  

     

    All interviewed participants expressed a strong need for a tool like ProScaleE and agreed on its value. Due to new upcoming legislative proposals from the EU Commission the interest on environmental effects of chemicals is expected to increase and become an even more important issue for industry. 

    The feasibility and practicability of the tool is of utmost importance. Having a database that already includes the relevant input parameters for different substances would greatly enhance the ease of use. Preferable easily accessible data derived from a common source, such as the REACH should be used. Developing an easy-to-use method is crucial since ProScaleE's target audience should primarily be people without ecotoxicological expertise who need to be able to quickly evaluate chemicals based on H-phrases. 

    While emphasizing the importance of user-friendliness, it is crucial to ensure that the method does not become excessively simplified, resulting in a loss of relevance. To enhance its relevance, more specific data, in addition to H-phrases, such as persistence, bioaccumulation potential, toxicity, mobility, and endocrine disruption, should be included. It is also crucial to incorporate different compartments of the environment, such as water, soil, and air.  

    In short, two types of input data should be needed to evaluate a substance with ProscaleE, information about the intrinsic ecotoxicity of the substances, as described above, and an exposure estimate for the related uses along the entire life cycle. 

    The importance of proper bases of description of the hazard as well as the relevance of the ranking of H-phrases was stressed. It is advisable to utilize the descriptors provided by REACH to ensures consistency and compatibility with existing frameworks and data sources, when developing ProScaleE, not the least consistency with ProScale on human health. The most relevant descriptors to consider would be environmental release categories (ERCs), specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) and risk management measures (RMMs). 

    It is recommended to have the same approach when developing ProscaleE as when ProScale was developed. When developing the method, it is recommended to begin with a simple approach. Starting with a minimum set of parameters, such as H-phrases for environmental effects, allows for initial validation and testing of the method's performance. Once the basic functionality is established and proven successful, additional functions can be added. There is a strong desire for future versions of ProScale and ProScaleE to be seamlessly integrated into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) software platforms like GaBi or SimaPro. This integration would eliminate the need for duplicative modelling efforts and align with the long-term goal of ProScale to streamline and enhance environmental impact assessments. 

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  • Sandin Albertsson, Gustav
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strandberg, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Billstein, Tova
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden .
    Life cycle assessment of mechanical textile recycling in Sweden2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of a potential, future mechanical textile recycling system located in Sweden. The report is based on rough assumptions, data estimates and scenarios exploring the influence of uncertainties regarding, for example, the location of the recycling plant (influencing the transport distances), the need for constructing new infrastructure for the recycling plant, the need to sort the incoming feedstock, the electricity mix used at the recycling plant, and fuel type used in transports. The main conclusions of the report are as follows:

    1. The results, in terms of climate impact, energy demand, and fossil resource use, for mechanically recycled fibres, are in the lower range, or about an order of magnitude lower, compared to the results of production of primary fibres. Although the results of this kind of screening LCA of a future production system are inherently uncertain, the results strongly indicate that establishing mechanical recycling of textiles in Sweden has a high potential to contribute to reduced environmental impact in the textile sector. 

    2. As mechanically recycled fibres often rely on blending with a substantial share of primary fibres in yarn spinning, the environmental impact of the final yarn will depend on the environmental impact of the primary fibres used for blending.

    3. The studied uncertainties substantially influence the environmental impact of the recycled fibres. These uncertainties regards the location of the recycling plant (influencing the transport distances), the need to build new infrastructure for the recycling plant, the need to sort incoming feedstock, the electricity mix used at the recycling plant, and the fuel type used in transports of materials to and from the recycling plant. These parameters are important to consider when developing, designing, and operating a mechanical recycling plant in Sweden. But even with relatively long transportation distances, new infrastructure, (manual and automatic) pre-sorting, mostly fossil fuels used in transports and an electricity mix with high climate impact, the environmental impact of the mechanically recycled fibres are in the lower range of, or substantially lower than, the environmental impact of most primary fibres.

    4. The fact that mechanical recycling in Sweden is expected to be powered by an electricity grid mix with relatively low climate impact makes a big difference in terms of the climate impact. A location in a region with a grid mix with higher climate impact, such as the (current) European grid mix, would increase the climate impact of the recycled fibres with about 200 kg CO2 eq. per t fibres – which would still result in fibres with low climate impact compared to most primary fibres.

    5. The sensitivity analysis, based on a Monte Carlo analysis, showed that the climate impact results are relatively stable with regard to the distance for the transports to and from the recycling plant, the amount of electricity used in the recycling plant, and the material loss at the recycling plant. Although these are important parameters to keep track of to ensure as low climate impact as possible, they seem not to be critical for the climate-impact viability of the recycled fibres.

    The present report is based on likely circumstances and technologies available today. Potential future changes are not accounted for. Furthermore, the impact categories selected for this study relate to energy-related issues – climate impact and resource constraints – as these are expected to be the main issues of mechanical textile recycling. There are other impacts that are also important, especially when discussing the environmental impact of mechanically recycled fibres in comparison to primary biobased fibres such as – for example water deprivation and impacts on land use.

    The LCA was conducted within the BioInnovation  project “Mechanical textile recycling – Roadmap for Swedish processing capacity” and considered data and scenarios on business cases on mechanical textile recycling developed within the project. The LCA and its results were intended primarily for internal project work, but the work is made public in this report as the results may also be relevant for external actors interested in developing or investing in a future textile recycling plant within or outside of Sweden. 

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  • Björk, Anders
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gregertsen, Björn
    SP Process Development.
    Pajalic, Oleg
    Perstorp AB.
    Stenemyr, Anna
    SP Process Development.
    PI-Nordic - A strategic research and innovation agenda for process intensification and innovation in process industries2015Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A continued and sustainable growth in the Process Industry sector remains essential for Sweden’s economy. The strategic research agenda PI-Nordic describes a vison and way forward for the development and implementation of Process Intensification (PI) as an essential element for promoting this development. The agenda covers the chemical, water, forest, food, drug and mining industries, the equipment manufacturers and suppliers, the build-up of knowledge and expertise in academia and research institutes, and the essential role of funding bodies.

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