IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1. Barbir, J.
    et al.
    Arato, E.
    Chen, C-Y.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gutow, L.
    Krång, A-S.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kröger, S. D.
    Leal Filho, W.
    Liwarska-Bizukojc, E.
    Miksch, L.
    Paetz, K.
    Prodana, M.
    Saborowski, R.
    Silva Rojas, R.
    Witt, G.
    Assessing ecotoxicity of an innovative bio-based mulch film: a multi-environmental and multi-bioassay approach2023In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöundersökning efter hybridoljepåslag i Öckerö kommun2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On April 14-15, 2022 a marine spill of hybrid oil (VLSFO) reached the Öckerö and Hönö archipelago. The oil originated from a spill that occurred while the ship Alpine Penelope (Creole Marine Ltd) drew oil from the Swedish bunker ship Fox Luna (BRP Shipping AB) at sea while anchored by the lighthouse Trubaduren outside Gothenburg harbor. The crew estimated the spill to 30-50 L while the Swedish coastguard collected 500 L by the ship and an additional 1000 L of oily water at sea. Single clumps of oil were found as far north as “Ytre Hvaler”, a national park in southern Norway. 

    Öckerö municipality engaged IVL Swedish Environmental Research institute to 1) investigate the degree of marine pollution caused by the spill, and 2) provide suggestions for mitigation actions and make a follow-up plan for the spill.  On May 3, 2022 sediment, invertebrates (snails, Littorina littorea and oysters, Magallana gigas) and macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) were collected at five oil contaminated (Kröckle, Räveskär, Båteviksholmarna, Norra Öckerö and Saltars) and two reference sites (Halse långe and Tjolmen). Sampling was carried out together with two environmental officers from Öckerö municipality and a representative from ITOPF. All samples, including a water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” and an oil sample collected by the municipal staff during beach cleaning, were analyzed for their contents of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, BTEX, PAHs and alkylated PAHs. Measured concentrations in water, sediment and biota were compared to limit values for individual compounds given in HVMFS 2019:25 based on the EU water framework directive. Measured concentrations in oysters and algae were compared to limit values for seafood for human consumption, provided by the Swedish food agency and the Swedish EPA. Sediments were classified according to SGU guidelines.

    Elevated oil pollutant levels were detected in oysters, macroalgae and in seawater surrounding oil polluted algae. The site ”Norra Öckerö” was highly impacted, and both biological and consumption related limit were exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene in biota and bivalves. There are no limit values for PAHs in macroalgae, but by comparing to those developed for biota (bivalves and crustaceans), the environmental limit values were exceeded in algal shoots by a factor 13 for fluoranthene and a factor 132 for benzo(a)pyrene. The limit values for human consumption were also exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene and PAH4 in algae shots from “Norra Öckerö”. At the time of sampling there was thus a serious risk of PAH poisoning from eating oysters or algae (and likely other stationary organisms) collected in the ”Norra Öckerö” area and surroundings. 

    The sediment samples did not show any pollution related to the oil spill. The elevated levels of fluoranthene and pyrene measured at the reference site “Tjolmen” corresponded to SGU class 3 (moderate pollution). This pollution was likely combustion related, originating from boat or car traffic, and should be further investigated. The water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” contained high levels of phenol, the annual average limit value for benzo(a)pyrene was exceeded by a factor 8 and the maximum limit value for benzo(ghi)perylene was exceeded by a factor 3. Consequently, the water close to the algal belt was toxic. The analyzed oil sample contained high amounts of 2-6 ringed PAHs, which constituted almost 90% of the organic pollutants of the oil. This makes the Öckerö VLSFO oil particularly prone to causing long term effects.Although small, the spill did affect a large part of the coastline. Due to difficulties of coming ashore, all samples could not be collected at all stations. It is likely that biota from the station “Kröckle” contained similar levels of oil pollutants as biota from “Norra Öckerö”, yet samples could not be collected there. Correspondingly, biota from oil polluted areas that were not included in the sampling program likely contained high concentrations of oil pollutants in line with what was found at “Norra Öckerö”. The oil was very sticky and therefore particularly difficult to clean up. The algal belt that extends all along the brim of every island has functioned as an oil filter, collecting the remaining water borne oil, which has then continued to leak water soluble oil components to the coastal waters. In all, the oil spill has led to contamination of biota in many places, with “Norra Öckerö” as the most severely affected site, having negative consequences for marine life and also affecting recreation and collection of food from the sea. Because it has become popular to pick and eat wild algae, and algae farms have been established along the coasts, regulations for safe pollution levels in seaweed and algae should urgently be established by food authorities. The municipality is recommended to consider future oil spills and local pollutions sources, like harbors, roads et c in their coastal planning, especially regarding locations for aquaculture. A follow-up study of the Öckerö VLSFO spill is recommended to further understand the long-term effects on marine life and humans.

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  • 3.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Friesen, Lisa Winberg von
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Anthropogenic microlitter in wastewater and marine samples from Ny-Ålesund, Barentsburg and Signehamna, Svalbard2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antropogenic microparticles (AMPs; (0.01≤5 mm) composed of, e.g. plastic, paint, rubber or textile fibers) were analyzed in wastewater from the newly installed (2015) treatment plant in Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard and in seawater and sediments from coastal marine areas nearby. AMPs were found at all sites and in all investigated matrices. Wastewater and seawater were dominated by fibres while sediments were dominated by fragments. Higher concentrations of AMPs and higher polymeric diversity was observed closer to human activities. As much as 99 % of the incoming AMPs may be retained by the wastewater treatment plant in Ny-Ålesund. Wastewater treatment may thus substantially reduce the release of AMPs and associated contaminants to the marine environment and should be installed in the Arctic.

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  • 4.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Utredning av Loddebo avloppsreningsanläggnings miljöpåverkan i det nära havsområdet med avseende på utsläpp av näringsämnen2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid ansökan om utbyggnad utreder IVL nuvarande och framtida utsläpp av näringsämnen från Loddebo avloppsreningsanläggning och möjlig ekologisk påverkan i den inre delen av havsområdet Brofjorden.

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  • 5.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, M.
    Bergman, S.
    Björk, M.
    Diaz-Almela, E.
    Gullström, M.
    Leiva-Dueñas, C.
    Marco-Mendés, C.
    Piñeiro-Juncal, N.
    Mateo, MA.
    A temporal record of microplastic pollution in Mediterranean seagrass soils2021In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, no 273, article id 116451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic pollution is emerging as a potential threat to the marine environment. In the current study, we selected seagrass meadows, known to efficiently trap organic and inorganic particles, to investigate the concentrations and dynamics of microplastics in their soil. We assessed microplastic contamination and accumulation in 210Pb dated soil cores collected in Posidonia oceanica meadows at three locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, with two sites located in the Almería region (Agua Amarga and Roquetas) and one at Cabrera Island (Santa Maria). Almería is known for its intense agricultural industry with 30 000 ha of plastic-covered greenhouses, while the Cabrera Island is situated far from urban areas. Microplastics were extracted using enzymatic digestion and density separation. The particles were characterized by visual identification and with Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and related to soil age-depth chronologies. Our findings showed that the microplastic contamination and accumulation was negligible until the mid-1970s, after which plastic particles increased dramatically, with the highest concentrations of microplastic particles (MPP) found in the recent (since 2012) surface soil of Agua Amarga (3819 MPP kg 1), followed by the top-most layers of the soil of the meadows in Roquetas (2173 kg 1) and Santa Maria (68e362 kg 1). The highest accumulation rate was seen in the Roquetas site (8832 MPP m 2 yr 1). The increase in microplastics in the seagrass soil was associated to land-use change following the intensification of the agricultural industry in the area, with a clear relationship between the development of the greenhouse industry in Almería and the concentration of microplastics in the historical soil record. This study shows a direct linkage between intense anthropogenic activity, an extensive use of plastics and high plastic contamination in coastal marine ecosystems such as seagrass meadows. We highlight the need of proper waste management to protect the coastal environment from continuous pollution.

  • 6.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norkko, J.
    A. Pilditch, C.
    Gammal, J.
    Rosenberg, R.
    Enemar, A.
    Magnusson, M.
    F. Lindgren, J.
    Agrenius, S.
    Norkko, A.
    Ecosystem functioning along gradients of increasing hypoxia and changing soft-sediment community types.2019In: Journal of Sea Research, ISSN 1385-1101, E-ISSN 1873-1414, Vol. 153, article id 101781Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ask, Amalie
    Collard, France
    Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin
    Murphy, Fionn
    Strand, Jakob
    Wing Gabrielsen, Geir
    Bach, Lis
    Microlitter in arctic marine benthic food chains and potential effects on sediment dwelling fauna2020In: TemaNord report, no 528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marine litter pollution affects oceans globally and has today also made its way to the pristine arctic environment adding to the microlitter from local pollution sources. Marine litter pollution is recognized as a serious threat to the marine environment at all levels, from the UN to regional (EU, OSPAR, HELCOM) and national authorities. The risk posed by microlitter to marine biota is related to their documented ubiquity and long residence time in marine ecosystems. Risks are also mediated by intrinsic toxicity of added chemicals and potential adsorbance of other pollutants. When released into the marine environment, a major part of microlitter likely accumulate in beach sand and marine sediments either immediately or after acquiring a biofilm. It is therefore expected that benthic food chains will be key to understanding fate and effects (i.e. concentrations, potential trophic transfer and biological impact) of microlitter in the marine environment. The overall aim of the project was to determine abundance of microlitter pollution in marine sediments and benthic food chains in the Arctic, and to evaluate the abundance in relation to potential local sources and background levels. The aim was also to investigate potential effects of microplastic pollution on benthic organisms through laboratory studies using an arctic amphipod as a model organism. The field investigations in Svalbard, Norway and Greenland focused on determining microlitter particle concentrations and characteristics in marine sediments and biota collected close to and far from potential local pollution sources and pathways, i.e. outlets of untreated wastewater and effluents from a dumping site in Sisimiut, West Greenland and outlets of treated (Ny-Ålesund) and untreated (Longyearbyen) wastewater in Svalbard. Overall, higher concentrations and a higher diversity of microlitter types and polymers were found in sediments and organisms (blue mussels and cod) closer to human settlements (wastewater outlets and dumping sites) and in places where lost and/or dumped fishing gear accumulate. Thus, we can confidently conclude that local pollution sources for anthropogenic microlitter do exist in the Arctic. The experimental studies investigated whether environmentally relevant and future predicted concentrations of microplastics could impact feeding rate, microplastic ingestion, respiration and locomotion activity in an arctic sediment dwelling amphipod. The experimental results confirm previous microplastics studies on marine invertebrates showing effect only at very high concentrations not yet relevant in the arctic environment. The shape of the plastic particles was found to affect the particle fate. While microplastic fragments were ingested, short microplastic fibres attached to the carapace of the amphipods and likely obstructed normal ventilation behaviour. Furthermore, biofilm cover was found to affect the behaviour and effects of the particles. Microlitter naturally become covered by biofilms in the environment and our results stress the importance of effect experiments being carried out using naturally fouled plastics for ecological relevance. This report provides both environmental- and impact data related to microlitter pollution in the arctic marine environment. Although the levels of microplastics required to cause effects in experimental organisms in this study were much higher than what was detected in the field, there may be other species that are more sensitive than the one tested in nature. The currently relatively low microlitter concentrations detected in the field should be considered as a “window of opportunity” to act to at least reduce local pollution. Consequently, introduction of sustainable waste management and wastewater treatment should be an important focus of local management initiatives.

  • 8.
    Ihrfors, Jane
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vowles, Tage
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Oljerelaterade miljögiftshalter i sediment och biota efter dieselspill i Himleån2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Natten den 14 april 2022 skedde ett större dieselläckage efter en bränslestöld på fastigheten Varberg Signalen 14:1, Cylindervägen 12. Läckaget härrörde från en ovanjordscistern tillhörande Circle K. IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet fick i uppdrag att undersöka drabbade vattenrecipienter, Himleån, Getteröns naturreservat och Farehammarsviken, med avseende på oljeföroreningsgrad och biologiskt viktiga komponenter. Uppdraget omfattade också att ge förslag på eventuella åtgärder och hur oljeutsläppet bör följas upp. Den 9–10 maj 2022 togs prover av sediment och biota på en rad platser längs Himleån, i Getteröns naturreservat och vid utloppet till Farehammarsviken. Dagvattenröret från området där olyckan skedde har sitt utlopp i ett mänskligt skapat biflöde till Himleån.

    I Himleån genomfördes provtagningen från utloppet ner till den punkt där ån rinner under väg 41 från strandkanten. På övriga platser längs ån provtogs sediment i åfåran med hjälp av Van Veen-huggare där detta var möjligt. Vid järnvägsbron (gränsen till naturreservatet) och vid Himleåns utlopp gjordes sedimentsprovtagningen från båt med Van Veen-huggare. Vid varje provtagningspunkt togs bilder och anteckningar för att dokumentera förhållandena på platsen. Vid fyra speciellt utvalda platser, varav en referenslokal uppströms olycksplatsen, genomfördes elfiske.Kemiska analyser av sedimentproverna visade på höga halter av alifater och PAH:er vid ett antal platser längs Himleån (provplats 2, 3 och 9) och i stora dammen inom Getteröns naturreservat (provplats 11, 14 och 16).

    I stora dammen var halterna höga främst i sediment från kanalen in mot den lilla dammen samt längs med stranden vid vägen. Utifrån de höga PAH-halter som påträffats i sedimenten vid dagvattenröret (provplats 2), men även med hänsyn till de förhöjda halter som påträffats vid andra provtagningsplatser i området, föreslogs uppföljande provtagning och analyser i dessa områden efter fågelsäsongen för att minimera störningarna.

    Resultaten från den uppföljande provtagningen skulle bidra till ett uppdaterat underlag för rekommendation om och var sanering bör utföras för att undvika eventuella biologiska effekter och vidare spridning av förorenat sediment. IVL rekommenderade också att absorptionslänsarna vid dagvattenutloppet skulle ligga kvar, åtminstone till resultaten från den uppföljande provtagningen analyserats för att kunna fånga upp lättare PAH:er.

    Analyser av fiskmuskel visade förhöjda halter PAH endast vid provplats 7 (Kockargården). Halterna överskred dock inte gränsvärdena för halter i fiskmuskel (HVMFS2019:25), men bör följas upp med ett senare elfiske för att utesluta följdeffekter av spill och åtgärder. Vid analyser av alger påvisades halter över referensprovet för PAH:er i samtliga prover. På tre platser (provplats 8, 10 och 16) överskreds gränsvärdet för kräftdjur och blötdjur (HVMFS 2019:25). Det saknas gränsvärden för vattenväxter.

    En uppföljande provtagning av gifter i sediment vid samma provplatser genomfördes av IVL 8 december 2022. Analyserna visade då för normaliserade värden inga kvarvarande detekterbara halter alifater eller PAH:er uppströms länsar vid dagvattenutloppet (provplats 2). Däremot hade halterna PAH nedströms länsar (provplats 3) ökat och översteg för floranten gränsvärde (HVMFS 2019:25).

    Även vid fågelskyddsområdet norr om dämmet (provplats 11) hade halterna PAH ökat och översteg för bens(g,h,i)perylen gränsvärde (HAV2018:31). IVL bedömer utifrån dessa resultat att provplats 3 efter länsar vid dagvattenutloppet bör saneras, gärna snarast innan våren tar fart. Här bör man ta kontakt med länsstyrelsen för att samråda kring lämpliga saneringsmetoder samt utarbeta en plan för efterkontroll. Analysresultat vid uppföljning av övriga provplatser föranleder inga åtgärder.

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  • 9.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dela Cruz, Majbrit
    University of Copenhagen.
    Devers, Jason
    University of Copenhagen.
    H Christensen, Jan
    University of Copenhagen.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in oily wastewater from shipping with a focus on scrubber water2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce emissions of hazardous combustion gases to air, ship owners can switch to cleaner fuels or install so called “scrubbers”, onboard the ship. In a scrubber, combustions gases are sprayed with water and the dirty wash water, the scrubber water, is discharged to the sea. The number of ships with scrubbers and the volumes of discharged scrubber water have increased dramatically the past decade. When allowing the use of scrubbers, the focus was on improving the air quality, while the impact on the marine environment was not considered. We have here analysed polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), the most toxic fraction of oil, in scrubber water from ships, and reviewed recent ecotoxicological scientific literature on PAC toxicity to marine organisms. Our conclusion is that in areas with intense shipping there is a serious risk for negative effects on marine organisms. 

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  • 10.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Piarulli, S.
    Scapinello, S.
    Comandini, P.
    X. W. Wong, J.
    Sciutto, G.
    Prati, S.
    Mazzeo, R.
    M. Booth, A.
    Airoldi, Rl
    Microplastic in wild populations of the omnivorous crab Carcinus aestuarii: A review and a regional-scale test of extraction methods, including microfibres.2019In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 251, p. 117-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Thor, Peter
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Scrubbers: Closing the loop; Activity 3. Task 2; Risk assessment of marine exhaust gas scrubber water.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to regulations on permitted levels of sulphur emissions from ships an increasing amount of ships are expected to become equipped with exhaust gas cleaning systems, so called scrubbers. The use of scrubbers makes it possible to continue to use high sulphur fuel oil on board. In the scrubbers, the exhaust gases are washed with a scrubber fluid aiming at reducing levels of sulphur dioxide. The fluid passes the exhaust gas once (“open loop scrubber”) or is recirculated (“closed loop scrubber”). This study investigates the potential impact of the discharges from open and closed loop scrubbers on marine ecosystems.

    Samples were taken of effluent water from ships with closed loop and open loop scrubbers. The water from closed loop systems is treated before discharge to the marine environment. The waters were tested for toxicity using experimental studies with field collected zooplankton and bottom-dwelling blue mussels. Zooplankton were found to be more sensitive than mussels. A subsequent risk assessment based on the toxicity results and data on discharged volumes together with a simple and static model on mixing in sea water showed that the issue needs further attention specially to protect sensitive and enclosed areas with heavy ship traffic.

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  • 12. Miksch, Lukas
    et al.
    Chen, Chiau Yu
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gutow, Lars
    Saborowski, Reinhard
    Biodegradable microplastics: Uptake by and effects on the rockpool shrimp Palaemon elegans (Crustacea: Decapoda)2024In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 274, p. 116184-116184, article id 116184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To reduce sulfur emission from global shipping, exhaust gas cleaning systemsare increasingly being installed on board commercial ships. These so-called scrubbers extractSOX by spraying water into the exhaust gas. An effluent is created which is either releaseddirectly to the sea (open-loop system) or treated to remove harmful substances beforerelease (closed-loop system). We found severe toxic effects in the ubiquitous planktoniccopepod Calanus helgolandicus of exposure to effluents from two closed-loop systems andone open-loop system on North Sea ships.

    The effluents contained high concentrations ofheavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including alkylated PAHs. Weobserved significantly elevated mortality rates and impaired molting already in the lowesttested concentrations of each effluent: 0.04 and 0.1% closed-loop effluents and 1% open-loopeffluent. These concentrations correspond to total hydrocarbon concentrations of 2.8, 2.0,and 3.8 μg L−1, respectively, and compared to previous studies on oil toxicity in copepods,scrubber effluents appear more toxic than, for example, crude oil. None of the individualPAHs or heavy metals analyzed in the effluents occurred in concentrations which couldexplain the high toxicity. The effluents showed unexpected alkylated PAH profiles, and we hypothesize that scrubbers act as witch’scauldrons where undesired toxic compounds form so that the high toxicity stems from compounds we know very little about.

  • 14.
    Thor, Peter
    et al.
    Fram Centre, Norwegian Polar Institute, 9296 Tromsø, Norway.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Winnes, Hulda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Kristineberg 566, 451 78 Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Severe Toxic Effects on Pelagic Copepods from Maritime Exhaust Gas Scrubber Effluents2021In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 5826-5835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.est.0c07805

  • 15.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boltenstern, Mikaela
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification and environmental pollution aspects of lost fishing gear in the Nordic countries2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) in aquatic environments contributes both to environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In nature, discarded fishing gear contributes to pollution by macro- and microplastics and harmful chemicals as well as to the degradation of habitats. This study compiles information from the Nordic countries on the quantity and composition of lost fishing gear, originating mainly from sport- and recreational fishing activities. The study also considers the occurrence of harmful chemicals associated with the lost fishing gear and the potential impact of these chemicals on the aquatic environment. Suggestions on how to prevent further losses and mitigate negative impact of lost fishing gear are also provided. 

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  • 16.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    W. Gabrielsen, Geir
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    An efficient and gentle enzymatic digestion protocol for the extraction of microplastics from bivalve tissue.2019In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 142, p. Pages 129-134.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Winberg von Friesen, Lisa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hassellöv, Martin
    W. Gabrielsen, Geir
    Summer sea ice melt and wastewater are important local sources of microlitter to Svalbard waters2020In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 139, article id 105511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities leave traces of marine litter around the globe. The Arctic is, despite its remoteness, emerging as an area of no exception to this environmental issue. Arctic sea ice has previously been found to constitute a temporal sink of microplastics, but the potential release and subsequent fate of microplastics in the marine environment are yet unknown. Furthermore, the relative importance of local sources of microplastics in the Arctic marine environment is under discussion. In this study, the concentration and distribution of anthropogenic microparticles (AMPs,<5 mm, including microplastics) have been investigated in marine waters and sea ice of Svalbard. Seawater samples throughout the water column and floating sea ice samples were collected along a transect originating in Rijpfjorden, reaching northwards to the sea ice-edge. Seawater samples were also collected along a transect extending westwards from head to mouth of Kongsfjorden. Samples were collected throughout the water column with stations positioned to enable detection of potential AMP emissions from the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund. Along both transects, environmental parameters were measured to explore potential correlations with AMP distribution. High concentrations of AMPs were detected in sea ice (158 ± 155 AMPs L−1). Based on both AMP concentrations and characteristics, AMPs identified in seawater of the marginal ice zone are to a large extent likely released during the melting of sea ice. The release of AMPs during summer melting of sea ice was concomitantly taking place with the ice-edge bloom, suggesting increased bioavailability to Arctic marine biota. Concentrations of AMPs were up to an order of magnitude higher in Kongsfjorden (up to 48.0 AMPs L−1) than in Rijpfjorden (up to 7.4 AMPs L−1). The distribution and composition of AMPs in Kongsfjorden suggest the wastewater outlet in Ny-Ålesund to be a likely source. Our results emphasize the importance of local point- and diffuse sources of AMPs in the Arctic and stress the urgency of considering their associated environmental impact. Implementation of regulatory policy is of importance, particularly since human activities and environmental pressures are increasing in the Arctic.

  • 18.
    Winnes, Hulda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mellin, Anna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Zhang, Yuqing
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Scrubbers: Closing the loop; Activity 3. Summary; Environmental analysis of marine exhaust gas scrubbers on two Stena Line ships.2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a summary and a joint analysis of four studies on environmental aspects of the use of exhaust gas SO2 -scrubbers on ships. Based on measurements and analyses of emissions and effluents from scrubber systems on ferries in Stena Line’s fleet we draw conclusions on environmental effects of the installations. The studies are part of the EU-funded project “Scrubbers: Closing the loop”. The use of exhaust gas scrubbers on ships is an alternative to the use of low sulphur fuels from a legal perspective. Both options fulfil existing international standards on sulphur emissions from ships in the Sulphur Emission Control Areas (SECA) implemented by the IMO. The environmental effects of a wide spread use of exhaust gas scrubbers are relevant topics for discussion as the limit for sulphur in marine fuel will be reduced globally 2020 and a large increase in the use of scrubbers is likely to follow. Our environmental analyses indicate that the use of a low sulphur fuel oil as marine fuel is favourable compared to the use of heavy fuel oil in combination with an exhaust gas scrubber, from an environmental risk perspective.

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