IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 151.
    Lindén, Jenny
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uddling, Johan
    GU.
    Watne, Ågot
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    GU.
    Air pollution removal through deposition on urban vegetation: The importance of vegetation characteristics2023In: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 81, p. 127843-127843, article id 127843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban vegetation has the potential to improve air quality as it promotes pollutant deposition and retention.Urban air quality models often include the effect vegetation have on pollution dispersion, however, processesinvolved in pollution removal by vegetation are often excluded or simplified and does not consider differentvegetation characteristics. In this systematic review, we analyze the influence of the large interspecies variationin vegetation characteristics to identify the key factors affecting the removal of the major urban pollutants,particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the air through vegetation deposition.

    The aim is toidentify key processes needed to represent vegetation characteristics in urban air quality modelling assessments.We show that PM is mainly deposited to the leaf surface, and thus representation of characteristics affectingthe aerodynamics from canopy down to leaf surface are important, such as branch/shoot complexity and leafsize, leaf surface roughness and hairiness. In addition, characteristics affecting PM retention capacity, resuspensionand wash-off, include leaf surface roughness, hairiness and wax content. NO2 is mainly depositedthrough stomatal uptake, and thus stomatal conductance and its responses to environmental conditions are keyfactors. These include response to solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture.Representation of these vegetation characteristics in urban air quality models could greatly improve ourability to optimize the type and species of urban vegetation from an air quality perspective.

  • 152.
    Liptzin, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA;Now at Soil Health Institute Morrisville NC USA.
    Boy, Jens
    Institute of Soil Science Leibniz Universität Hannover Germany.
    Campbell, John L.
    USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station Durham NH USA.
    Clarke, Nicholas
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) Ås Norway.
    Laclau, Jean‐Paul
    Eco&Sols University Montpellier CIRAD INRA IRD Montpellier SupAgro Montpellier France.
    Godoy, Roberto
    Instituto Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas Facultad de Ciencias Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia Chile.
    Johnson, Sherri L.
    USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Corvallis OR USA.
    Kaiser, Klaus
    Soil Science Martin Luther University Halle‐Wittenberg Halle Germany.
    Likens, Gene E.
    Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies Millbrook NY USA.
    Karlsson, Gunilla Pihl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Gothenburg Sweden.
    Markewitz, Daniel
    Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources The University of Georgia Athens GA USA.
    Rogora, Michela
    National Research Council of Italy Water Research Institute (CNR‐IRSA) Rome Italy.
    Sebestyen, Stephen D.
    Northern Research Station US Department of Agriculture Forest Service Grand Rapids MN USA.
    Shanley, James B.
    US Geological Survey Montpelier VT USA.
    Vanguelova, Elena
    Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham UK.
    Verstraeten, Arne
    Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) Geraardsbergen Belgium.
    Wilcke, Wolfgang
    Institute of Geography and Geoecology Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Karlsruhe Germany.
    Worrall, Fred
    Department of Earth Sciences Durham University Durham UK.
    McDowell, William H.
    Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire Durham NH USA.
    Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Atmospheric Deposition of Dissolved Organic Carbon2022In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 36, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric deposition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to terrestrial ecosystems is a small, but rarely studied component of the global carbon (C) cycle.

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and organic particulates are the sources of atmospheric C and deposition represents a major pathway for the removal of organic C from the atmosphere.

    Here, we evaluate the spatial and temporal patterns of DOC deposition using 70 data sets at least one year in length ranging from 40° south to 66° north latitude. Globally, the median DOC concentration in bulk deposition was 1.7 mg L −1. The DOC concentrations were significantly higher in tropical (<25°) latitudes compared to temperate (>25°) latitudes.

    DOC deposition was significantly higher in the tropics because of both higher DOC concentrations and precipitation. Using the global median or latitudinal specific DOC concentrations leads to a calculated global deposition of 202 or 295 Tg C yr −1 respectively.

    Many sites exhibited seasonal variability in DOC concentration. At temperate sites, DOC concentrations were higher during the growing season; at tropical sites, DOC concentrations were higher during the dry season. Thirteen of the thirty-four long-term (>10 years) data sets showed significant declines in DOC concentration over time with the others showing no significant change.

    Based on the magnitude and timing of the various sources of organic C to the atmosphere, biogenic VOCs likely explain the latitudinal pattern and the seasonal pattern at temperate latitudes while decreases in anthropogenic emissions are the most likely explanation for the declines in DOC  concentration.

  • 153. Lunde Hermansson, Anna
    et al.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Grönholm, Tiia
    Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hassellöv, Jesper
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Strong economic incentives of ship scrubbers promoting pollution2024In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to stricter regulations on ship air emissions, many shipowners have installed exhaust gas cleaning systems, known as scrubbers, allowing for use of cheap residual heavy fuel oil. Scrubbers produce large volumes of acidic and polluted water that is discharged to the sea. Due to environmental concerns, the use of scrubbers is being discussed within the International Maritime Organization. Real-world simulations of global scrubber-vessel activity, applying actual fuel costs and expenses related to scrubber operations, show that 51% of the global scrubber-fitted fleet reached economic break even by the end of 2022, with a surplus of €4.7 billion in 2019 euros. Within five years after installation, more than 95% of the ships with the most common scrubber systems reach break even. However, the marine ecotoxicity damage cost, from scrubber water discharge in the Baltic Sea Area 2014–2022, amounts to >€680 million in 2019 euros, showing that private economic interests come at the expense of marine environmental damage.

  • 154. Lunde Hermansson, Anna
    et al.
    Hassellöv, Ida-Maja
    Moldanová, Jana
    Ytreberg, Erik
    Comparing emissions of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and metals from marine fuels and scrubbers2021In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 97, p. 102912-102912, article id 102912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In January 2020, new global regulations were implemented to limit the maximum sulphur content in marine fuels. As an alternative to switch to compliant fuels, the regulations allow for installations of exhaust gas cleaning systems, e.g. scrubbers, that enables a continued use of less expensive heavy fuel oils (HFOs).

    Characterization of scrubber discharge water shows that the acidified water also becomes enriched with contaminants, and large quantities of metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thus being discharged directly to the marine environment. When emissions of contaminants to the atmosphere and the marine environment are evaluated simultaneously, the results show that HFO, with scrubbers installed, generates higher emission factors of both metals and PAHs compared to MGO. This highlights the importance of including both the marine and the atmospheric perspective when comparing environmental loads and impact of contaminants from shipping.

  • 155. Lysenko, Olga
    et al.
    Yaramenka, Katarina
    Mata, Érika
    Burgoa Francisco, Fernando
    Gabaldon Moreno, Andrea
    Lidfeldt, Matilda
    Verdugo González, Francisco
    Positive climate and health impacts from upscaled use of heat pumps and solar panels in technology packages in EU-27 by 20502024In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 44, p. 221-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving the European Union's (EU-27) climate targets for 2050 requires moving away from fossil fuels, for which the necessary heating and cooling (H&C) technologies are mostly already available in the domestic sector. These H&C technologies, such as heat pumps and photovoltaic and thermal solar panels, reduce air pollution and thus have positive climate and health effects, but require the increased use of limited materials.

    Although the integration of such technologies into technology packages (TPs) further increases energy efficiency, monetary values of the climate and health effects of these TPs have not been assessed from a life cycle perspective including the production phase. Therefore, we monetize the full impacts of adopting such innovative H&C TPs in refurbished and new residential and tertiary buildings in the EU-27. With that aim, we combine an analysis of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions from the life cycle assessment of the TPs with long-term scenarios of H&C demand, to generate country-specific emissions (2030 and 2050).

    Accordingly, climate and health impacts are estimated using the Greenhouse gas and Air pollution Interactions and Synergies and Alpha RiskPoll models. The total estimated monetary benefits of TP implementation in the EU-27, including its health effects (dominated by reduced premature mortality) and climate impacts, are approximately 15–49 billion €2015 in 2030 and 34–123 billion €2015 in 2050. Furthermore, the benefits are 13 %–15 % higher if the health effects on all European countries are considered. These substantial benefits can justify the broader deployment of TP technologies in the future.

  • 156. Lyshtva, Pavlo
    et al.
    Voronova, Viktoria
    Barbir, Jelena
    Leal Filho, Walter
    Kröger, Silja Denise
    Witt, Gesine
    Miksch, Lukas
    Sabowski, Reinhard
    Gutow, Lars
    Frank, Carina
    Emmerstorfer-Augustin, Anita
    Agustin-Salazar, Sarai
    Cerruti, Pierfrancesco
    Santagata, Gabriella
    Stagnaro, Paola
    D'Arrigo, Cristina
    Vignolo, Maurizio
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Strömberg, Emma
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lehtinen, Liisa
    Annunen, Ville
    Degradation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) compound in different environments2024In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 3, p. e24770-e24770, article id e24770Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 157. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka
    Johansson, Lasse
    Smailys, Vytautas
    Telemo, Paul
    Winnes, Hulda
    Risk assessment of bilge water discharges in two Baltic shipping lanes2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 126, p. 575-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concentrations and effects of bilge water contaminants in two Baltic Sea areas were estimatedfrom modelling of discharge rates and analytical data on bilge water from seven ships. Biodegradation of bilgewater oil was accounted for and annual water concentrations were estimated to peak in late spring, whichcoincides with the beginning of a period with extensive biological activities in the sea.

    Concentrations on bilgewater metals were calculated both as water concentrations and as the annual contribution of metals to sediments.The predicted bilge water concentrations of oil and metal in the marine environment were estimated tobe 4 to 8 orders of magnitude lower than reported toxic concentrations. However, available toxicity data arebased on short term exposure and there is to date limited information on toxic effects of the small but chronicallyelevated contaminant concentrations derived from bilge water discharge and other operational shipping activities.

  • 158. Magnusson, Kerstin
    et al.
    J�rundsd�ttir, Hr�nn
    Nor�n, Fredrik
    Lloyd, Hywel
    Talvitie, Julia
    Set�l�, Outi
    Microlitter in sewage treatment systems2016In: TemaNord report 2016:510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of microscopic litter particles in the sea is a problem that has received considerable attention over the past decade. There are numerous possible sources to these microparticles and also numerous ways by which they may reach the marine environment. In order to take efficient measures to reduce the concentrations important sources and entrance routes have to be identified. Effluent water from sewage treatment plants (STPs) is one entrance route for microlitter to the sea and other aquatic environments. The purpose of the present study has been to quantify the amount of litter particles being discharged into the sea this way and also to investigate whether elevated microlitter concentrations could be detected in water, sediment and biota in the STP recipient areas.

    The study was limited to particles ≥300 μm in water and particles ≥100 μm in biota and sediment.The microlitter content was analysed in influent and effluent water at two STPs in each of Sweden, Finland and Iceland. Analyses of microlitter concentrations in water, sediment and biota were done in the recipient to one of the STPs in each country. Two major groups of microlitter were registered; microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibers (e.g. cotton).The study showed that in the Swedish and Finnish STPs more than 99.7% of the microlitter particles ≥300 μmThe plume of waste water coming from the discharge tube was fairly easy to detect in the Swedish and Finnish STP recipients. In both these recipients the microlitter concentrations in the plumes were found to be significantly higher than in water at the reference sites.

    The Swedish STP recipient water was localized in a river mouth in a heavily urbanized and industrialized area but the microlitter concentration in the waste water plume was still distinctly elevated compared to the water unaffected by the waste water.Microlitter concentrations in the recipient to the Swedish STP were found to be considerably lower when sampling during a period with no precipitation compared to sampling during a heavy rainfall, 1.9 microplastics and 1.5 non-synthetic fibres per m3 compared to 10.5 microplastics per m3 and non-synthetic fibers too numerous to be counted. In the Finnish recipient the concentrations were on average 12.7 microplastics and 11.3 non-syntheic fibres per m3 on the first sampling occasion and 0.7 microplastic and 6.7 non-synthetic fibres per m3 on the second. The difference could not be explained by any obvious climatolocial factors since both samplings were carried out during periods of dry weather. The microplastic concentrations in the Icelandic STP recipient water were slightly elevated compared to the reference site, and the difference was larger for the non-synthetic fibres than for the microplastics.

    Concentrations of microplastics varied between 2 and 5 litter particles per m3 at both sites. The small difference between the STP recipient and the reference site was probably at least partly due to the fact that the discharge point was localized in an area with an open coastline and a very good water circulation.Microplastics and anthropogenic non-synthetic fibres were detected in biota and sediment from the waste water recipient areas in all countries but it was not possible to trace them with any certainty to the waste water effluents.The study shows that STP effluents are entrance routes for microplastics and other microlitter particles to the aquatic environment. If the plants are equipped with chemical and biological treatment most of the litter particles in influent waste water will be retained in the sewage sludge. This reduces the impact on the recipient water, but if the sludge for example is to be used as an agricultural fertilizer the microlitter will still be spread to the environment. Efforts to reduce the microlitter concentrations in waste water should therefore preferably be done in households and other locations where the waste water is originally being formed.

  • 159.
    Malmeaus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Att modellera internbelastning av fosfor i sjöar: Nya rutiner i LEEDS-modellen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs nya modelleringsrutiner för beräkning av sedimentation, läckage och begravning av fosfor i sjöar i LEEDS-modellen. På senare år har frågan om åtgärder mot internbelastning av fosfor genom behandling av sediment hamnat i fokus, vilket ställer större krav på precisionen i modelleringen av fosforflöden mellan sediment och vatten. Uppdateringen innebär möjligheter att med större precision kunna simulera effekten av åtgärder mot internbelastning inklusive varaktigheten i dessa åtgärder. Modellen är tänkt att användas inom den vägledning för åtgärder mot internbelastning av fosfor som tas fram inom LIFE IP-projektet Rich Waters.

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  • 160.
    Malmeaus, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindblom, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöbedömning av kumulativa effekter i infrastrukturprojekt2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport presenteras ett ramverk för hur kumulativa effekter kan hanteras i miljöbedömningar av vägar och järnvägar. Kumulativa effekter uppstår när flera separata effekter från tidigare, nuvarande och/eller framtida åtgärder eller projekt samverkar. Den pågående klimat- och biologisk mångfaldskrisen understryker vikten av en holistisk och pålitlig grund för alla typer av tillståndspliktiga verksamheter, inte minst infrastrukturprojekt. Bland rapportens rekommendationer kan nämnas att miljöbedömningar bör ta upp kumulativa effekter till följd av både enskilda, existerande och rimligt förutsägbara aktiviteter, och summan av det diffusa påverkanstryck som utövas av ”bakgrundsaktiviteter” och klimatförändringar.

    Rapporten rekommenderar också ett skifte av fokus från enskilda miljöeffekter till att se miljö­påverkan i ett större sammanhang, exempelvis i form av påverkan på bevarandestatus för naturtyper i ett landskapsperspektiv och inte enbart i relation till den sökta verksamheten. Att på så sätt höja blicken är en tillämpning av ett miljövärdescentrerat perspektiv på bedömning av kumulativa effekter.

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  • 161.
    Malmeaus, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Steen, Linnea
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Trender i omvärlden med relevans för Generationsmålet2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att tillhandahålla en beskrivning av rådande drivkrafter och globala utvecklingstrender av betydelse för det svenska generationsmålet och dess strecksatser, huvudsakligen i relation till år 2030, men även med reflektioner för 2050. Inför arbetet med den fördjupade utvärderingen finns ett behov av aktuell kunskap avseende rådande utvecklingstrender i omvärlden och hur de kan påverka generationsmålet och dess strecksatser. I rapporten identifieras och analyseras sammanlagt 32 olika omvärldstrender.

    Sammantaget innebär klimatförändringar, global miljöförstöring och ökande brist på och konkurrens om naturresurser betydande utmaningar för uppfyllandet av samtliga av generationsmålets strecksatser och utövar i många fall en negativ påverkan som läggs till den påverkan som sker lokalt inom Sverige. Vad beträffar teknikutveckling, geopolitik och förändrade värderingar är såväl trenderna, som konsekvenserna för det svenska generationsmålet, betydligt mer osäkra, och innehåller i många fall både möjligheter och hot. Exempelvis kan den tekniska utvecklingen bidra positivt till minskad miljöbelastning genom att ersätta fossil infrastruktur med förnybar energi, samt genom att effektivisera produktion och konsumtion. Samtidigt innebär teknikutveckling i många fall ökad produktion och konsumtion, vilket samspelar med värderingar och maktstrukturer. Utöver ansvaret för egna miljömål har Sverige en möjlighet att spela en positiv roll i internationellt miljö- och klimatarbete både globalt och genom vårt medlemskap i den Europeiska unionen.

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  • 162.
    Maltais, Aaron
    et al.
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Karltorp, Kersti
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tekie, Haben
    Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Policy priorities for  mobilizing investment in  Swedish green industrial  transitions2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In its latest assessment reports, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stresses that there is a rapidly closing window of opportunity for global action to prevent and adapt to climate change and that mitigation and adaptation is needed now. The Swedish Climate Policy Council has stated that a transition has been initiated in Sweden, and national emissions have been cut by about 35% since 1990. Still an acceleration of this transition is needed to reach the national target of net-zero emissions by 2045. Industry is responsible for about a third of Sweden’s greenhouse gas emissions, and investments in deep emissions cuts in this sector are key for reaching the national target. This involves investments in innovative technologies that enable increased efficiency in the use of materials and energy, increased circularity, and fuel and feedstock switches. For most industrial sectors several pathways are being implemented, although there remain large uncertainties and risks associated with the options they are pursuing.The implementation of new technologies will often increase both capital needs and operating costs and there might be periods of elevated working capital as investments in new technologies have to overlap old production processes while verifying new solutions. Moreover, industrial sites have long lifetimes and long investment cycles. As a result, investments in technological and production changes that bring deep emissions cuts in heavy industry risk older assets having to be written off prematurely. Details are scarce on the extent to which capital investment entails a challenge for industrial transition and if so how to handle these challenges. 

    The aim of this report is to better understand the key challenges for investments in technological and production changes that bring deep emissions cuts in heavy industry in Sweden. We investigate this matter from the perspective of both industry actors and actors from the financial sector. Our key research questions are: • Is the size of the capital investments needed for green industrial production a significant challenge for bringing about these transitions in Sweden?• What are the most important challenges for actors’ willingness to invest in deep green industrial transitions and investors’ willingness to provide financing for those investments?• What policies do industrial and financial actors think can best support the willingness to invest in and provide financing for deep green industrial transitions in Sweden? The report focuses on Sweden and the heavy industries that account for the largest share of greenhouse gas emissions: iron and steel, cement, refining and chemicals. We also include the pulp and paper industry in this study given that it is a large industrial point source of biogenic CO2 emissions (through the combustion of bio-fuels) and has the potential to contribute to meeting the national net-zero target with so-called “negative emissions”.

    The study focuses on technological alternatives that can lead to radical reductions of direct emissions. This means that incremental energy efficiency measures and reduced demand, although important, are not considered. Our results are based on interviews with representatives from key industrial firms and financial firms and institutions. Our main results and recommendations: 

    1. Neither the scale of investments nor access to financing are significant obstacles to deep green industrial transformation. Our key finding is that neither the scale of capital investments in deep green industrial transition nor access to financing to make these investments are perceived to be significant obstacles by industry or financial actors. The scale of investments is large and for many industrial actors there are needs for direct support for early-stage development of new technologies and production processes. However, given a viable business case for green industrial products, capital requirements and access to finance do not appear to be critical obstructions once companies are prepared for commercial level deployments. Instead, our interviewees emphasized issues related to creating market demand and infrastructure and permitting processes as most important for enabling investments in deep green industrial transitions.

    2. Loan guarantees are an appropriate method of risk sharing for commercial-scale investments in deep green industrial transitions. According to our results, industry and financial actors find that existing direct financial support mechanisms and government credit guarantees are appropriate support and risk sharing tools. Our results do not point to any specific and new financing support mechanisms that industry and financial actors would like government to put in place. However, respondents did indicate that the scale of government support, both direct financial support and financial risk sharing, may need to be ramped up as industrial decarbonization pathways move from early stages to demonstration and commercial deployment.

    3. Policies for improving the terms of financing will not likely play a large role in mobilizing the willingness to invest in deep green industrial transitions. Industrial and financial actors stated that securing financing for green industrial transitions will likely not be a challenge when the business case for making these investments is in place. Improving the terms of financing was not prioritized among our respondents as a key lever for improving business cases. Favourable financing terms certainly contribute, but our respondents pointed to issues of market demand, direct financial support for early development, infrastructure and permitting policies as much more important. As such, decision-makers should focus on these areas for the largest effects. Importantly, our respondents’ comparatively minor concerns regarding financing should be understood in the context of the early stage of development of deep green industrial transition. As many of the major investment decisions have yet to be made, our results may not reflect challenges that could occur at the point of commercial deployment. Moreover, it is very difficult to predict how financial markets will develop over the long timeframes over which investments in deep green industrial transitions are needed. As such it is still too early to make a judgement on the extent to which policy efforts could be needed to mobilize financing towards these transitions.

    4. If needs for new financing solutions become apparent over time, public authorities will likely need to take a leadership role and set in motion proposals and dialogue with relevant private actors. We did not find developed ideas among industry or financial actor respondents for new financing solutions for green industrial transitions. This reflects both the perspective that financing is not a major obstacle and the early stage of development and deployment in some sectors. Because our results did not find forward-looking strategies in this area, decision-makers can contribute to green industrial transitions by tasking public authorities with investigating potential needs, gaps and innovative financing solutions for green industry transitions for future stages of deployment when capital requirements can become very high.

    5. Policymakers should focus on market formation efforts. Particularly important are efforts at the European Union level to ensure that carbon price signals are high enough to create business cases for green industrial products and that efforts to prevent carbon leakage maintain fair competition. Our results show that the key policy space for mobilizing investments into green industry is in supporting market formation and demand for green industrial products. As confidence in technological solutions advances, more attention is focused on how the increased costs of green production can be transferred to end consumers. The most desired market generation policies from both industry and finance are general policies like carbon taxes combined with measures to protect the competitiveness of industries, for example a carbon border adjustment mechanism (CBAM).

    6. The methods for and extent of demand-generating policies should be considered sector by sector as there may be divergence on the degree to which general policies and bottom-up approaches achieve the desired pace of change in different sectors. In addition to general market formation efforts, some actors emphasized demand generation policies directed at specific sectors, motivated by the different prerequisites for transition in those sectors. For example, public procurement policies for green industrial products were put forward as important for the cement sector especially. Another example, particularly important for the refining sector, are the policies requiring the blending of biofuels into petrol and diesel, which are already being implemented.

    7. Both investors and policymakers should continue to push for companies to deliver transparency and target setting with respect to their scope 3 emissions. Working with value chains to create demand for green industrial products can accelerate the pace of transitions as has been proven in the case of green steel production in Sweden. Repeating this dynamic in other emissions-intensive industrial sectors is crucial. Our respondents emphasize that setting targets for emissions reduction and transparent reporting about progress towards these targets are important to stimulate transition not only of individual firms but also of whole value chains.

    8. Government should continue with its existing financial support mechanism, reviewing financing needs periodically, and work to ensure that Swedish industry is able to access support measures at the EU level. Although our respondents indicated that access to financing for commercial deployment (assuming good market demand indications) is good, public funding is still needed to incentivize and accelerate the pace of investment in deep green industrial transitions. Getting to commercial readiness involves risky investments in research and development, piloting and demonstration. Our respondents are largely satisfied with the levels of national and EU direct support for research and development, particularly the national programme, Industriklivet. For commercialization and first-of-a-kind full-scale facilities, industry interviewees underlined the need to continue direct support at demonstration and commercialization stages and emphasized the importance of risk sharing between public and private actors.

    9. The Swedish government should pay attention to how public support for industrial transitions may impact fair competition. As many countries strive to stimulate deep green industrial transitions, several industry respondents stressed that national direct support should be formed so that it does not undermine fair competition. The degree to which public support for green industrial transitions in the EU could undermine effective competition and innovation is an important area for researchers to investigate and policymakers to pay attention to. Our results suggest that more attention needs to be paid to how governments can best combine the need to bring about rapid and deep industrial transitions with maintaining competitive markets.

    10. Policymakers should pay special attention to ensuring that necessary infrastructure will be available and implement reforms to permitting policies and processes to set a clear direction for industrial transitions and remove obstacles to investments. Access to low-cost renewable electricity and faster and more predictable permitting processes were judged to be most important by our respondents. Public efforts to ensure that preconditions for successful investments in deep green industrial transitions are in place set out a clear direction for industrial transitions and decrease private actors’ risk perceptions, clearing the way to mobilize more private capital.

    11. Policymakers should invest more in dialogue and coordination between private and public actors (including financial actors) to solidify long-term planning for deep green industrial transitions. Shared visions and strategies can play an important role in accelerating the willingness to invest. Our respondents called for more state leadership in terms of its long-term plans for supporting deep green industrial transitions. The clearer the political landscape is for industrial and financial actors, the more confidence they can have in developing their transition plans and in providing financing. To reach this there is a need for increased dialogue and coordination between private and public actors.

    12. As industrial transitions can evolve over decades, it is crucial that policymakers can deliver a stable and predictable framework that is credible over mandate periods. A clear result is that significant swings in policy priorities can easily undermine the willingness to invest in risky deep green industrial transitions. Therefore, policymakers should, as far as possible, be sending coherent signals to industrial actors on what technologies, industrial inputs and products will fit into the evolving policy landscape for green industrial production.

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  • 163. Marchetto, Aldo
    et al.
    Simpson, David
    Aas, Wenche
    Fagerli, Hilde
    Hansen, Karin
    Pihl-Karlsson, Gunilla
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    Rogora, Michela
    Sanders, Tanja G. M.
    Schmitz, Andreas
    Seidling, Walter
    Thimonier, Anne
    Tsyro, Svetlana
    de Vries, Wim
    Waldner, Peter
    Good Agreement Between Modeled and Measured Sulfur and Nitrogen Deposition in Europe, in Spite of Marked Differences in Some Sites2021In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition is an important effect of atmospheric pollution and may affect forest ecosystems positively, for example enhancing tree growth, or negatively, for example causing acidification, eutrophication, cation depletion in soil or nutritional imbalances in trees. To assess and design measures to reduce the negative impacts of deposition, a good estimate of the deposition amount is needed, either by direct measurement or by modeling.

    In order to evaluate the precision of both approaches and to identify possible improvements, we compared the deposition estimates obtained using an Eulerian model with the measurements performed by two large independent networks covering most of Europe. The results are in good agreement (bias <25%) for sulfate and nitrate open field deposition, while larger differences are more evident for ammonium deposition, likely due to the greater influence of local ammonia sources. Modeled sulfur total deposition compares well with throughfall deposition measured in forest plots, while the estimate of nitrogen deposition is affected by the tree canopy. The geographical distribution of pollutant deposition and of outlier sites where model and measurements show larger differences are discussed.

  • 164.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    Svegro.
    Orrestig, Kristin
    Svegro.
    Carotti, Laura
    University of Bologna.
    Orsini, Francesco
    University of Bologna.
    Summary Report: Assessing the environmental performance of improvement measures at Svegro2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the environmental performance of the progress and future possibilities for resource efficiency applied to a horticultural greenhouse in Sweden producing herbs and lettuce. The environmental implications of the development of a case study greenhouse are assessed by employing life cycle analysis and highlighting the environmental performance of different scenarios based on measures taken to improve resource efficiency. These scenarios include previous improvement measures to the greenhouse such as switching to organic fertilizers, switching to a bio-based pellet heating system, and reducing and altering the amount of plastics employed for the packaging. Future scenarios are also included to explore the implications of shifting toward more renewable transportation for product logistics, employing LEDs in place of high-pressure sodium lighting, densifying the production, and employing more recyclable fractions of plastic.

    Environmental performance indicators are provided for each scenario to show the greenhouse gas emissions, eutrophication, acidification, resource consumption, and water resource depletion. The results from the scenarios suggest that measures developed for the greenhouse had large environmental performance improvements. For these past measures, switching to bio-based pellet burners and reducing the amount and type of plastics were identified to be the most beneficial to nearly all environmental impact categories. For future measures, the largest environmental performance benefits were found for switching the lighting to LEDs. On the product level, resource efficiency improvements from the greenhouse can nearly halve the GHG emissions per kilogram of edible product. Nonetheless, it was also highlighted that the results can also be sensitive to the methodological and dataset choices made in the modeling, above all the source and datasets used for electricity. The results provide insights on the implications of environmental performance improvement measures taken at greenhouses, especially the sourcing for fuels to meet heating demands, and the effect it has on the performance of the products, which are important for both producers and wholesalers of the products. The study also adds to the developing literature on the environmental performance of controlled environment agriculture, providing empirical evidence from a real case in Sweden.

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  • 165.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Elnour, Mugahid
    Siñol, Aina Cabrero
    Environmental life cycle assessment of a large-scale commercial vertical farm2023In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 40, p. 182-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical farms are often claimed to have better environmental performance compared to conventional products on the market. However, there are few assessments of the environmental performance of vertical farms, in particular commercial systems. This study has aimed to analyze the environmental performance of a large commercial vertical farm in Sweden producing packaged lettuce. Life cycle assessment was employed to assess the environmental performance and compare it to conventional imported and domestically produced lettuce from a cradle-to-grave perspective. For conventional supply chains, the production, transportation to Sweden, washing, processing, packaging, and final distribution were all included.

    The results from the study suggest that the vertical farm has lower GHG emissions than conventionally sourced varieties. However, for other impact categories, the vertical farm may have larger environmental impacts from a life cycle perspective due primarily to the large electricity demand. The electricity use, packaging, infrastructure, and distribution of the products to retail were found to be the primary hotspots for the system. Finally, key performance indicators are also provided to compare the results of this study with other indoor farming studies. The results from the KPIs suggest that the vertical farm has better water use efficiency, GHG emissions, and energy use efficiency compared to other studies in the literature. The results of this study provide insights into the environmental performance and resource use of vertical farms, which can be used for comparisons and validation of claims in the industry, and to provide empirical evidence to this developing field.

  • 166. Martinsson, John
    et al.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Glebe, Dag
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Mogren, Olof
    A Novel Method for Smart Fire Detection Using Acoustic Measurements and Machine Learning: Proof of Concept2022In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, no 6, p. 3385-3403Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 167.
    Mata, Erika
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kihila, J.M.
    Wanemark, J.
    Cheng, S.H.
    Harris, S.
    Sandkvist, F.
    Nyberg, T.
    Yaramenka, K.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Non-technological and behavioral options for decarbonizing buildings – A review of global topics, trends, gaps, and potentials2022In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 29, p. 529-545Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Matschke Ekholm, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Perjo, Liisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sammanställning av mötesserien FRAMTIDSBILDER FÖR ETT KLIMATANPASSAT SVERIGE2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten sammanfattar resultaten från en mötesserie strukturerad efter de prioriterade utmaningarna i den nationella strategin för klimatanpassning. Mötesserien är framtagen utifrån att Nationella expertrådet för klimatanpassning har beställt dokumentation om expertkunskap, idéer och förslag kring organisatoriska och fysiska lösningar för hur samhället kan anpassas för ett förändrat klimat.

    Resultaten från mötesserien kommer att arbetas in i sammanlagt sju framtidsbilder som kopplar till de prioriterade utmaningarna i den nationella strategin för klimatanpassning. Framtidsbildernas syfte är att vara tankeväckande för hur ett framtida samhälle, givet de utmaningar som klimatförändringarna skapar, kan komma att se ut.

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  • 169.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Eriksson, Flintull Annica
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Malmaeus, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sanctuary, Mark
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ecosystem Accounting in the Nordic Countries2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 170.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmström, Hampus
    A Conceptual Landscape-Level Approach to Assess the Impacts of Forestry on Biodiversity2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 4214-4214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a conceptual approach to assessing biodiversity impacts of forest wood production with a focus on Nordic managed forests at the landscape level.

    The suggested method for the specification of business-as-usual or environmental quality objectives baselines encourages forest owners to choose forest management options with properties that are more favorable to biodiversity over time.

    Using a BAU baseline approach similar to that used for international climate reporting is a simple but novel approach that makes use of approaches that have already been established.

  • 171.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Naturbaserade lösningar i urbana miljöer: Erfarenheter från Blue Green City Lab2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har under perioden 2017 till 2021 deltagit i ett Vinnova-finansierat projekt i Malmö, Blue Green City Lab, som är en testbädd för blågröna lösningar. Projektet har bland annat syftat till att utvärdera både etablerade och ännu inte beprövade metoder av naturbaserade lösningar. Testbädden har inte haft en särskild fysisk infrastruktur som bas, utan de blågröna lösningar som ingått i testbädden har varit förlagda hos verkliga behovsägare på olika platser i Malmö stad. Målsättningen har varit att utveckla en testbädd för hållbara blågröna lösningar som kan attrahera tillräcklig finansiering för att kunna klara sig utan stödfinansiering.

     

    I denna rapport sammanfattar vi några av de utvärderingar och lärdomar som IVL gjort inom ramen för testbäddsprojektet. Projektet Blue Green City Lab har gett ökad kunskap och nya erfarenheter kring hydrologiska parametrar samt utvärdering av ekosystemtjänster och biologisk mångfald i olika system, platser och stadsmiljöer. Det gäller specifikt användning och utvärdering av verktyg för ekosystemtjänstanalys, utvärdering av vattenförbrukning i växtväggar samt dynamiska dagvattenmodeller. Projektet har gett upphov till nya insikter kring vilka aspekter som behöver följas upp och förbättras för att blågröna lösningar ska utgöra användbara verktyg för att hantera de negativa effekterna av ett förändrat klimat.

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  • 172.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden;Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre (GGBC), 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmström, Hampus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Indicators of Sustainable Forestry: Methodological Approaches for Impact Assessments across Swedish Forestry2024In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 3331-3331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Approaches for evaluating integrated sustainability impacts in forest management enable the harmonization of environmental, social, and economic considerations. Here, we presenta methodological framework for quantifying and balancing impacts on widely different aspects of sustainability of different future scenarios for forestry in managed forests in Sweden. The method includes indicators for impacts on climate change, biodiversity, and social and economic values. The indicators were normalized to a standardized scale using reference scenarios and target values.

    The proposed method was applied for three different future scenarios for forestry over a 100-year period in two different counties in southern and northern Sweden, respectively. The results show the importance of evaluating indicator performance in forestry across diverse regions of the country and tailoring assessments of individual forest owners to their specific local conditions. Long-term assessments are also crucial due to the varying impacts of indicators over time. The methodologyrequires continuous refinement and can be used as a basis for disclosing the environmental performance of a product based on forest raw materials. It also facilitates the assessment of sustainability in alternative future forestry scenarios and is adaptable to other countries with comparable forestry and forest characteristics.

  • 173.
    Meeussen, Ccamille
    et al.
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Pauw, Karen
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Gasperini, Cristina
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium;Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UMR CNRS 7058 « Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés » (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Selvi, Frederico
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UMR CNRS 7058 « Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés » (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Uria Diez, Jaime
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Frenne, P.
    Forest &amp; Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Initial oak regeneration responses to experimental warming along microclimatic and macroclimatic gradients2022In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 745-757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quercus spp. are one of the most important tree genera in temperate deciduous forests in terms of biodiversity, economic and cultural perspectives.

    However, natural regeneration of oaks, depending on specific environmental conditions, is still not sufficiently understood.

    Oak regeneration dynamics are impacted by climate change, but these climate impacts will depend on local forest management and light and temperature conditions.

  • 174.
    Midander, Klara
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute , Stockholm , Sweden;Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Werner, Paulina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Isaksson, Marléne
    Lund University, Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Skane University Hospital Malmö , Malmö , Sweden.
    Wisgrill, Lukas
    Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Comprehensive Center for Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna , 1090 Vienna , Austria.
    Lidén, Carola
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Fyhrquist, Nanna
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Julander, Anneli
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute , Stockholm , Sweden;Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm , Sweden.
    Cobalt nanoparticles cause allergic contact dermatitis in humans2022In: British Journal of Dermatology, ISSN 0007-0963, E-ISSN 1365-2133, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cobalt (Co) causes allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and the emerging use of Co nanoparticles (CoNPs) warrants gaining further insight into its potential to elicit ACD in sensitized individuals.

    Objectives: The aims of the study were to clarify to what extent CoNPs may elicit ACD responses in participants with Co contact allergy, and to evaluate whether the nanoparticles cause a distinct immune response compared with cobalt chloride (CoCl2) in the skin reactions.

    Methods: Fourteen individuals with Co contact allergy were exposed to CoNPs, CoCl2, a Co-containing hard-metal disc (positive control), and an empty test chamber (negative control) by patch testing. Allergic responses were evaluated clinically by a dermatologist at Days 2, 4 and 7. At Day 2, patch-test chambers were removed, and remaining test-substance and skin-wipe samples were collected for inductive-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis.

    Additionally, skin biopsies were taken from patch-test reactions at Day 4 for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, histopathology and ICP-MS analysis of Co skin penetration.

    Results: Patch testing with CoNPs elicited allergic reactions in Co-sensitized individuals. At all timepoints, clinical assessment revealed significantly lower frequencies of positive patch-test reactions to CoNPs compared with CoCl2 or to the positive control. CoNPs elicited comparable immune responses to CoCl2. Chemical analysis of Co residues in patch-test filters, and on skin, shows lower doses for CoNPs compared with CoCl2.

    Conclusions: CoNPs potently elicit immune responses in Co-sensitized individuals. Even though patch testing with CoNPs resulted in a lower skin dose than CoCl2, identical immunological profiles were present. Further research is needed to identify the potential harm of CoNPs to human health.

  • 175. Miksch, Lukas
    et al.
    Chen, Chiau Yu
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Granberg, Maria E.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Krång, Anna-Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gutow, Lars
    Saborowski, Reinhard
    Biodegradable microplastics: Uptake by and effects on the rockpool shrimp Palaemon elegans (Crustacea: Decapoda)2024In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 274, p. 116184-116184, article id 116184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 176.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bedömning av möjlighet till återanvändning av byggvaror med hänsyn till innehåll av kemiska ämnen2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att öka kunskapen om bygg- och rivningsprodukter och -material som går att återanvända, för att på så sätt öka andelen material som cirkuleras. Rapporten sammanställer befintlig information och presenterar en enkel utvärdering av byggvarugrupper och deras återanvändbarhet baserat på ett ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Detta kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter i relation till deras farlighet under driftsfasen. Rapporten utvärderar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras kategoriserat utifrån husdelar. Ett byggåterbruksguiden har tagit fram baserad på rapporten som publiceras som ett separat dokument till rapporten.

    Rapporten och guiden omfattar följande produktgrupper:

    -        Takkonstruktion

    -        Fasader

    -        Fundament

    -        Dörrar och fönster

    -        Innertak och bjälklag

    -        Golv

    -        Badrumsmaterial

    -        Köksinredning

    -        Mark och trädgård

    -        Emballage

    -        Restpartier

    Följande ämnen inkluderas i utvärderingen

    -        Asbest

    -        Metaller: bly (Pb), kadmium (Cd), krom (Cr), koppar (Cu), nickel (Ni), zink (Zn), arsenik (As) och kvicksilver (Hg)

    -        Klorparaffiner, kortkedjiga (SCCP)

    -        PAH (polycykliska aromatiska kolväten)

    -        CFC / HCFC (klorfluorkarboner och vätefluorkolväten)

    -        Kolväten (C6 - C36, alifatiska kolväten)

    -        PCB (polyklorerade bifenyler, inkluderar 209 PCB-varianter)

    -        Bromerade flamskyddsmedel (hexabromcyklododekan)

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  • 177.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Bolinius, Dämien Johann
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emilsson, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Loh Lindholm, Carina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Berglund, Ragnhild
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlm, Maria
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ByggÅterbruksGuiden: En vägledning för att underlätta återbruk av byggprodukter i bostäder2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna guide är att öka kunskapen om byggprodukter och byggmaterial som går att återanvända, så att den cirkulära användningen blir större. Guiden kan användas som en indikator för att bedöma risken för potentiellt farliga ämnen i byggprodukter.

    Guiden är riktad till privatpersoner som vill använda begagnade byggvaror eller som har äldre byggprodukter i sina bostäder och vill veta om de innehåller farliga ämnen innan de lämnar dem till återbruk. Den ger en enkel och lättavläst utvärdering av byggvaror och visar om de går att återanvända, baserat på ungefärligt tillverknings- och monteringsår. Guiden omfattar ett 70-tal produkter som presenteras utifrån husets delar. Den ger även tips på hur man känner igen farliga material och hur man sorterar avfallet. Här finns även en lista över aktörer i Sverige som arbetar med återbruk av byggvaror, dock inte fullständig – eftersom antalet aktörer inom detta område ökar stadigt.

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  • 178.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fjellander, Liv
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    How many extra kilograms do you have in the wardrobe?2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to enhance our understanding of reuse by analyzing the entire life cycle of textiles − from purchase, use, to end-of-life waste treatment in Sweden.

    Our goal was to identify where the greatest losses and potentials lie within our society. We focused on identifying the main challenges, losses, and opportunities by examining overall patterns and trends rather than striving for precise data accuracy.

    The study is delimited by data from our Swedish project partners, including municipalities and charitable organizations. When necessary, this data was supplemented with Swedish national data or literature studies to address data deficiencies or understand the level of uncertainty.

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  • 179.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Cirkulär hantering av schaktmassor: Miljönytta eller miljöpåverkan?2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to raise awareness about excavated materials and highlight the potential for increased climate and environmental benefits through a more circular, resource-efficient and sustainable management. The report describes the current situation in Sweden regarding the management of excavated materials and the corresponding virgin production, as well as common terms used. The evaluation of excavated material recycling includes both quantitative and qualitative assessments compared to landfilling or virgin production. Climate aspects are quantitatively evaluated by measuring CO2e emissions per ton of waste in different scenarios. Other environmental aspects are qualitatively addressed through literature analysis, where recycling is compared overall to landfilling and new production.

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  • 180.
    Miliute-Plepiene, Jurate
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Klimatnyttan med materialåtervinning av byggavfall2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to find carbon footprints for material recycling of 15 construction and demolition waste fractions in comparison to virgin production. Incineration as an alternative to recycling was also included for some waste fractions. 

    The study presents the carbon fotprints of waste recycling in the Swedish context. Virgin resources replaced by recycling are in most cases assumed to be produced in Sweden or in Europe. In marginal cases global data are used depending on data availability and specific market. The results regarding climate impacts or benefits are generic and might not be representative for specific characteristics of a particular recyclers or customers. 

    The study should not be treated as a full-scale LCA analysis, but rather as a template-based evaluation illustrating the size and range of climate implications of recycling different materials.

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  • 181.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Camilla
    SMHI.
    Leung, Wing
    SMHI.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Swedish National Nitrogen Budget - Atmosphere2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, pool 7 ‘Atmosphere’ (AT) of the Swedish National Nitrogen Budget (NNB) is presented.

    The atmospheric pool of NNB is one of the 8 major pools defined by the Task Force of Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) which together represent a total national nitrogen budget capturing all major flows of all forms of reactive nitrogen (Nr) within a country and across the country borders.

    The methodology to calculate NNB has been provided by the Expert Panel on Nitrogen Budgets (EPNB) in the Annexes to the ECE/EB.AIR/119 – “Guidance document on national nitrogen budgets".

    The major flows of Nr to and from the tropospheric air masses above Sweden, including the Swedish national coastal waters, were calculated for the year 2015. Except for the small amount of Nr generated by lightnings, the atmospheric Nr pool is dominated by four main flows: the import and export of Nr by transboundary transport; by Swedish emissions of Nr; and by atmospheric deposition. 

    The principal source of the emission data has been the official Swedish reporting to the Centre on Emission Inventories and Projections (CEIP) under the Air convention (The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, CLRTAP).

    For the reactive nitrogen deposition in Sweden the official national operational estimates by the MATCH Sweden system were used.

    The results show that in 2015 Sweden was a net importer of air pollution in the form of Nr, i.e. the import of Nr from the emission sources outside the country (139 kt N) was larger than the export (96.1 kt N).

    The Swedish emissions of Nr in 2015 were in total 117 kt N. The largest emissions come from two sectors: Agriculture (43.4 kt N) and Energy & Fuels (40.6 kt N). The deposition of Nr to Swedish ecosystems in 2015 was 160 kt N, of which 87% originated from emission sources abroad.

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  • 182.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akujärvi, Anu
    SYKE.
    Forsius, Martin
    SYKE.
    Holmberg, Maria
    SYKE.
    Austnes, Kari
    NIVA.
    de Wit, Heleen
    NIVA.
    Bak, Jesper
    AAU.
    NKL-1915 National Nitrogen Budgets in Scandinavia: consequences for climate change and for eutrophication – synthesis report2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a project undertaken by Norway, Finland, Sweden, and Denmark related to the National Nitrogen Budget (NNB) with a focus on the NNB pool Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The NNB involves calculations of reactive nitrogen (Nr) inflows and outflows within the FS pool, and the study compares these calculations to reports of carbon sequestration in climate reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).Norway and Finland initiated their work on NNB, concentrating on Forests and semi-natural vegetation (FS). The UNECE LRTAP Task Force on Reactive Nitrogen (TFRN) methodology was also used for compiling the FS pool for Denmark, while Sweden had established its FS pool prior to the project.The FS pool comprises three sub-pools: forests, wetlands, and other lands. Inflows of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the FS pool are primarily from deposition and biological N-fixation, with major outflows being leaching, harvest, and denitrification.In Finland, Sweden, and Denmark, the inflows and outflows are in balance, while in Norway, there is an accumulation of Nr, indicating a surplus of nitrogen. Wetland sub-pools in all four countries and the forest sub-pool in Norway show nitrogen accumulation.All four countries report carbon sequestration in forests to UNFCCC.

    There is a link between nitrogen and carbon cycles, since the organic matter forming the carbon stock in forests and wetlands relies on nitrogen. The origin of nitrogen contributing to the estimated C-stock increase needs further investigation.There is a discrepancy between the calculated nitrogen changes in the FS pool and the nitrogen needed to support reported carbon stock changes. Possible explanations for the discrepancies are re-location of nitrogen within pools, changes in the C/N ratio, expansion of forested areas, and uncertainties in N-fixation rates and denitrification.There is a need for better integration of carbon and nitrogen flux and stock change estimates in natural ecosystems. Understanding the interactions between carbon and nitrogen is deemed crucial for predicting future developments in carbon sequestration and impacts of nitrogen deposition, especially for the Nordic countries with their significant forests playing roles as carbon and nitrogen sinks.

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  • 183.
    Moldan, Filip
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kerstin
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Fölster, Jens
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Bedömningsgrunder försurning - tester av MAGIC-biblioteket2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The MAGIC library is an acidification assessment tool that allows lakes and watercourses to be assessed with a similar water. In this way, tens of thousands of lakes and watercourses have been assessed. In connection with these assessments, a number of cases have been identified where the calculated reference values have been judged to be unrealistic based on other knowledge that the users of the MAGIC library possess. Administrators at the county administrative boards responsible for liming, were requested to send in documentation on such objects where the acidification assessment with the MAGIC library was considered incorrect. As much relevant background information as possible was requested so that explanations for the different assessments could be investigated. Eight county administrative boards responded to the query. Based on the collected material, MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) -modeled objects and MAGIC library results were compared with historical fish data, with measured water chemistry including trends over time and a comparison with measured and modeled atmospheric precipitation was made.

    The study compared the occurrence of roaches from the end of the 19th century in Värmland with modeled water chemistry. Roaches were found in most of the lakes, including lakes with a low modeled pH. However, there is a clearly decreasing proportion of lakes with the occurrence of roaches the lower the modeled pH of the waters. This is in contrast to, for example, the much less acid-sensitive perch where no connection between occurrence and historically modeled pH could be discerned. Lakes with low pH and where roach occurred at the end of the 19th century have on average a higher content of dissolved organic carbon than lakes with higher pH.

    A comparison between measured time series from lakes and modeled values for the same lake in the MAGIC library shows that the magnitude of the modeled trend in many cases is larger than the observed trend. The picture is not entirely unambiguous, and the differences are greater for sulphate than for ANC (acid neutralizing ability), but that the model overestimates the trend occurs much more often than the other way around. This is largely due to the fact that there is a tendency for the model to overestimate the sulphate content in the lakes at the beginning of the measurements. The reason for this can vary, but correct modeling of time trends in the runoff presupposes that the time development of the deposition of sulfur, nitrogen and base cations used in the modeling has followed reality.

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  • 184.
    Moldanova, Jana
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Langner, Joakim
    Lindskog, Magnus
    Mårtensson, Tomas
    Priestley, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wall, Martin
    Ziverts, Ulrika
    Ekstrand, Henrik
    Näs, Anette
    Wilhelmsson, Jens
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Optimisation of flight routes for reduced climate impact (OP-FLYKLIM)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The OP-FLYKLIM project investigated the potential to reduce the climate impact of aviation through climate optimization of flight routes to reduce the high-altitude effects of aviation with a focus on climate forcing from contrails and contrail cirrus under Scandinavian conditions. We have developed a calculation methodology where areas with potential to form persistent contrails are identified. The duration and climate forcing of contrails and contrail cirrus in these areas are calculated using data from SMHI's meteorological forecast model. Information on the position and climate forcing potential of these areas has been used to quantify climate forcing of flights on selected routes over a period of several months, and to test optimization of route planning for reduced climate effect with the flight planning system used by the airline Novair.

    Climate forcing from contrails and contrail cirrus during the flight calculated with the OP-FLYKLIM methodology is compared with calculations of climate forcing from the CO2 emitted from combustion of the jet fuel. This enables a direct comparison of the climate benefit of avoidance of contrail formation with its fuel penalty. In the future this method could be deployed in flight planning systems to enable climate optimization. The method can also be used in cost-benefit analyses of climate-optimized flight planning.

    We have also investigated several issues that are important for route optimization in general and for correct assessment of whether persistent contrails occur. Meteorological models of good quality in terms of forecasts of winds, temperature and humidity at flight altitude is of great importance both for ordinary route planning and for climate optimization. In OP-FLYKLIM, SMHI has tested streaming data from aircraft (so-called Mode-S EHS data) through air traffic control radars and local data receivers directly to their operational forecast model, which showed improved quality of forecasts.A persistent contrail occurs only if the humidity in the area of the flight is supersaturated relative to ice but is not already containing clouds.

    In the project, we have thus investigated the distribution of ice-saturated areas across Scandinavia as an average over several years using data from the ECMWF global numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. The results show a quite high potential for the formation of persistent contrails and thus for high-altitude effects in the area. Comparison to published data on the frequency of occurrence of ice supersaturated layers over Sweden and Europe indicate that observations and model data are broadly consistent. However, when comparing to observed relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI) from radiosondes directly it becomes clear that both the ECMWF model and the MetCoOp model used by SMHI for short range forecasts underestimate RHI near the tropopause, where most flights take place.

    As an additional means to evaluate the performance of NWP models with respect to ice supersaturation SMHI initiated observations of contrails by their climate observers. The observations were then matched against flights in the area and RHI calculated by the SMHI forecast model to determine if observations of persistent contrails also corresponded to ice supersaturation in the model. In agreement with the evaluation against radiosondes it was found that the NWP model underestimated RHI in connection with observed contrails.

    A correct calculation of fuel consumption and emissions during the flight is a prerequisite both for calculating its high-altitude effects and for monitoring of aviation emissions by national and international authorities. In OP-FLYKLIM the fuel consumption calculated with FOI3 methodology, used for the Swedish reporting of the national emissions from aviation to the UNFCCC and other international reporting obligations, has been compared with true fuel consumption obtained from data from the flight data recorder (FDR data) onboard aircraft on several routes. Comparison showed differences below 10% that could be explained by differences between route plans and type of aircraft in the FDR data and the FOI calculation, respectively.

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  • 185. Monclús, Laura
    et al.
    Løseth, Mari Engvig
    Dahlberg Persson, Marie J.
    Eulaers, Igor
    Kleven, Oddmund
    Covaci, Adrian
    Benskin, Jonathan P.
    Awad, Raed
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Zubrod, Jochen P.
    Schulz, Ralf
    Wabakken, Petter
    Heggøy, Oddvar
    Øien, Ingar Jostein
    Steinsvåg, Magnus Johan
    Jaspers, Veerle L.B.
    Nygård, Torgeir
    Legacy and emerging organohalogenated compounds in feathers of Eurasian eagle-owls (Bubo bubo) in Norway: Spatiotemporal variations and associations with dietary proxies (δ13C and δ15N)2022In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 204, p. 112372-112372, article id 112372Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 186.
    Morfeldt, Johannes
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Larsson, Jörgen
    Chalmers.
    Andersson, David
    Chalmers.
    Johansson, Daniel J. A.
    Chalmers.
    Rootzén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hult, Cecilia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Ida
    Chalmers.
    Emission pathways and mitigation options for achieving consumption-based climate targets in Sweden2023In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    National emission reduction targets under the Paris Agreement have a territorial focus, incentivizing mitigation actions domestically. Here we examine the theoretical basis for adopting complementary consumption-based net-zero emission targets and assess the consequences of adopting such proposed targets for Sweden. We apply scenario analyses based on a prospective lifecycle assessment framework. The framework is a hybrid of bottom-up simulations for passenger travel, construction and housing, and food, and top-down analyses for remaining consumption. In this work, we show how consumption-based climate targets may accentuate the need for new demand-side climate policies that contribute to reducing emissions along supply chains of products and services.

    Our scenario analysis suggests that combining advanced mitigation technologies with behavioral changes could reduce emissions from 9.8 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents per capita in 2019 to between 2.7 and 4.8 tons by 2045 for Swedish residents, depending on global decarbonization pathways. Combining advanced mitigation technologies with behavioural changes could achieve the lowest carbon emissions per capita in Sweden, suggest scenario analyses combining bottom-up simulations for passenger travel, construction and housing, and food, and top-down analyses for remaining consumption.

  • 187.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Offsetting carbon debt within LFM302021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report proposes goals and criteria that can be used when choosing how to offset GHGs, the purpose of which is to help the user choose offsetting approaches that have high environmental integrity. The report further discusses the prerequisites for and possible approaches when purchasing and using carbon credits for offsetting.Carbon credits that are used to offset GHG emissions can be based either on measures that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal, CDR, or “removals”), or through measures that lead to the reduction or avoidance of GHG emissions. In principle, it makes no difference to the outcome in terms of the net flux of GHG to the atmosphere if the offsetting is based on reductions or removals – provided that the carbon credits used are of high integrity.

    The report proposes a set of goals with associated assessment criteria, which can be used as a basis for the assessment of carbon credits. The following goals are included: 1) Robust and transparent management of the certification system, 2) Reliable calculation of the underlying activities’ mitigation outcome, 3) Double counting of mitigation outcomes associated with carbon credits must be avoided, 4) The risk of non-permanence must be managed, 5) Avoidance of negative environmental and social impacts and enforcement of positive impacts, 6) Contribution to the promotion of the societal transition towards net-zero emissions.The market for high-integrity carbon credits based on removals is under-developed and supply is limited. However, demand is rising and expected to continue growing.

    Those who wish to offset their emissions on the basis of permanent removals may wish to consider fund solutions. The market for high-integrity carbon credits based on emission reductions is more mature and the range of carbon credits is extensive. However, the transition to the Paris Agreement presents market participants with new challenges and new considerations need to be made when assessing the integrity of using carbon credits for offsetting.

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  • 188.
    Neuwirth, Josefin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gottfridsson, Marie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hallberg, Elisabet
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    A ProScale case study on indoor wall paint2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ProScale is a method to assess toxicity potentials for products in a life cycle perspective, in its current version covering direct human exposure related toxicity potential. It is designed to be useful on its own or alongside other impact categories in life cycle assessment (LCA). The study reported herein was conducted by examination of the ProScale model in a case study on indoor wall paint. The reason for choosing indoor wall paint was that the EU commission has paint as one of their pilots for Product Environmental Footprint (PEF), and a particular purpose of the case study was to showcase the applicability of ProScale in PEF. The ProScale assessment on indoor wall paint was simplified due to time limitation in scope. 

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  • 189. Nie, Wei
    et al.
    Yan, Chao
    Yang, Liwen
    Roldin, Pontus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Liu, Yuliang
    Vogel, Alexander L.
    Molteni, Ugo
    Stolzenburg, Dominik
    Finkenzeller, Henning
    Amorim, Antonio
    Bianchi, Federico
    Curtius, Joachim
    Dada, Lubna
    Draper, Danielle C.
    Duplissy, Jonathan
    Hansel, Armin
    He, Xu-Cheng
    Hofbauer, Victoria
    Jokinen, Tuija
    Kim, Changhyuk
    Lehtipalo, Katrianne
    Nichman, Leonid
    Mauldin, Roy L.
    Makhmutov, Vladimir
    Mentler, Bernhard
    Mizelli-Ojdanic, Andrea
    Petäjä, Tuukka
    Quéléver, Lauriane L. J.
    Schallhart, Simon
    Simon, Mario
    Tauber, Christian
    Tomé, António
    Volkamer, Rainer
    Wagner, Andrea C.
    Wagner, Robert
    Wang, Mingyi
    Ye, Penglin
    Li, Haiyan
    Huang, Wei
    Qi, Ximeng
    Lou, Sijia
    Liu, Tengyu
    Chi, Xuguang
    Dommen, Josef
    Baltensperger, Urs
    El Haddad, Imad
    Kirkby, Jasper
    Worsnop, Douglas
    Kulmala, Markku
    Donahue, Neil M.
    NO at low concentration can enhance the formation of highly oxygenated biogenic molecules in the atmosphere2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 3347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction between nitrogen monoxide (NO) and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) greatly impacts the formation of highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOM), the key precursors of secondary organic aerosols. It has been thought that HOM production can be significantly suppressed by NO even at low concentrations. Here, we perform dedicated experiments focusing on HOM formation from monoterpenes at low NO concentrations (0 – 82 pptv). We demonstrate that such low NO can enhance HOM production by modulating the RO2 loss and favoring the formation of alkoxy radicals that can continue to autoxidize through isomerization.

    These insights suggest that HOM yields from typical boreal forest emissions can vary between 2.5%-6.5%, and HOM formation will not be completely inhibited even at high NO concentrations. Our findings challenge the notion that NO monotonically reduces HOM yields by extending the knowledge of RO2-NO interactions to the low-NO regime. This represents a major advance towards an accurate assessment of HOM budgets, especially in low-NO environments, which prevails in the preindustrial atmosphere, pristine areas, and the upper boundary layer.

  • 190.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andrén, Jacob
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Neuwirth, Josefin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Erlandsson -, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmström, Hampus
    Visualisering av råvaruflöden och hållbarhet för framtida svenskt skogsbruk: Från skog till produkt2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten, som är framtagen inom Mistra Digital Forest, visar hur visualiseringsverktyget BioMapp kan användas för att analysera påverkan på olika aspekter av hållbarhet från tänkbara alternativa användningar av skogsråvara längs hela värdekedjan, från skog till produkt.

    BioMapp kan förse beslutsfattare med de underlag de behöver för att fatta faktabaserade beslut, för ökad hållbarhet inom svensk skoglig sektor. Rapporten visar exempel på den typ av resultat som kan genereras med BioMapp.

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  • 191.
    Norén, Katja
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Norén, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uppföljning och utvärdering av miljötillståndet till följd av slängda tobaksprodukter2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har till syfte att sammanställa kunskapsläget rörande slängda tobaksprodukters miljöpåverkan och är uppdelad i tre områden: litteraturbaserad undersökning av kunskapsläget, mindre enkätstudie och exemplifierande beräkningar.

    Inom litteraturstudien har internet och forskningsdatabaser använts för att söka efter svensk- och engelskspråkiga artiklar och rapporter. Enkätstudien har riktats till ca 55 personer vid reningsverk och reningsverksorganisationer. De exemplifierande beräkningarna har utformats efter tillgången på information. De har bland annat syftat till att kvantifiera mängder av kadmium, bly, nickel och kvicksilver som uppkommer från tobaksanvändare inom ett definierat område.

    Utifrån antagandet att all konsumerad röktobak (cigaretter, rulltobak, piptobak och cigarr/cigariller) samt snus når reningsverken så har mängderna satts i relation till andra källor till metaller i samma område t.ex. avloppsvatten från hushåll och luftdeposition. Beräkningar har också utförts för att försöka uppskatta tobaksskräpets påverkan på vattenmiljö och vattenlevande organismer. Här har enbart mängder från tobaksskräp i form av röktobak beräknats eftersom det finns viss information om antalet fimpar som ligger på gatan medan sådan information saknas helt för snus.

    I och med att tobaksskräp hamnar på gatan kan det via dagvattnet transporteras till en recipient och påverka denna. Då graden av miljöpåverkan beror av den koncentration som uppstår i recipienten har bidraget av tobakskräp beräknats för den kända ytan Kungsholmen ö och den kända volymen Karlbergskanalen som används som exempelrecipient och således mottagare av dagvatten från Kungsholmen ö.

    Baserat på tillgänglig information har tre scenarier för vilka mängder tobaksskräp som kan uppkomma beräknats utifrån:

            1. Antalet fimpar som har hittats på gatan (dvs. en ögonblicksbild där vi                            inte vet hur länge skräpet har ansamlats.

            2. Enkätstudier av hur många fimpar som rökare slänger på gatan per                              dag.

            3. Worst case scenario som innebär att allt kadmium i konsumerad                                    röktobak alternativt alla fimpar som uppstår under en dag når                                      recipienten.

    Med antagandet att dessa olika tobaksmängder når Karlbergskanalen har de uppnådda koncentrationerna i Karlbergskanalen beräknats och satts i relation till dels EU:s gränsvärde för kadmiumEG i inlandsytvatten och dels ett eget beräknat gränsvärde för fimpar (Predicted No Effect Concentration, PNECfimp) där ingen effekt i miljön förväntas. Gränsvärdet för fimpar har beräknats utifrån resultat från ekotoxicitetstester för att kunna bedöma fimparnas påverkan i miljön.

    Tobak innehåller ett stort antal ämnen och då den brinner bildas ytterligare ämnen som kan hamna i fimpen. Dessa ämnen kan vart och ett vara toxiskt men tillsammans kan de också ha en additiv effekt så att fimpens totala toxicitet är summan av de ingående ämnenas toxicitet. Det är inte heller ovanligt att ämnen i blandningar har en synergistisk effekt i förhållande till varandra, vilket innebär att blandningens samlade toxicitet till och med kan vara större än summan av de ingående ämnenas toxicitet. Att det beräknade gränsvärdet PNECfimp är mycket lägre än gränsvärdet för kadmiumEG illustrerar att fimpen innehåller flera giftiga ämnen.

    Sammantaget visar analysen att fimpars toxicitet skulle kunna utgöra ett problem för vattenmiljöer. Dvs. den giftighet alla de ämnen som finns i fimparna uttrycker sammantaget gör att framförallt mindre recipienter riskerar att påverkas negativt. I analysen har Karlbergskanalen använts som mottagare av fimpar från Kungsholmen ö och vid antagandet att varje rökare slänger 1,7 fimpar per dag så överskrids gränsvärdet för fimpar redan efter en dags fimpansamling. Även om inte alla fimpar når recipienten så hamnar nya fimpar på gatan varje dag vilket gör att recipienter med dåligt vattenutbyte blir extra känsliga.

    Resultaten indikerar således att det antal fimpar som hamnar på gatan i storstadsområden riskerar att ha en påverkan på mindre vattenrecipienter och det bör vara av intresse att analysera vart dagvattnet från de mest fimpnedsmutsade områdena leds. Miljöeffekten i exempelrecipienten baserat på kadmium från slängd tobak visade sig vara obetydlig då den beräknade kadmiumkoncentration blev mycket lägre än det befintliga gränsvärdet för kadmium också för worst case scenariot.

    Som jämförelse är tillskottet från luftdeponerat kadmium betydligt större än det maximala tillskottet från röktobak inom det analyserade området. På samma sätt är tillskottet av nickel, bly och kvicksilver från luftdeposition mycket högre än tillskottet från röktobak som slängs på gatan. Om allt tobaksrelaterat kadmium i värsta fall skulle nå reningsverket så utgör bidraget trots detta enbart en tredjedal av bidraget från urin + fekalier från samma område. Vad gäller tillskottet av nickel, bly och kvicksilver från tobak så är bidraget, även om all tobak når reningsverket, mycket litet i jämförelse med de mängder som tillförs reningsverken från hushållens avloppsvatten.  

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  • 192.
    Olshammar, Mikael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boltenstern, Mikaela
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Unsbo, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evaluate the amounts and composition of lost angling gear in the Baltic2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) in aquatic environments contributes both to environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In nature, discarded fishing gear can release both macro- and microplastics as well as harmful chemicals and thereby contribute to pollution of water bodies and the degradation of habitats. This study is a further development of the project Quantification and environmental pollution aspects of lost fishing gear in the Nordic countries (Unsbo et al., 2022).

    The project intends to compile information from the HELCOM-countries on the quantity and composition of lost fishing gear, originating mainly from recreational fishing. The study also considers the occurrence of harmful chemicals associated with the lost fishing gear and the potential impact of these chemicals on the aquatic environment. Suggestions on how to prevent further losses and mitigate negative impact of lost fishing gear are also provided.

    The HELCOM-countries included in this report are Denmark, Estonia, Finland & Åland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Sweden. This study is based on several methodological approaches to obtain and compare data from different sources. It includes a literature survey, a stakeholder dialogue, an analysis of sales statistics from retailers and producers of fishing gear and national import and export statistics. A web-based questionnaire specifically directed towards gaining information from recreational fishers was developed and disseminated. The data generated from the questionnaire was then compared with official national statistics. 

    The quantity and composition of lost fishing gear are difficult to estimate mainly due to the general lack of data within this area. In this study, estimations of lost gear such as fishing line, baits and sinkers were calculated. It is, however, important to recognise that estimates of lost fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries are rough and based on many assumptions, combined with a low response rate on the questionnaire.Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Estonia have national statistics on the number of recreational fishers available for the public. This group encompasses around 1.7 million persons in Sweden, 1.5 million in Finland, 0.3 million in Denmark as well as 68 000 in Estonia. The other countries do not have any national statistics on the number of recreational fishers.

    The following number of fishers were estimated for the other countries:  174 000 in Germany, 41 000 in Latvia, 60 000 in Lithuania, and 84 000 in Poland. The number of fishers were multiplied by the average amount of gear lost per person and year obtained from the questionnaire results. The estimated number of lost fishing gear by the HELCOM-countries thus amounts to 21 million baits, 9 million sinkers and 96 million metres of fishing line per year. The questionnaire generated 145 replies of which 94 respondents were from Sweden, 32 from Lithuania and 19 from Estonia.

    National statistics on imports, exports and industrial production do not specify the intended user of the specific fishing gear. However, due to the specificity in behaviours and equipment of the type of fisher, it can be assumed that some of the commodity codes are likely to correspond either to sport and recreational fishing or to commercial fishing. Based on this assumption, the project has estimated total annual losses in the Nordic countries of 337 tonnes fishhooks, 78 – 745 million meters fishing line. 

    Because of the large amount of fishing gear lost at sea, their presence is likely to have negative effects on aquatic ecosystems. Plastic additives and associated chemicals constitute a plethora of harmful substances that can leach from plastic materials. Fishing plummets made of lead are also problematic since lead is toxic. The use of lead in sinkers and plummets is already banned in Denmark and similar restrictions are likely to be introduced in all HELCOM-countries due to the possible coming proposal from the EU Commission (ECHA, 2022). 

    The most common types of plastic used in fishing gear are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP) and Polyamide (PA or nylon). Some common additives in plastics are stabilizers, fillers, colorants, antioxidants, flame retardants and plasticizers. Even if harmful substances do exist in fishing gear it has not, within the framework of this study, been possible to quantify the annual amount released to the environment. The necessary information on additives and chemicals present in fishing gear has not been reported or has never been analysed.

    Producers and resellers of fishing gear, contacted in this study could not or were unwilling to share information about the chemical contents of their products even though REACH stipulates that suppliers should provide information about SVHC (substances of high concern) present in their products in concentrations over 0.1 % (weight by weight) within 45 days.  

    We suggest the following measures to reduce the occurrence and impacts of lost fishing gear; 1) municipalities and retailers should provide information on the topic to increase the awareness among fishers, 2) incitements to reuse, recycle or recover fishing gear should be improved, 3) better information on chemical substances present in fishing gear, 4) ban of harmful substances including lead in fishing gear and 5) conduct clean ups of hotspots which also will contribute to reduce new losses. Implementation of the EU Single-Use Plastics Directive and upcoming extended producer responsibility including fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries are important drivers supporting this positive development.

    In conclusion, the estimates presented here should be considered indicative of potential losses of fishing gear in the HELCOM-countries. By using two different and independent methods to collect data for estimating losses of fishing gear, we have aimed to shed light on the uncertainty in our estimates. Furthermore, we provide all assumptions and calculations for transparency. Even though the methods to some extent give similar results, the figures are overestimated due to our conservative assumptions based on the precautionary principle and better data is needed to provide more reliable decision support.  

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  • 193. Olshammar, Mikael
    et al.
    Graae, Lisette
    Robijn, Ardo
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    Mikroplast från gjutet gummigranulat och granulatfria konstgräsytor2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet syftade till att öka kunskapen om spridningen av mikroplaster från gjutna gummiytor och granulatfria konstgräsytor genom att komplettera tidigare studier med nya mätningar och beräkningar. Ett mål var att komma närmare en kvantifiering av dessa källors bidrag till mikroplaster nationellt, samt att få en bättre förståelse för hur man kan förhindra att spridning av mikroplaster från dessa ytor sker. Spridningen av mikroplast från dessa material per ytenhet uppskattades till 0,4-20 g/m2 per år för konstgräs utan granulat och 0,6-48 g/m2 per år för gummiytor. Variationen mellan olika ytor är mycket stor och osäkerheten i både mätningar och analys hög. Detta är en spridning i samma nivå som en vägyta med en årsmedeldygnstrafik på 5,500–13,000 fordon, som beräknas sprida 56 g mikroplast/m2. Vissa konstgräsplaner släpper sina konstgräsfiber betydligt lättare än andra (ca 50 ggr lättare) och av denna anledning bör standardiserade metoder för att identifiera högutsläppande konstgräsplaner utvecklas. Välkonstruerade och välskötta granulatfria konstgräsytor har goda möjligheter att klara EUs kommande gränsvärde för spridning av mikroplast på 7 g/m2 per år.

    Utifrån kommunenkäter, leverantörsdata och GIS-analyser har Sveriges totala area platsgjutet gummi uppskattats till 1 200 000 m2, varav ca 550 000 m2 på lekplatser + ca 650 000 m2 på idrottsplatser. Sveriges totala yta konstgräs utan granulat har i tidigare studie undersökts i 15 städer och har i detta projekt utifrån befolkning uppskattats till totalt ca 447 000 m2. Med utgångspunkt från den beräknade gummiarean på lekplatser och idrottsplatser kombinerat med de uppmätta mikroplastutsläppen per år och kvadratmeter uppskattas de totala årliga utsläppen från Sveriges gummiytor till ca 16 ton/år. Motsvarande beräkning för konstgräsytor utan granulat ger ca 2 ton/år. Detta är sålunda avsevärt mindre utsläppskällor än t ex vägtrafiken (8 190 ton/år) eller konstgräsplaner med infill (676 ton/år) och ligger snarare i nivå med uppskattade mikroplastutsläpp från fiskenät och andra fiskeredskap (4-46 ton/år).

    Projektet tog också fram tekniska specifikationer för att begränsa spridningen av mikroplaster från ytor med gummigranulat

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  • 194.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rauer, Fredrik
    Woxenius, Johan
    Gonzalez-Aregall, Marta
    Malmberg, Lars-Göran
    Salo, Kent
    LIGHTHOUSE REPORTS BRAVE ECO - Benchmark for Reduction of Anchoring Vessels’ Emissions - Enabling Change of Operation2021Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This feasibility study aims to evaluate the possibilities to reduce air emissions from ships anchored in port areas and, then especially the Port of Gothenburg.

    For this purpose, the study uses two main approaches. Firstly, it analyses the reasons and legal/business aspects for anchoring. Secondly, this study develops a reproducible calculation model for anchored vessels' CO2 emissions.

    Regulation of anchoring sites are not entirely clear since international regulation partly applies, also it is not clear who is responsible for the anchoring sites. This implies that the port´s scope of action is limited mainly to the ships that are calling the port.

    However, also emission from other ships at in the port area has been evaluated in this study to get a broader perspective.

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  • 195. Peacock, Mike
    et al.
    Futter, Martyn N.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kothawala, Dolly N.
    Moldan, Filip
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stadmark, Johanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Evans, Chris D.
    Three Decades of Changing Nutrient Stoichiometry from Source to Sea on the Swedish West Coast2022In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1809-1824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European ecosystems have been subject to extensiveshifts in anthropogenic disturbance, primarilythrough atmospheric deposition, climate change,and land management. 

    These changes have alteredthe macronutrient composition of aquatic systems,with widespread increases in organic carbon (C),and declines in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P).Less well known is how these disturbances haveaffected nutrient stoichiometry, which may be amore useful metric to evaluate the health ofaquatic ecosystems than individual nutrient concentrations.

    The Swedish west coast has historicallyexperienced moderate to high levels of atmosphericdeposition of sulfate and N, and eutrophication. Inaddition, coastal waters have been darkening withdamaging effects on marine flora and fauna.

    Here,we present three decades of macronutrient datafrom twenty lakes and watercourses along the Swedish west coast, extending from headwaters toriver mouths, across a range of land covers, andwith catchments ranging 0.037–40,000 km2. Wefind a high degree of consistency between thesediverse sites, with widespread increasing trends inorganic C, and declines in inorganic N and total P.

    These trends in individual macronutrients translateinto large stoichiometric changes, with a doublingin C:P, and increases in C:N and N:P by 50% and30%, showing that freshwaters are moving furtheraway from the Redfield Ratio, and becoming evenmore C rich, and depleted in N and P.

    Althoughrecovery from atmospheric deposition is linked tosome of these changes, land cover also appears tohave an effect; lakes buffer against C increases, anddecreases in inorganic N have been greatest underarable land cover. Our analysis also detects coherentlydeclining P concentrations in small forestlakes; so called (and unexplained) ‘‘oligotrophication.’’

    Taken together, our findings show thatfreshwater macronutrient concentrations and stoichiometryhave undergone substantial shifts duringthe last three decades, and these shifts can potentiallyexplain some of the detrimental changes thatadjacent coastal ecosystems are undergoing.

    Ourfindings are relevant for all European and NorthAmerican waters that have experienced historicallyhigh levels of atmospheric deposition, and provide a starting point for understanding and mitigating against the trajectories of long-term change in aquatic systems.

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  • 196. Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    Mata, Érika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Samperio, Álvaro
    Quijano, Ana
    Cuneo, Alessandra
    Social and market acceptance of photovoltaic panels and heat pumps in Europe: A literature review and survey2022In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 155, p. 111867-111867, article id 111867Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 197.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Lunds universitet.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Atmospheric deposition and soil water chemistry in Swedish forests since 1985 – Effects of reduced emissions of sulphur and nitrogen2024In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 913, p. 169734-169734, article id 169734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends for the atmospheric deposition of sulphur (S) and inorganic nitrogen (inorg-N) to forests and changes in the forest soil water chemistry in Sweden have been assessed since 1985, with special focus on the last 25 years, based on measurements within the Swedish Throughfall Monitoring Network (SWETHRO). The reductions in the deposition of S and inorg-N in the southern part of Sweden corresponded relatively well with the pollutant emission reductions for S and inorg-N from both EU27 + UK and Sweden during 1996/97–2021/22. For northern Sweden the deposition of S and inorg-N decreased to a lesser extent than both European and Swedish emissions.

    The bulk deposition of NO3-N has decreased more than the deposition of NH4-N over the last 25-year period, which is consistent with the much larger emission reductions for NOx compared to NH3 from EU27 + UK and Sweden. The S concentrations in the soil water, at 50 cm below soil surface, have decreased during the last 25 years, however somewhat less than the S deposition. At sites with low ANC and pH in the beginning of the period, the increase in ANC was generally greater and the increase in pH was smaller, but at sites with high pH and ANC above zero, the increase in pH was dominant, in line with the nonlinear relationship between pH and ANC in the soil water. The incidence of elevated concentrations of NO3-N in the soil water was highest in southwest Sweden, ranging between 4 and 19 % of all measuring occasions since 1985/86. The reduced deposition of N over the 35-year period was not reflected in the incidence of elevated concentrations of NO3-N in the soil water over time.

  • 198.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Försurning och övergödning i Jönköpings län: Resultat från Krondroppsnätet till och med 2020/212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna årsrapport har skrivits inom Krondroppsnätet, där mätningarna i Jönköpings län främst finansieras av Jönköpings läns Luftvårdsförbund men även av Naturvårdsverket och Vätternvårdsförbundet. Utförare av projektet är IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet i samarbete med Lunds universitet.  

    Lågt svavelnedfall men fortsatt försurning av markvattnet

    Försurning utgör fortfarande ett stort miljöproblem i Jönköpings län. Svavelnedfallet till granskogarna i länet har dock minskat kraftigt, med mellan 75 och 98 %, sedan slutet under 2000/01. Då var svavelnedfallet mellan 3 och 6 kg per hektar, medan det under det hydrologiska året 2020/21 varierade mellan 0,5 och 1,5 kg per hektar. Lufthalterna av svaveldioxid, som mäts vid Fagerhult, har halverats sedan 2001. 

    Försurning av ytvatten i Jönköpings län reflekteras av markvattnets försurningsstatus vid mätplatserna i länet. Försurningsstatusen verkar ha förvärrats vid flera av länets provplatser under de senaste åren, i synnerhet vid Fagerhult i länets östra del. Detta kan till viss del härledas till de ökade kloridhalterna i markvattnet, som indikerar havssaltsepisoder och därmed surstötar. För att mark och vatten ska återhämta sig och miljömålet Bara naturlig försurning ska uppnås krävs fortsatt lågt svavel­nedfall, att nedfallet av kväve inte överskrider vad skogen kan ta upp, samt att skogsbrukets för­surnings­påverkan hålls på en låg nivå.

    Nedfallet av kväve överskrider kritisk belastning

    Det totala nedfallet av oorganiskt kväve till barrskog i Jönköpings län för kalenderåret 2021 har beräknats till mellan 4,8 och 6,7 kg per hektar. Kvävenedfallet har under många år klart överskridit den kritiska belastnings­gräns som för granskog i Sverige är 5 kg kväve per hektar och år. Kvävenedfallet till barrskog i Jönköpings län har dock sedan 2001 minskat med 44 %, vilket är en något större minskning jämfört med rapporterade utsläppsminskningar av oorganiskt kväve i Europa. 

    Halterna av nitrat i markvatten har varit mycket låga i ostörd växande skog i länet. Stormskador har dock lett till tillfälliga perioder med ökade halter av nitrat i markvattnet och risk för utlakning till grund- och ytvatten. Att skogen mår bra och fortsätter ta upp kväve är viktigt, inte bara för uppfyllandet av miljökvalitetsmålen Levande skogar, Begränsad klimatpåverkan och Ingen övergödning, utan även för miljökvalitetsmålet Bara naturlig försurning.

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  • 199.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Försurning och övergödning i Kalmar län: Resultat från Krondroppsnätet till och med 2020/212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna årsrapport har skrivits inom Krondroppsnätet, där mätningarna i Kalmar län främst finansieras av Kalmar läns luftvårdsförbund men även av Naturvårdsverket. Utförare av projektet är IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet i samarbete med Lunds universitet.

    Kvävenedfallet minskar men är fortfarande över kritisk belastning

    Lufthalterna av kvävedioxid har sedan 1999 minskat med 32 % vid både Rockneby och Ottenby, vilket är lägre än Europas emissionsminskningar av kvävedioxid (1999–2019: -51%). 

    Atmosfäriskt nedfall av oorganiskt kväve till barrskog i Kalmar län har för det hydrologiska året 2020/21 beräknats till mellan 4,7 och 6,7 kg per hektar, med lägst nedfall i de norra delarna. Den kritiska belastningsgräns som används i Sverige, 5 kg kväve per hektar och år, överskreds i nästan hela länet under 2020/21. Kvävenedfallet, beräknat som ett yttäckande medelvärde för hela länet, har dock minskat med 46 % under tjugoårsperioden 2001–2021. Det totala nedfallet av oorganiskt kväve vid Rockneby minskade mellan 2001/02 och 2020/21 med 33 %. Däremot minskade inte kvävenedfallet med nederbörden vid Rockneby, vilket tyder på att torrdepositionen i Kalmar län alltjämt har stor betydelse. 

    Nitrathalterna i markvattnet är generellt låga i ostörd, växande skog i länet men mätningarna visar på att sporadiskt förhöjda nitrathalter kan förekomma. Mycket tyder på att avsevärda mängder kväve finns upplagrat i skogsmarken i länet. Detta innebär en risk för att störningar, exempelvis i form av stormskador, insektsgrepp eller avverkning, kan leda till kraftigt förhöjda nitrathalter i markvattnet och utlakning av kväve, vilket har visats på andra platser i södra Sverige.

    Svavelnedfallet har minskat kraftigt, men återhämtningen går långsamt

    Lufthalterna av svaveldioxid har sedan 1999 minskat med 58 % vid Rockneby och 72 % vid Ottenby, vilket är lägre än Europas emissionsminskningar av oxiderat svavel (1999–2019: -91 %). En trolig orsak är att svavel­dioxidhalterna i länet påverkas av utsläpp från fartygstrafiken på Östersjön.

    I mitten av 1990-talet uppmättes svavelnedfall vid Ottenby på över 10 kg per hektar, medan svavelnedfallet under det hydrologiska året 2020/21 varierade mellan 0,6 kg per hektar (Rockneby) och 1,2 kg per hektar (Ottenby). Svavelnedfallet har sedan 2000/01 minskat med 83–86 % i länet, viket är i nivå med Europas emissionsminskningar (2001–2019: -88 %). Historiskt sett har svavel­belastningen i Kalmar län under lång tid varit hög, vilket gett stor försurningspåverkan i skogsmiljön. 

    Markvattenkemin i Kalmar län visar att återhämtning från försurning av markvattnet pågår, men det går långsamt och det är fortfarande försurat. Under 2021 varierade den syraneutraliserande förmågan (ANC) i markvattnet vid länets provytor mellan -0,2 mekv/l (Ottenby) och 0.2 mekv/l (Risebo). För att markvattnet ska bidra till en återhämtning från försurning i sjöar och vattendrag måste ANC ha ett värde som är klart högre än noll. Av­verkning eller andra störningar som innebär att kväveupptaget minskar, samt havssaltsepisoder som kan orsaka jonbyte och frigörelse av vätejoner, kan leda till surstötar. För att mark och vatten ska åter­hämta sig från försurning krävs fortsatt lågt svavelnedfall, att skogen har god status så att kvävet tas upp och inte nitrifieras samt att skogsbrukets för­surnings­­­påverkan hålls på en låg nivå.

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  • 200.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Akselsson, Cecilia
    Hellsten, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Försurning och övergödning i Stockholms län: Resultat från Krondroppsnätet till och med 2020/212022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna årsrapport har skrivits inom Krondroppsnätet, där mätningarna i Stockholms län främst finansieras av Länsstyrelsen i Stockholms län men även av Naturvårdsverket och Swedavia. Utförare av projektet är IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet i samarbete med Lunds universitet.

    Nedfallet av kväve minskar men var förhållandevis högt 2020/21

    Kvävenedfall innebär en risk för kväveutlakning från skogsmark till grund- och ytvatten. Kvävenedfallet till skog i Stockholms län har minskat med 48 % under tidsperioden 2001–2021. Även lufthalterna av kvävedioxid har minskat med 51 % vid Farstanäs sedan 1994.

    Det totala nedfallet av oorganiskt kväve till skog i Stockholms län har beräknats ligga i intervallet mellan 4 och 5 kg per hektar för det hydrologiska året 2020/21. Detta är lägre än den kritiska belastningsgränsen för kväve i skog, 5 kg per hektar och år. I länet har dock kvävenedfallet tidigare under lång tid överskridit den kritiska belastningsgränsen.  

    Under 2021 var nitrathalterna i markvattnet generellt låga vid mätplatserna i länet, med undantag av Farstanäs. Tidigare års mätningar har visat att markvattnet vid de nu aktiva mätplatserna i länet sällan uppvisar nitratkväve i markvattnet. Sammantaget visar mätningarna i Stockholms län att kvävenedfallet ännu inte gett upphov till något läckage av nitrat till markvattnet i växande skog, men att kväveutlakning kan förekomma i länets skogar, framförallt i de som drabbats av störningar i form av stormskador eller barkborreangrepp. 

    Svavelnedfallet är lågt och det sker en långsam återhämtning

    Svavelnedfallet till skogen i Stockholms län har minskat kraftigt, mellan 67 och 96 %, sedan de olika platsernas mätstart, och minskningen är statistiskt säkerställd för alla mätplatser i länet. Under de senaste sex åren har svavelnedfallet varit lägre än 1 kg per hektar i länet, vilket är mycket lägre än i början av 1990-talet då nedfallet var upp mot 14 kg per hektar och år. 

    Av länets tre mätplatser med långa tidsserier har en statistiskt säkerställd återhämtning från försurning främst skett vid Bergby i länets norra del. Där har markvattnets pH ökat, och halterna av sulfatsvavel och oorganiskt aluminium minskat. Markvattnets syraneutraliserande förmåga (ANC) visar ingen statistiskt säkerställd förändring vid någon av länets mätplatser, men den är oftast positiv, vilket tyder på att det finns en syrabuffrande förmåga i länets skogar. Även vid Arlanda syns tecken på återhämtning från försurningen, med ökat pH och minskade halter av sulfatsvavel i markvattnet. Även vid Farstanäs har sulfathalterna minskat i markvattnet, men det finns inga statistiskt säkerställda förändringar med avseende på pH, ANC och oorganiskt aluminium.

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