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PFAS in waste residuals from Swedish incineration plants: A systematic investigation
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
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2021 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Incineration is the dominant treatment for residual waste in Sweden. It is desirable to reach complete thermal oxidation of chemical substances in the incineration process to destroy toxic substances contained in waste. Otherwise, there is a risk of toxic substances being released into the environment through incineration residuals. This project has investigated to which extent Swedish waste incineration plants emit PFAS (per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances) via bottom ash, fly ash and condensate water. 

Of 38 incineration plants in Sweden, 27 (in total 31 furnaces) joined the project, answered questionnaires about operating parameters, and sampled incineration residuals. Five samples from each matrix, fly ash, bottom ash, or condensate water, were collected during a two-week period to compensate for the variation over time. 

The collected samples of bottom ash, fly ash and condensate were analysed for 27 different PFAS according to a methodology developed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, based on LC-MS / MS. Out of the 27 incineration plants in this project, five plants had no samples with PFAS-27 concentrations above the analytical limit of detection in any of the matrices. Generally, the results show low concentrations in the sampled matrices from most plants, with a few exceptions. No apparent relationships were found between the analysed concentrations of PFAS in the sampling matrices and the operational data.

Abstract [sv]

Avfallsförbränning är den vanligaste behandlingen av restavfall i Sverige. Vid förbränningen är ambitionen att nå fullständig oxidation av kemiska ämnen, så att giftiga ämnen i avfallet förstörs. Om så inte sker finns det risk att giftiga ämnen släpps ut i miljön via restprodukter. Detta projekt har undersökt i vilken utsträckning svenska avfallsförbränningsanläggningar släpper ut PFAS till miljön via bottenaska, flygaska och kondensatvatten. 

Av de totalt 38 förbränningsanläggningarna som finns i Sverige anslöt sig 27 till projektet, besvarade enkäter från projektet om driftsparametrar och provtog material för analyser. Fem prover samlades in under en tvåveckorsperiod från varje matris, för att kompensera för variationen över tid. 

De insamlade proverna av bottenaska, flygaska och kondensat analyserades med avseende på 27 olika PFAS-ämnen enligt en metod som utvecklats av IVL, baserad på LC-MS / MS. Av de 27 förbränningsanläggningarna i detta projekt hade fem anläggningar inga prover med PFAS-27-koncentrationer över detektionsgränsen. I allmänhet visar resultaten på låga koncentrationer i de provtagna matriserna från de flesta anläggningar, med några utstickande värden. Inga uppenbara samband hittades mellan de analyserade koncentrationerna av PFAS i provtagningsmatriserna och driftsuppgifterna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, 2021.
Series
B report ; B2422
Keywords [en]
PFAS, waste incineration, fly ash, bottom as, condensate water
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Waste
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ivl:diva-3837ISBN: 978-91-7883-299-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ivl-3837DiVA, id: diva2:1610065
Available from: 2021-11-10 Created: 2021-11-10 Last updated: 2021-11-10

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