IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 1.
    Klemetz, Viktor
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Helena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nerentorp, Michelle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Segura Roux, Marta
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söderlund, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Areskoug, Hans
    Hamzavi, Zahra
    Hansson, Christen
    Krejci, Radovan
    Mellqvist, Johan
    Lindström, Bodil
    Nanos, Therese
    Alpfjord Wylde, Helene
    Andersson, Camilla
    Andersson, Sandra
    Carlund, Thomas
    Leung, Wing
    Nationell luftövervakning: Sakrapport med data från övervakning inom Programområde Luft t. o. m. 20212023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for the national air quality and precipitation monitoring in rural background areas.

    This report presents the results from the activities within the National monitoring programme for air pollutants including measurements (performed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL), Stockholm University (SU), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Chalmers University of Technology and Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) respectively) until 2021 and modelling (performed by SMHI) until 2020

    .For most of the air pollutants monitored the situation has improved significantly since the measurements started between 20 and 40 years back, regarding air concentrations as well as deposition in the rural background.

    The pollution load is in general decreasing the further north one goes.For most of the components for which there are environmental quality standards (EQS) and environmental objectives, the concentrations are well below the limit and target values.

    The concentrations of ground-level ozone exceed the air quality standard for health at several locations in southern Sweden. For particles (PM2,5) and benzene (in urban background air) there is a low risk for concentration levels above the specifications of the environmental objectives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Nationell luftövervakning 2021
  • 2.
    Klemetz, Viktor
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Petersson, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Humanexponering av mikroplast i luft2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute was commissioned by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate how the human exposure to airborne microplastics can be monitored in Sweden, to report suitable methods and costs in this regard, and to investigate the possibilities of incorporating such measurements within the framework of ongoing national environmental monitoring.From a human toxicological perspective, measurements should be performed on particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm (PM10) and 2.5 µm (PM2.5) respectively.

    The measurements are recommended to primarily take place in urban areas with active pumped sampling and initially measurements should be performed continuously on a daily or weekly basis to facilitate strategic decisions on future microplastic monitoring regarding measurement frequency and suitable measurement periods during the year. There is a probability that the levels of microplastics will tend to follow the same annual concentration variations as particulate matter, which means that the highest levels are likely to be measured in spring. Existing measurement networks are recommended to be used.Both for sampling and analysis, glass fiber filters are recommended, or alternatively, other filters that are compatible with sampling instruments at existing measuring stations. When choosing a different type of filter for sampling, one should consider the following preparation and analysis.

    Thermoanalytical methods, such as pyrolysis-GC/MS and TED-GC/MS, are recommended as analysis methods for microplastics in air.Within the national air monitoring network, the results are reported as units of weight per cubic meter of air. The same measurement unit is also recommended for microplastics, for example as mg/m3 or ng/m3 depending on the measured concentrations.A reference library, which is a packaged information base with known markers for different plastics, is required to identify the microplastics in the analysis. A decision must therefore be made on which types of microplastic that are to be analyzed for the analysis results to best reflect the total concentration of microplastics in a sample.Existing sampling within the national air monitoring network is not necessarily considered to be affected by an expanded analysis of microplastics provided that the type of filters used are compatible with the sampling equipment.

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