IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Brännström, Sara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grahn Lydig, Sophie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mawdsley, Ingrid
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Emma
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bioråvara till plast: nuläge och trender2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras möjliga bioråvaror som kan användas för att producera biobaserad plast och potentiella plastalternativ som är under utveckling eller redan finns tillgängliga på marknaden. Kartläggningen har utgjorts av litteraturgranskning samt intervjuer med olika aktörer inom området.

    Kartläggningen av bioråvarupotentialen hade fokus på råvara från skog, jordbruk, hav samt från biologiskt avfall. Generellt framgår att potentialen är störst för skogsbaserad råvara, följt av jordbruksbaserad råvara och biologiskt avfall, medan potentialen för havsbaserad råvara är minst. 

    Projektet har kartlagt vilken produktionskapacitet som finns tillgänglig för biobaserad plast, främst avseende drop-in-plaster, som är direkt utbytbara med etablerade plaster, men även ersättningsplaster. Globalt är idag endast cirka en procent av plastproduktionen biobaserad. En övervägande del av dagens petrokemibaserade plaster produceras helt eller delvis via krackning av nafta och av det följer att om man kan konvertera biomassa in i det flödet får man in biobaserad råvara i alla dessa plaster, således för polyeten (PE), liksom för polypropen (PP) och polyetentereftalat (PET), som är de tre mängdmässigt största plastsorterna. Biobaserade plaster med annan molekylstruktur än dagens högvolymplaster, här kallat ersättningsplaster, är ännu ganska sparsamt förekommande på marknaden. Det är främst polymjölksyra (PLA) som används, och produktionskapaciteten ökar globalt. 

    En slutsats som dras i studien är att det pågår lovande utveckling och en långsam men stadig ökning av biobaserad plast, men att det är först runt 2030, och därefter, som bioråvara till plast, och plast från bioråvara, kommer att vara tillgänglig i större mängder.

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  • 2.
    de Jong, Annelise
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Borisova, Stanislava
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hallberg, Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sondal, Jonas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Molin, Elvira
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    LCA Systemanalys av återanvändbara förpackningar för take-away mat och dryck2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is reported by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute on behalf of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and investigates the environmental impact of reusable packaging for takeaway food and beverages. The report serves as a basis for a government assignment carried out by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and the National Food Agency to produce guidance and guidelines for reusable food boxes and cups (M2021/02087). In the new regulation (2021: 996) on disposable products, increased requirements for reuse of packaging are in place from January 2024 including registration of reuse systems at the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. There are also requirements for actors to inform their customers about the environmental impact of the use of disposable packaging and about the benefits of reduced consumption of the packaging.

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has commissioned this study to develop knowledge on the environmental impact of reusable packaging and to show advantages of these over single-use packaging, based on the entire life cycle from the manufacture of reusable packaging to several use cycles, and waste management. Materials that were analyzed for mugs are fossil-based plastics, biobased plastics, and steel, and for boxes materials are fossil-based plastics, biobased plastics, glass, and steel.

    A system analysis (LCA) was applied to answer the following questions in the study:

    How (when and how) brought reusable cups and lunchboxes should be used?

    Which materials for reusable cups and lunchboxes should be used to maximize environmental benefits?

    Results show that raw material extraction dominates for all material alternatives, except for fossil plastics where the incineration in the waste stage also has a significant climate impact. If not accounting for the fact that glass or steel can be used more times than plastic, glass and steel have a much higher impact than plastic due to higher weight since steel also has a greater climate impact per kg of material when manufacturing the material. Still the study signals that fossil-based plastic (in this study PP) is probably the worst material from a climate point of view, which is largely due to the fact that incineration of the container sooner or later contributes to fossil climate impact.

    The bio-based plastic alternative is good from a climate point of view, mainly because the combustion of a bio-based material does not contribute to fossil climate impact, but also because the impact of production of the material is lower, although this is uncertain as the data used in this study is based on an LCA published by a single supplier. For steel packaging the challenge in the analysis was partly to try to do this material justice as it can be used more times than the plastic materials, but also that it has been difficult to define a product weight that is representative in comparison with the other materials. The study also shows that glass (which is only related to food boxes in this study) is a good option. The choice of material for mugs or boxes is thus important and should involve consideration of the durability of the material(s) in terms of number of usages.

    Transport has a relatively small impact overall, but the transport to "users" is visible even if it means less than the cleaning. The heavier the mug/box is, the greater the impact from transport. The cleaning is an important part but is relatively small compared to the raw material phase of packaging production. Non-centralized cleaning has not been analyzed but should give a lower impact (due to no transport), but possibly a higher impact (due to less efficiency), and this could possibly weigh each other out, but has not been analysed. 

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  • 3.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sandin Albertsson, Gustav
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hallberg, Elisabet
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Siptex WP5 report: Life cycle assessment of textile recycling products2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a life cycle assessment (LCA) of recycling products from the automated textile-sorting plant Siptex in Malmö, Sweden.

    The recycling products are sorted fractions of cotton, polyester, and wool. The LCA aims to increase knowledge of the environmental performance of the Siptex plant, in terms of reducing the incineration of textile waste and providing a new source of material to the textile industry.

    The three recycling products are assessed by studying four garments made of the recycling products and comparing these to garments made of primary material. 

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    LCA Report WP5 SIPTex
  • 4.
    Sandin Albertsson, Gustav
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Does large-scale textile recycling in Europe reduce climate impact?: consequential life cycle assessment2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through an LCA that systematically considers uncertainties, we found a 92% probability that large-scale textile recycling in the EU reduces climate impact. The reduction is just over 1% of textile products' climate impact, so other measures are needed to tackle the climate challenge of textiles.

    A sensitivity analysis shows what needs to be accounted for to ensure a reduced climate impact, e.g., recycling with low climate impact and a high replacement of the production of primary fibers.

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    Leder storskalig textilåtervinning i Europa till minskad klimatpåverkan?
  • 5.
    Sandin Albertsson, Gustav
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strandberg, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Billstein, Tova
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hammar, Torun
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Larsson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden .
    Life cycle assessment of mechanical textile recycling in Sweden2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a screening life cycle assessment (LCA) of a potential, future mechanical textile recycling system located in Sweden. The report is based on rough assumptions, data estimates and scenarios exploring the influence of uncertainties regarding, for example, the location of the recycling plant (influencing the transport distances), the need for constructing new infrastructure for the recycling plant, the need to sort the incoming feedstock, the electricity mix used at the recycling plant, and fuel type used in transports. The main conclusions of the report are as follows:

    1. The results, in terms of climate impact, energy demand, and fossil resource use, for mechanically recycled fibres, are in the lower range, or about an order of magnitude lower, compared to the results of production of primary fibres. Although the results of this kind of screening LCA of a future production system are inherently uncertain, the results strongly indicate that establishing mechanical recycling of textiles in Sweden has a high potential to contribute to reduced environmental impact in the textile sector. 

    2. As mechanically recycled fibres often rely on blending with a substantial share of primary fibres in yarn spinning, the environmental impact of the final yarn will depend on the environmental impact of the primary fibres used for blending.

    3. The studied uncertainties substantially influence the environmental impact of the recycled fibres. These uncertainties regards the location of the recycling plant (influencing the transport distances), the need to build new infrastructure for the recycling plant, the need to sort incoming feedstock, the electricity mix used at the recycling plant, and the fuel type used in transports of materials to and from the recycling plant. These parameters are important to consider when developing, designing, and operating a mechanical recycling plant in Sweden. But even with relatively long transportation distances, new infrastructure, (manual and automatic) pre-sorting, mostly fossil fuels used in transports and an electricity mix with high climate impact, the environmental impact of the mechanically recycled fibres are in the lower range of, or substantially lower than, the environmental impact of most primary fibres.

    4. The fact that mechanical recycling in Sweden is expected to be powered by an electricity grid mix with relatively low climate impact makes a big difference in terms of the climate impact. A location in a region with a grid mix with higher climate impact, such as the (current) European grid mix, would increase the climate impact of the recycled fibres with about 200 kg CO2 eq. per t fibres – which would still result in fibres with low climate impact compared to most primary fibres.

    5. The sensitivity analysis, based on a Monte Carlo analysis, showed that the climate impact results are relatively stable with regard to the distance for the transports to and from the recycling plant, the amount of electricity used in the recycling plant, and the material loss at the recycling plant. Although these are important parameters to keep track of to ensure as low climate impact as possible, they seem not to be critical for the climate-impact viability of the recycled fibres.

    The present report is based on likely circumstances and technologies available today. Potential future changes are not accounted for. Furthermore, the impact categories selected for this study relate to energy-related issues – climate impact and resource constraints – as these are expected to be the main issues of mechanical textile recycling. There are other impacts that are also important, especially when discussing the environmental impact of mechanically recycled fibres in comparison to primary biobased fibres such as – for example water deprivation and impacts on land use.

    The LCA was conducted within the BioInnovation  project “Mechanical textile recycling – Roadmap for Swedish processing capacity” and considered data and scenarios on business cases on mechanical textile recycling developed within the project. The LCA and its results were intended primarily for internal project work, but the work is made public in this report as the results may also be relevant for external actors interested in developing or investing in a future textile recycling plant within or outside of Sweden. 

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1 - 5 of 5
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