IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

ivl.se
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 22 of 22
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Effekter av stormen Gudrun på kväveutlakning från skogsmark2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport utvärderas effekter av stormen Gudrun på 35 ytor inom Krondroppsnätet, framförallt med avseende på kväveutlakningen från skogsmark efter en storm. Resultaten visade på ett tydligt samband mellan stormskadornas omfattning och nitrathalterna i markvattnet, med högre nitrathalter i de ytor som skadades mest. Effekten varierade dock inom samma skadeklass, vilket beror på andra faktorer som till exempel markvegetationen, kvävenedfallet, markvattnets surhetsgrad och beståndets ålder. Uppskalning av resultatet visade att den totala kvävebruttobelastningen till Östersjön och Västerhavet från skogsmark kan öka med ca 8 % till följd av en storm av Gudruns storlek.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Jutterström, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish National Nitrogen Budget – Forest and semi-natural vegetation2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the flow of reactive nitrogen for forests and semi-natural vegetation in Sweden according to the methodology developed within the framework of the Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN). Forest and semi-natural vegetation (FS) constitute one out of 8 pools for the Swedish National Nitrogen Budget. The FS pool is divided into the three compartments; forest, wetland and other land. Together they amount to 71% of the country area.

    The data used has been collected from Swedish official statistics and reports and are representative for year 2015 whenever possible.

    In total, the FS pool has inflows of reactive nitrogen of 175.8 kilotonnes (kt) and outflows of 188.6 kt. The largest inflow is from atmospheric deposition (99.3 kt) and the largest outflow is via leaching/runoff (67.4 kt). Forestry is a major industry in Sweden and the nitrogen flow from the forest due to harvest is the second largest outflow from the FS-pool (58.5 kt). Biological fixation of nitrogen is an important inflow for both forest (39.5 kt) and wetland (32.1 kt). Other land (which mostly consists of mountains) is of smaller quantitative importance and only has two flows: leaching/runoff and deposition (2.9 kt N and 2.9 kt N, respectively).

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eliaeson, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fråne, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Haikonen, Kalle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hultén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish sources and pathways for microplastics to the marine environment2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has been assigned to identify important sources of microplastics in the sea and to work for reducing the production and emission of microplastics from these sources. Within the scope of this governmental assignment, IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute has been funded by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to review the sources of microplastics and the pathways microplastics take to reach the sea.

    A range of potential sources for microplastics and the pathways by which microplastics can reach the sea were selected for the review. The sources included both intentionally produced plastic pellets and plastic particles formed from fragmentation of larger plastic items. The pathways were primarily stormwater, wastewater and atmospheric deposition. For sea-based sources particles are discharged directly to the sea. Information was collected from scientific articles, reports and through personal communication with experts in relevant areas. Where the available data allowed, calculations were done to quantify the amounts of microplastics.

    The most important emissions for microplastics were found to be from road wear and abrasion of tyres. Approximately 13 000 tons of microplastics are released from tyres every year. Since data on microplastic content in stormwater from roads is very scarce it is however uncertain how much of these particles that is transported to water recipients and how much that is permanently deposited in the ground close to the road. The same is true for artificial turfs where the estimated loss was 2 300-3 900 tons per year, but data on the load reaching the sea is completely lacking. Loss of industrially produced plastic pellets in connection to manufacture and handling was estimated to amount to between 300 and 530 tons per year, but also here the volumes discharged to the sea are unknown. For several sources suspected to contribute with large amounts of microplastics to the sea, data is so scarce that no estimations on emissions could be done. This is for example the case for important categories related to waste management, recycling and littering.

    In summary it can be concluded that Swedish coastal waters receive substantial amounts of microplastics from both land-based and sea-based sources. Quantitative data is often scarce or completely lacking and it is not possible to summarize the total Swedish discharge of microplastics to the sea. An attempt to rank the sources according to their contribution was made but it should be kept in mind that data suffers from a large degree of uncertainty. Additional studies are needed to improve the bases for further assessments, in particular on microplastics in stormwater from different surfaces and sources.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI.
    Leung, Wing
    SMHI.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish National Nitrogen Budget - Atmosphere2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, pool 7 ‘Atmosphere’ (AT) of the Swedish National Nitrogen Budget (NNB) is presented.

    The atmospheric pool of NNB is one of the 8 major pools defined by the Task Force of Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) which together represent a total national nitrogen budget capturing all major flows of all forms of reactive nitrogen (Nr) within a country and across the country borders.

    The methodology to calculate NNB has been provided by the Expert Panel on Nitrogen Budgets (EPNB) in the Annexes to the ECE/EB.AIR/119 – “Guidance document on national nitrogen budgets".

    The major flows of Nr to and from the tropospheric air masses above Sweden, including the Swedish national coastal waters, were calculated for the year 2015. Except for the small amount of Nr generated by lightnings, the atmospheric Nr pool is dominated by four main flows: the import and export of Nr by transboundary transport; by Swedish emissions of Nr; and by atmospheric deposition. 

    The principal source of the emission data has been the official Swedish reporting to the Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) under the Air convention (The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, CLRTAP).

    For the reactive nitrogen deposition in Sweden the official national operational estimates by the MATCH Sweden system were used.

    The results show that in 2015 Sweden was a net importer of air pollution in the form of Nr, i.e. the import of Nr from the emission sources outside the country (139 kt N) was larger than the export (96.1 kt N).

    The Swedish emissions of Nr in 2015 were in total 117 kt N. The largest emissions come from two sectors: Agriculture (43.4 kt N) and Energy & Fuels (40.6 kt N). The deposition of Nr to Swedish ecosystems in 2015 was 160 kt N, of which 87% originated from emission sources abroad.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jack Cosby, B.
    F. Wright, Richard
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    MAGIC library for Swedish lakes: evaluation of multiple calibrations2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has an official procedure for determining whether or not a water body is acidified, and thereby qualified for remedial measures such as liming. The criterion of anthropogenic acidification is that the decrease in lake pH relative to pre-industrial status be more than 0.4 pH units (?pH). The pre-industrial pH is estimated by means of the dynamic biogeochemical model MAGIC. In cases for which data are insufficient to calibrate MAGIC, an estimation of pre-industrial pH can be obtained by use of the MAGIC library (www.ivl.se/magicbibliotek). The MAGIC library consists of calibrations for hundreds of lakes and streams in Sweden. The library has a matching procedure to select the lake in the library that most closely resembles the lake to be evaluated. The ?pH of the evaluation lake is then assumed to be that of the library lake. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldanova, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Effekten av sjöfartens utsläpp av svavel och kväve på överskridande av kritisk belastning för försurning och för övergödning i Sverige2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport redovisar resultat från projektet ”Effekten av sjöfartens utsläpp av svavel och kväve på överskridande av kritisk belastning för försurning och för övergödning i Sverige”, Naturvårdsverkets ärendenummer NV-07751-17. Projektet bygger på ett antal utsläppscenarier med fokus på olika sjöfartsemissionsscenarier. Dessa scenarier har tagits fram inom BONUS SHEBA (Sustainable shipping and Environment of the Baltic Sea region) projektet för åren 2012 och 2040. Rapporten visar hur överskridandet av kritisk belastning för försurning och eutrofiering i Sverige påverkas av sjöfarten.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akujärvi, Anu
    SYKE.
    Forsius, Martin
    SYKE.
    Holmberg, Maria
    SYKE.
    Austnes, Kari
    NIVA.
    de Wit, Heleen
    NIVA.
    Bak, Jesper
    AAU.
    NKL-1915 National Nitrogen Budgets in Scandinavia: consequences for climate change and for eutrophication – synthesis report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a project undertaken by Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark related to the National Nitrogen Budget (NNB) with a focus on the NNB pool Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The NNB involves calculations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inflows and outflows within the FS pool, and the study compares these calculations to reports of carbon sequestration in climate reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Norway and Finland initiated their work on NNB, concentrating on Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The UNECE LRTAP Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) methodology was also used for compiling the FS pool for Denmark, while Sweden had established its FS pool prior to the project.The FS pool comprises three sub-pools: forests, wetlands, and other lands. Inflows of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the FS pool are primarily from deposition and biological N-fixation, with major outflows being leaching, harvest, and denitrification.In Finland, Sweden, and Denmark, the inflows and outflows are in balance, while in Norway, there is an accumulation of Nr, indicating a surplus of nitrogen. Wetland sub-pools in all four countries and the forest sub-pool in Norway show nitrogen accumulation.All four countries report carbon sequestration in forests to UNFCCC.

    There is a link between nitrogen and carbon cycles, since the organic matter forming the carbon stock in forests and wetlands relies on nitrogen. The origin of nitrogen contributing to the estimated C-stock increase needs further investigation.There is a discrepancy between the calculated nitrogen changes in the FS pool and the nitrogen needed to support reported carbon stock changes. Possible explanations for the discrepancies are re-location of nitrogen within pools, changes in the C/N ratio, expansion of forested areas, and uncertainties in N-fixation rates and denitrification.There is a need for better integration of carbon and nitrogen flux and stock change estimates in natural ecosystems. Understanding the interactions between carbon and nitrogen is deemed crucial for predicting future developments in carbon sequestration and impacts of nitrogen deposition, especially for the Nordic countries with their significant forests playing roles as carbon and nitrogen sinks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kerstin
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Fölster, Jens
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bedömningsgrunder försurning - tester av MAGIC-biblioteket2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MAGIC library is an acidification assessment tool that allows lakes and watercourses to be assessed with a similar water. In this way, tens of thousands of lakes and watercourses have been assessed. In connection with these assessments, a number of cases have been identified where the calculated reference values have been judged to be unrealistic based on other knowledge that the users of the MAGIC library possess. Administrators at the county administrative boards responsible for liming, were requested to send in documentation on such objects where the acidification assessment with the MAGIC library was considered incorrect. As much relevant background information as possible was requested so that explanations for the different assessments could be investigated. Eight county administrative boards responded to the query. Based on the collected material, MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) -modeled objects and MAGIC library results were compared with historical fish data, with measured water chemistry including trends over time and a comparison with measured and modeled atmospheric precipitation was made.

    The study compared the occurrence of roaches from the end of the 19th century in Värmland with modeled water chemistry. Roaches were found in most of the lakes, including lakes with a low modeled pH. However, there is a clearly decreasing proportion of lakes with the occurrence of roaches the lower the modeled pH of the waters. This is in contrast to, for example, the much less acid-sensitive perch where no connection between occurrence and historically modeled pH could be discerned. Lakes with low pH and where roach occurred at the end of the 19th century have on average a higher content of dissolved organic carbon than lakes with higher pH.

    A comparison between measured time series from lakes and modeled values for the same lake in the MAGIC library shows that the magnitude of the modeled trend in many cases is larger than the observed trend. The picture is not entirely unambiguous, and the differences are greater for sulphate than for ANC (acid neutralizing ability), but that the model overestimates the trend occurs much more often than the other way around. This is largely due to the fact that there is a tendency for the model to overestimate the sulphate content in the lakes at the beginning of the measurements. The reason for this can vary, but correct modeling of time trends in the runoff presupposes that the time development of the deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cations used in the modeling has followed reality.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tolkning av överskridande av kritisk belastning inom miljömålsarbetet2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedfallet av försurande ämnen över Sverige har minskat och förväntas minska ytterligare och den efterföljande återhämtningen från försurning har varit tydlig i många sjöar och vattendrag. Det betyder dock inte att alla sjöar och vattendrag fullt ut har återhämtat sig eller kommer göra det med nuvarande utsläppsnivå. Kritisk belastning (critical load, CL) har under många år varit ett utmärkt verktyg som har tillhandahållit argument vid utsläppsbegränsningsförhandlingar.

    I denna rapport har den nyligen modifierade metodiken för att beräkna kritisk belastning använts. Uträkningarna har använt data från MAGIC-biblioteket som under våren 2016 uppdaterades med bland annat nya skogbruksscenarier. Med dagens nedfall av svavel och kväve ligger överskridandet av kritisk belastning på strax över 10 % av Sveriges yta och CL-överskridandet kommer att ligga på denna nivå även inom nära framtid (2020). Detta resultat överensstämmer i stort med tidigare men med den högre upplösning av resultaten som finns i denna rapport förtydligas den geografiska skillnaden mellan den relativt hårt drabbade södra delen av landet och de mycket mindre belastade norra och mellersta delarna av Sverige. Att resultaten i stort överensstämmer med tidigare nivåer tolkar vi som att beräkningsmetodiken är robust och att de implementerade justeringarna ger ett ännu bättre underlag för nationellt arbete samtidigt som de tidigare internationellt rapporterade resultaten fortsatt är i samma storleksordning.

    Skogsbruket är en viktig del i CL-beräkningen. Man kan konstatera att en stor (och relativt sett allt större) del av de utbytbara baskatjoner som finns i markens katjonbyteskomplex och som tillförs marken genom vittring och nedfall nyttjas av skogsbruket och därför inte finns tillgängliga för att motverka försurningen. Konsekvensen blir att det spelar stor roll för CL-beräkningen vilket skogsbruk som används i beräkningen. Detta är dock bara ett konstaterande och inte skäl till att revidera den svenska hållningen i frågan att baskatjonupptag motsvarande stamvedsuttaget på 2010 års nivå ska användas vid kritiskbelastningsberäkningar.

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Futter, M.
    Cosby, BJC.
    Wright, RF.
    Consequences of intensive forest harvesting on the recovery of Swedish lakes from acidification and on critical load exceedances2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acrossmuch of the northern hemisphere, lakes are at risk of re-acidification due to incomplete recovery fromhistorical acidification and pressures associated withmore intensive forest biomass harvesting. Critical load (CL) calculations aimed at estimating the amount of pollutants an ecosystem can receive without suffering adverse consequences are dependent on these factors. Here, we present a modelling study of the potential effects of intensified forest harvesting on re-acidification of a set of 3239 Swedish lakes based on scenarios with varying intensities of forest biomass harvest and acid deposition. There is some evidence that forestrywould have caused a certain level of acidification even if deposition remained at 1860 levels. We show that all plausible harvest scenarios delay recovery due to increased rates of base cation removal. Scenario resultswere used to estimate critical loads for the entire population of lakes in Sweden. The forestry intensity included in critical load calculations is a political decision. After scaling calculations to the national level, it was apparent that a high but plausible forest harvest intensity would lead to an increase in the area of CL exceedances and that even after significant reductions in forest harvest intensity, there would still be areas with CL exceedances. Our results show that forest harvest intensity and regional environmental change must be carefully considered in future CL calculations.

  • 11.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Blomgren, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    J. Cosby, Bernard
    MAGIC library – A tool to assess surface water acidification2020In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a tool, the MAGIC library, which provides an acidification assessment for any given lake or stream in Sweden based on ten parameters describing lake geographical position, surface area, annual discharge and observed lake water chemistry. The MAGIC library consists of two key components: a library of the existing MAGIC model simulations for 2438 lakes and an analogue matching routine that selects the library lake which is most similar to the evaluation lake described by the ten parameters. The acidification assessment modelled by MAGIC for the library lake is then assumed valid for the evaluation lake. For more than 90% of the library lakes tested, the MAGIC library provided the same acidification assessment as the site-specific MAGIC model simulation. Labour and data requirements for assessment by the MAGIC library are very modest relative to the needs of site-specific MAGIC (or other similar) model simulations. The relative ease of use is essential for a country like Sweden, with a population of 100 000 lakes. The MAGIC library has a web interface (http://magicbiblioteket.ivl. se) to provide single assessments interactively or multiple assessments by uploading the ten required parameters for multiple sites. Conceptually the library has built-in flexibility and could be adapted for other types of ecosystems or assessments. In this paper we describe the MAGIC library concept and evaluate the performance of the MAGIC library in comparison to site-specific MAGIC modelling.

  • 12.
    Munthe, John
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Arnell, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kindbom, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansen, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblad, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tekie, Haben
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatförändringen och miljömål2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Forskningsprogrammet CLEO, Climate change and Environmental Objectives, startades 2010 efter en utlysning från Naturvårdsverket där man efterfrågade forskning med en övergripande målsättning att få: * En analys och kvantifiering av hur förändringar i klimatet, såsom temperatur, nederbörd och avrinning, påverkar förutsättningarna att nå de miljömål som påverkas av långväga transporterade luftföroreningar * En beskrivning och analys av synergier och målkonflikter av åtgärder, både nationellt och internationellt, för att minska utsläpp av växthusgaser och andra luftföroreningar för att nå uppsatta miljömål. * Förbättrad kunskap om grundläggande processer för att ta fram tillförlitliga prognoser och scenarier för utvecklingen mot miljömålen, förbättrade indata till existerande modeller samt bättre sammanlänkning av modeller för klimat, luft och ekosystem.

    Programmet har fokuserat på miljömålen Frisk luft, Bara Naturlig Försurning, Ingen övergödning och i viss mån Giftfri miljö. Då målsättningen var att ta fram resultat som är relevanta för pågående arbete med miljömålen och för långsiktiga överväganden så har CLEO arbetat med framtidsscenarier som både fokuserat på en relativt nära framtid (2030), och i vissa avseenden ett längre tidsperspektiv (2100).

    This report is only available in Swedish. English summary is available in the report.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13. Peacock, Mike
    et al.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kothawala, Dolly N.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evans, Chris D.
    Three Decades of Changing Nutrient Stoichiometry from Source to Sea on the Swedish West Coast2022In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1809-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European ecosystems have been subject to extensiveshifts in anthropogenic disturbance, primarilythrough atmospheric deposition, climate change,and land management. 

    These changes have alteredthe macronutrient composition of aquatic systems,with widespread increases in organic carbon (C),and declines in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P).Less well known is how these disturbances haveaffected nutrient stoichiometry, which may be amore useful metric to evaluate the health ofaquatic ecosystems than individual nutrient concentrations.

    The Swedish west coast has historicallyexperienced moderate to high levels of atmosphericdeposition of sulfate and N, and eutrophication. Inaddition, coastal waters have been darkening withdamaging effects on marine flora and fauna.

    Here,we present three decades of macronutrient datafrom twenty lakes and watercourses along the Swedish west coast, extending from headwaters toriver mouths, across a range of land covers, andwith catchments ranging 0.037–40,000 km2. Wefind a high degree of consistency between thesediverse sites, with widespread increasing trends inorganic C, and declines in inorganic N and total P.

    These trends in individual macronutrients translateinto large stoichiometric changes, with a doublingin C:P, and increases in C:N and N:P by 50% and30%, showing that freshwaters are moving furtheraway from the Redfield Ratio, and becoming evenmore C rich, and depleted in N and P.

    Althoughrecovery from atmospheric deposition is linked tosome of these changes, land cover also appears tohave an effect; lakes buffer against C increases, anddecreases in inorganic N have been greatest underarable land cover. Our analysis also detects coherentlydeclining P concentrations in small forestlakes; so called (and unexplained) ‘‘oligotrophication.’’

    Taken together, our findings show thatfreshwater macronutrient concentrations and stoichiometryhave undergone substantial shifts duringthe last three decades, and these shifts can potentiallyexplain some of the detrimental changes thatadjacent coastal ecosystems are undergoing.

    Ourfindings are relevant for all European and NorthAmerican waters that have experienced historicallyhigh levels of atmospheric deposition, and provide a starting point for understanding and mitigating against the trajectories of long-term change in aquatic systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14. Sinha, R.
    et al.
    Thomas, J.-B.E.
    Strand, Å.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Stadmark, J.
    Franzen, F.
    Ingmansson, I.
    Gröndahl, F.
    Hasselström, L.
    Quantifying nutrient recovery by element flow analysis: Harvest and use of seven marine biomasses to close N and P loops2022In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 178, p. 106031-106031, article id 106031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines nutrient flows and the extent to which marine biomass can contribute to close the loop. The study utilizes an element flow analysis to map N and P flows and explore scenarios of biomass utilisation by 2030 and 2050 in Sweden. 

  • 15.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish National Nitrogen Budget – Hydrosphere2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive amounts of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the hydrosphere can impair water quality and alter the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. Monitoring of water bodies and awareness of the existing flows of nitrogen from different sectors in society can support policy making. In this report we quantified the major flows of Nr in the Hydrosphere pool of the Swedish National Nitrogen Budget, according to the methodology provided by the Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen. Calculations were done for one full year using data mainly from 2014 but also from 2015.

    In 2014/2015, the largest inflows of Nr to the Swedish hydrosphere were leaching from agriculture (53 kilotonnes, kt), from forests (48 kt), atmospheric deposition (33 kt), leaching from wetlands and other land (20 kt) and municipal wastewater treatment plants (17 kt). In addition, there were minor contributions from industrial wastewaters, small dwellings and from stormwater runoff. The major outflows were transport from the coastal waters to the open sea and marine denitrification (together 127 kt) and denitrification from freshwaters (34 kt) N. In addition, there were quantitatively less important Nr losses through fishing, N2O emissions and water abstraction.

    Data come from Svenska MiljöEmissionsData, Statistics Sweden, Nationellt vattentäktsarkiv and SMHI.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 16.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish National Nitrogen Budget - Energy and fuels2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents pool 1 “Energy and fuels” (EF) in the Swedish national nitrogen budget (NNB). The EF pool is divided into four sub-pools; Energy conversion (EC), Manufacturing industries and construction (IC), Transport (TR) and Other energy and fuels (OE).

    The Swedish data presented in this report are for 2015 whenever possible. If data were not available for 2015, available information for the year closest to 2015 have been used. The data were collected from Swedish official statistics and reports and preferably from sources that will continue to be updated, to make it easier to evaluate possible changes in N budgets in the future.

    Emissions of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the atmosphere via various combustion processes have been quantified as they have been reported to international conventions (CLRTAP and UNFCCC) broken down by the codes used in those reports. 

    The largest emissions of Nr occur from transport (24.1 kt), followed by manufacturing and construction (6.7 kt), other energy and fuels (4.9 kt) and energy conversion (4.8 kt). The majority of reactive nitrogen emissions from this sector (> 90 percent) consists of NOx, and otherwise of N2O and NH3.

    The import of primarily crude oil and of other oil-based fuels means a flow of N from the rest of the world to Sweden (53.5 kt). A fraction of this amount is converted to reactive forms and emitted to the atmosphere during combustion. The main part of the NOx that is emitted from fuel combustion is, however, formed when nitrogen in the air is oxidized during the combustion (thermal production of NOx) and does not originate from the N in the fuel. Remaining N in the crude oil and oil products is either removed from the fuel during cracking in refineries or converted to N2 during combustion. Development of combustion processes where NOx is not formed leads to lower emissions.  Biofuels such as ethanol and biodiesel are produced from e.g. wheat and rapeseed. A large part of the nitrogen present in these crops will remain in the residual products after fuel production and can be used for animal feed. They do not result in any emissions of reactive nitrogen in this national nitrogen budget.

    The national nitrogen budgets do not include international transport (shipping, aviation), so additional emissions of reactive nitrogen will need to be added if a global aggregation is to be made.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kritzberg, ES
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Skerlep, Martin
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Olsson, Olle
    Valinia, Salar
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures2020In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Browning of surface waters, as a result of increasing dissolved organic carbon and iron concentrations, is a widespread phenomenon with implications to the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In this article, we provide an overview of the consequences of browning in relation to ecosystem services, outline what the underlying drivers and mechanisms of browning are, and specifically focus on exploring potential mitigation measures to locally counteract browning. These topical concepts are discussed with a focus on Scandinavia, but are of relevance also to other regions. Browning is of environmental concern as it leads to, e.g., increasing costs and risks for drinking water production, and reduced fish production in lakes by limiting light penetration. While climate change, recovery from acidification, and land-use change are all likely factors contributing to the observed browning, managing the land use in the hydrologically connected parts of the landscape may be the most feasible way to counteract browning of natural waters.

  • 18.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kritzberg, ES.
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Skerlep, Martin
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Olsson, Olle
    Valinia, Salar
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures2019In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 49, p. 375-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    DOC-förändringar och MAGIC2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar de svenska studier som har undersökt hur halten av löst organiskt kol (DOC) i våra vatten förändrats över tid. De trender som visats i övervakningsdata från de senaste ca 30 åren redovisas också. Syftet är att sammanställa vilka processer eller mekanismer som har påverkat DOC-halten och att uppskatta betydelsen av detta för bedömning av försurning för att på sikt ytterligare förbättra försurningsbedömningarna i svenska sjöar och vattendrag. Bedömning av försurningsstatus för en sjö eller ett vattendrag i Sverige görs antingen direkt genom modellering med MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments) eller indirekt genom att ett antal parametrar matas in i verktyget MAGIC-biblioteket (magicbiblioteket.ivl.se) som ger en bedömning.

    Ett antal studier har ett experimentellt upplägg, till exempel studeras hur DOC-halten över året skiljer sig åt i avrinningsområden med varierande andel skog och våtmark och hur tillsatser av försurande ämnen påverkar. Andra studier använder data som samlats in via miljöövervakningen för ett stort antal sjöar under de senaste decennierna.

    Sedimentdata från ett urval av sjöar har studerats med metoden VNIRS (visible near-infrared spectroscopy) för att identifiera halten totalt organisk kol (TOC, i stort sett enbart bestående av DOC) över längre tidsperioder, i vissa fall flera tusen år. Dessa mätningar visar att DOC-halten sedan den senaste istiden ofta varit högre än idag. Nedgången i TOC-halt under 1900-talet har i flera studier förklarats som en påverkan av det höga svavelnedfall som skedde under framför allt mitten till slutet av 1900-talet. Förändringar i markanvändning och klimat är andra förklaringsmodeller.

    Dagens försurningsbedömningar, där en förändring i pH från 1860 till idag uppskattas och en minskning i pH med mer än 0,4 pH-enheter anses innebära att sjön eller vattendraget är påverkat av försurning, bygger på att pH-värdet år 1860 kan uppskattas på ett tillförlitligt sätt. I denna rapport diskuteras DOC-haltens inverkan på bedömningen.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nitrogen budget - Agriculture Sweden2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the magnitude of reactive nitrogen flows in a country, a national nitrogen budget can be constructed. In this report, we use a methodology developed by the Expert Panel on Nitrogen Budgets (EPNB) under the Task Force for Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) and describe the flows of nitrogen in agriculture in Sweden in 2015.

    The primary source of data presented in this report are data reported to Eurostat and UNFCCC regarding gross nutrient balance and greenhouse gases. The flows of nitrogen not covered by Eurostat and UNFCCC originate from for example the national compilations of content of feed products and slaughtering weight of animals for consumption.

    The largest inputs of nitrogen to agriculture are in the form of supply of inorganic fertilizer to soil (190 kT) and feed to animals (59 kT). The largest outputs of nitrogen are in the form of products for consumers (eg crops, meat, milk, eggs) (171 kT) and emissions to the hydrosphere and atmosphere (93 kT).

    In total, the inputs were 15 percent larger than the outputs, which is well within the differences found in other countries. The difference may be due to uncertainties in the collected data or that further flows may occur. Such flows should be identified and investigated in the future. The difference may also indicate that the pool of nitrogen in agriculture is not in balance, i.e. nitrogen is stored in the soil.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21. Söderqvist, Tore
    et al.
    Nathaniel, Hanna
    Franzén, Daniel
    Franzén, Frida
    Hasselström, Linus
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Sinha, Rajib
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ingmansson, Ida
    Lingegård, Sofia
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    Cost–benefit analysis of beach-cast harvest: Closing land-marine nutrient loops in the Baltic Sea region2021In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harvesting beach-cast can help mitigate marine eutrophication by closing land-marine nutrient loops and provide a blue biomass raw material for the bioeconomy. Cost–benefit analysis was applied to harvest activities during 2009–2018 on the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea, highlighting benefits such as nutrient removal from the marine system and improved recreational opportunities as well as costs of using inputs necessary for harvest.

    The results indicate that the activities entailed a net gain to society, lending substance to continued funding for harvests on Gotland and assessments of upscaling of harvest activities to other areas in Sweden and elsewhere. The lessons learnt from the considerable harvest experience on Gotland should be utilized for developing concrete guidelines for carrying out sustainable harvest practice, paying due attention to local conditions but also to what can be generalized to a wider national and international context.

  • 22.
    Thomas, Jean‐Baptiste E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Sinha, Rajib
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet/IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Kristineberg Sweden.
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Anthesis Enveco AB Stockholm Sweden;Holmboe & Skarp AB Sorunda Sweden.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet/IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Gothenburg Sweden.
    Franzén, Frida
    Tyrens AB Stockholm Sweden.
    Ingmansson, Ida
    Tyrens AB Stockholm Sweden.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Hasselström, Linus
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering Stockholm Sweden.
    Marine biomass for a circular blue‐green bioeconomy?: A life cycle perspective on closing nitrogen and phosphorus land‐marine loops2021In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A blue-green bioeconomy revolution is underway in Europe, with particular attention being paid to the development of new or underutilized marine biomass resources. The wild harvest and mariculture of low-trophic non-fed species of marine biomass may be contributing to circular economies, the mitigation of environmental problems such as eutrophication and climate change through the uptake of nutrients and carbon, while also recovering finite phosphorus from marine coastal environments, thus contributing to food security. The present study provides a cradle-to-gate life cycle perspective on seven established or innovative/emerging marine biomass utilization cases in Sweden: mariculture of sugar kelp, blue mussels, and ascidians and the harvest of invasive Pacific oysters along the Skagerrak coast, the mariculture of blue mussels in the Baltic sea, the harvest of common reed in the Stockholm archipelago, and the harvest of beach-cast seaweed in Gotland. Results showed that the mariculture cases were found to con tribute to eutrophication and climate impact mitigation (at gate).

    All cases were found to contribute to closing the loop on phosphorus by enabling recovery from marine or coastal environments, bridging marine–land flows, all while performing well from an environmental perspective with a relatively low cumulative energy demand and low carbon and nutrient footprints. This highlights the potential of low-trophic biomass to contribute to phosphorus security in the future, and demonstrates the value of industrial ecology tools such as LCA in support of this imminent Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development

1 - 22 of 22
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf