IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Björk, Anders
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tjus, Kåre
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pourrahimi, A.M.
    Andersson, R.L.
    Ström, V.
    Olsson, R.T.
    Making an ultralow platinum content bimetallic catalyst on carbon fibres for electro-oxidation of ammonia in wastewater2019In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrocatalysis of wastewater containing ammonia is a promising alternative to chemical and biological water purification for several reasons, one being that energy-rich hydrogen gas is generated as a by-product while the reaction can be strictly controlled to meet demands. An objective has been to reduce the loading of expensive platinum (Pt) in the catalyst electrodes, and to reduce the poisoning of the metal surface during the electrolysis. Herein, the co-deposition of a copper–platinum (Cu–Pt) bimetallic alloy onto carbon filaments, stripped from their polymeric coating, is shown to give an electrocatalytic performance superior to that of pure Pt at a content of less than 3 wt% Pt. The key to the enhanced performance was to take advantage of micrometer-sized carbon filaments to distribute a very large bimetallic alloy surface uniformly over the filaments. The Cu–Pt-alloy-coated filaments also suffer less electrode poisoning than pure Pt, and are bonded more strongly to the carbon fibre due to better mechanical interlocking between the bimetallic alloy and the carbon filaments. High-resolution electron microscopy studies combined with a tuned electro-deposition process made it possible to tailor the catalyst micro/nano morphology to reach a uniform coverage, surrounding the entire carbon filaments. The results are promising steps towards large-scale wastewater treatment, combined with clean energy production from regenerated hydrogen.

  • 2.
    Malmgren, Elin
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences;Maritime Environmental Science;Chalmers University of Technology;SE-412 96 Göteborg;Sweden.
    Brynolf, Selma
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences;Maritime Environmental Science;Chalmers University of Technology;SE-412 96 Göteborg;Sweden.
    Fridell, Erik
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences;Maritime Environmental Science;Chalmers University of Technology;SE-412 96 Göteborg;Sweden.
    Grahn, Maria
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences;Maritime Environmental Science;Chalmers University of Technology;SE-412 96 Göteborg;Sweden.
    Andersson, Karin
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences;Maritime Environmental Science;Chalmers University of Technology;SE-412 96 Göteborg;Sweden.
    The environmental performance of a fossil-free ship propulsion system with onboard carbon capture – a life cycle assessment of the HyMethShip concept2021In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 2753-2770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate impact caused by the shipping industry has increased over the past decades despite attempts toimprove the energy efficiency of vessels and lower induced emissions. A tool in reducing climate and otherenvironmental impacts is new low emissions propulsion technologies. These new technologies need toreduce harmful emissions not only in the tailpipe but also over the entire life cycle. This study uses lifecycle assessment to investigate the life cycle environmental impact of a propulsion concept currentlyunder development: the HyMethShip concept. The HyMethShip concept combines electro-methanolenergy storage, an onboard pre-combustion carbon capture system, and a dual fuel internal combustionengine. The concept aims for an almost closed CO2 loop by installing CO2 capture onboard.

    The CO2 isunloaded in port and converted into electro-methanol which is used to fuel the ship again. This is madepossible by a pre-combustion process converting electro-methanol to hydrogen and CO2. Theassessment is conducted from well-to-propeller and focuses on ship operation in the North Sea in 2030.The results indicate that this technology could be an alternative to reduce the climate impact fromshipping.

    The results show a lower impact on acidification, climate change, marine eutrophication,particulate matter, photochemical ozone formation, and terrestrial eutrophication compared to internalcombustion engines run on either marine gas oil (0.1% sulphur content), biogenic methanol, fossilmethanol, or electro-methanol. Electricity with low climate and environmental impact is likely requiredto achieve this, and low NOx emissions from combustion processes need to be maintained. A potentialtrade-off is higher toxicity impacts from the HyMethShip concept compared to most other options, dueto metal needs in wind power plants.

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