IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute

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  • 51.
    De Pauw, Karen
    et al.
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Govaert, Sanne
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Bernhardt‐Römermann, Markus
    Institute of Ecology and Evolution Friedrich‐Schiller‐University Jena Jena Germany.
    Bollmann, Kurt
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden.
    Calders, Kim
    CAVElab – Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Ghent Belgium.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Vegetation Ecology and Conservation Biology Institute of Ecology FB2University of Bremen Bremen Germany.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UR “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN, UMR 7058 CNRS‐UPJV) Jules Verne University of Picardie Amiens France.
    Lindmo, Sigrid
    Department of Biology Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim Norway.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia Katowice Poland.
    Ponette, Quentin
    Earth and Life Institute Université catholique de Louvain Louvain‐la‐Neuve Belgium.
    Plue, Jan
    Biogeography and Geomatics Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Selvi, Federico
    Department of Agriculture, Food Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UR “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN, UMR 7058 CNRS‐UPJV) Jules Verne University of Picardie Amiens France.
    Verbeeck, Hans
    CAVElab – Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Ghent Belgium.
    Vermeir, Pieter
    Laboratory for Chemical Analysis (LCA) Department of Green Chemistry and Technology Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Gent Belgium.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Forest and Nature Lab Department of Environment Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plants respond differently to environmental conditions in European forest edges2021In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 2629-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Forest biodiversity worldwide is affected by climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and today 20 % of the forest area is located within 100 m of a forest edge. Still, forest edges harbour a substantial amount of terrestrial biodiversity, especially in the understorey. The functional and phylogenetic diversity of forest edges have never been studied simultaneously at a continental scale, in spite of their importance for the forests’ functioning and for communities’ resilience to future change.

    2. We assessed nine metrics of taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey plant communities in 225 plots spread along edge‐to‐interior gradients in deciduous forests across Europe. We then derived the relative effects and importance of edaphic, stand and landscape conditions on the diversity metrics.

    3. Here, we show that taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity metrics respond differently to environmental conditions. We report an increase in functional diversity in plots with stronger microclimatic buffering, in spite of their lower taxonomic species richness. Additionally, we found increased taxonomic species richness at the forest edge, but in forests with intermediate and high openness, these communities had decreased phylogenetic diversity.

    4. Functional and phylogenetic diversity revealed complementary and important insights in community assembly mechanisms. Several environmental filters were identified as potential drivers of the patterns, such as a colder macroclimate and less buffered microclimate for functional diversity. For phylogenetic diversity, edaphic conditions were more important. Interestingly, plots with lower soil pH had decreased taxonomic species richness, but led to increased phylogenetic diversity, challenging the phylogenetic niche conservatism concept.

    5. Synthesis. Taxonomic, phylogenetic and functional diversity of understorey communities in forest edges respond differently to environmental conditions, providing insight in different community assembly mechanisms and their interactions. Therefore, it is important to look beyond species richness with phylogenetic and functional diversity approaches when focusing on forest understorey biodiversity.

  • 52. Engleryd, Anna
    et al.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Air pollution and Climate Change2029Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to evaluate the role of air pollution and air pollution control for climate policies, SwedishEnvironmental Protection Agency invited leading experts and scientists, senior administrators andnegotiators, international organisations and industry to an international workshop in Gothenburg, Sweden,19-21 October 2009.

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    Air pollution and Climate Change
  • 53.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Datakvalitet för en LCA-beräkning av ett byggnadsverk2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to communicate an LCA calculation for a building, and so that the result can be interpretable by the recipient, it must include quality documentation describing condition for calculations, assumptions and models used, and what data evaluations, delimitations and shortcomings that exists. If this is done in a consistent manner, regardless of the type of building, the ambition is to facilitate the development of the quality documentation and to interpret it. In the digitization we believe that the environmental impact will be calculated in a digitized way with life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology by facilitating already used tools. If these LCA calculations only include numerical numbers without simultaneously communicating something about how they are calculated, there is a risk that the LCA result is incorrectly interpreted and misleading. Therefore, it is important to supplement the LCA result with quality documentation. The aim of this report is to propose the contents of the LCA accompanying quality documentation for a building, with a scope to simplifying interpretation of the calculation results. The proposed quality documentation is expected to form the basis for a digital quality report. In the report the quality documentary is divided into the following parts: • The extent of the inventoryregarding construction parts, life cycle and information modules. • Quality of the resource summary, underlying LCA environmental data and the resulting weighted quality index for the calculated result. • Design of the LCA result,as part of the quality report, thus steering up the entire level of information delivery's lowest level of ambition. In the next stage of digitization, we expect that the results of what is described in the report will be digitized in future projects. The quality documentation for an LCA environmental calculation for a building should be seen as a complement to Q metadata (Erlandsson 2018a) for the construction products used during the life cycle. By supplementing Q metadata for environmental declarations for all kinds of construction products with quality documentation for an LCA calculation for all kinds of buildings, the vision is that these two works will strengthen an increased transparency about the quality of the LCA calculations.

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  • 54.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Minska klimatpåverkan från nybyggda flerbostadshus - LCA av fem byggsystem. Underlagsrapport2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn har stora möjligheter att minska sina koldioxidutsläpp oavsett vilket byggmaterial som används. Det visar en LCA-studie av klimatpåverkan från flerbostadshus, som jämför byggande i betong, massivt trä och blandkonstruktioner med betong, trä och stål. Studien baseras på ett referenshus i Hökarängen i Stockholm. I analysen ingår hela livscykeln för fem olika byggsystem – utvinning av material, materialtillverkning, byggproduktion, fast inredning, transporter, bruksskedet och en tänkt framtida rivning av byggnaden.

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  • 55.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmström, Hampus
    SLU.
    Karlsson, Per Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Neuwirth, Josefin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Underlagsdata för hållbarhetsbedömning i BioMapp2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report constitutes the overall documentation of the data available in the visualization tool BioMapp with regards to various industrial processes. The forest industrial processes described in the report are based on a generally accepted inventory methodology to describe the environmental impact of forest-based products and other sustainability indicators in a life cycle perspective. The system analysis tool used in the project is life cycle analysis (LCA) in the way it is applied in environmental product declarations (EPD).These inventory data are representative in the type of processes and environmental impact that are relevant to Swedish conditions. However, it has not been possible within the framework of the project to make complete industry summaries.

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  • 56.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nilsson, Jeanette
    Negativa klimatutsläpp genom användning av biogena kolsänkor2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By 2045 at the latest, Sweden climate goal is that there we will not contribute with any net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and this requires that we also must be able to build climate-neutral buildings in the future. Malmö wants to be a forerunner, and in the initiative local roadmap Malmö 2030 (LFM30) aims to be climate neutral already by 2030. The built environment today accounts for about one fifth of Sweden's total climate impact. In order to achieve climate-neutral buildings, 'genuine' negative emissions are important, i.e. measures that actually reduce the level of carbon dioxide in the air and not just avoid emissions.

    One way we already now can create negative climate emissions directly in the construction phase is to work with biogenic carbon sinks. We can do this, for example, by using bio-based materials such as biochar that are used, for example, in concrete or in a plant bed or in the soil as a pure sink. Other options include building with wood or other renewable materials. In this report, we develope supporting data so that the orders of magnitude of these sinks can be assessed. We have done this by developing a methodological approach based on accounting LCA that is compatible with the methodology already applied in LFM30 to calculate the significance of the wood built into a building (Erlandsson 2020). According to this methodological approach, the carbon balance of the forest is analyzed at the landscape level. For planted plants, therefore, by analogy, the carbon that is stored on average during the analysis period in the plantings made including the supplement from biochar is calculated. For individual urban trees, the methodology has been developed to take into account that the trees grow, creating a biogenic carbon sink, which extends over the 50 years of the analysis period.

    The methodology means that what is tied into each analysis period can be credited to the project's climate budget. In this way, no double accounting occurs while the benefit of preserving large trees in the built environment is strengthened.The report contains key figures and examples to enable a more uniform calculation so that the person who will make calculations in the future, in the absence of specific supporting data, can make the same assumption. We have also given a calculation example that shows that an apartment building made of solid wood that meets the target limit values set in LFM30 can, by planning plants and including biochar in the plant beds, already today – with products that can be bought – achieve a climate-neutral building. In this case, the climate impact of the construction phase is fully compensated by negative emissions in the form of biogenic carbon sinks.

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  • 57.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peterson, Daniel
    Gil Berrocal, Carlos
    Platsgjuten betongstomme med halvprefab baserat på referenshuset Blå Jungfrun: Yttervägg med halvsandwich eller lätt utfackningsvägg2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contributes with another comparable building platform according to the reference building Blå Jungfrun with two different solutions with concrete frames. These have since been climate improved in two stages. The results from the calculations carried out show that the best climate-improved alternative from Thomas Betong's selected construction solutions is the alternative called: "In-situ cast with filigran slab, thin-shell precast walls and light curtain wall with climate-improved ready-mixed concrete step two". 

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  • 58.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sveder Lundin, Jeanette
    Eckerberg, Klas
    Schulze, Espen
    Jönsson, Jan-Anders
    Maljanovski, Christoffer
    Jansson, Torbjörn
    Persson, Tommy
    Holm, Jesper
    Wikner, Hampus
    Wikner, Alfred
    Digital produktinformation baserat på datamallar: KONCEPTTEST MED MILJÖVARUDEKLARATIONER (EPD) OCH PRESTANDADEKLARATIONER (DOP) I WEBBTJÄNSTER (API)2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the future, we must decide how to handle product information in the construction sector in a rational, quality-assured and digital way.

    The vision is to base harmonized digital quality-assured product information on an internationally usable data template.

    The basics of digital data templates and how they are produced are described in the standards ISO 23386/7 and ISO 23387. A completed data template is called a data sheet.

    In the application test (proof of concept, PoC) of data templates carried out here, the aim is to communicate product information digitally in the value chain from material production until the construction product is delivered to the construction site.

    The application test includes several material manufacturers who have been test pilots to produce data sheets according to the data template concept. The pilots have produced data sheets for the Declaration of Performance (DoP) linked to the product's CE marking, as well as for an EPD based on the global data template described in the ISO 22057 standard.

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  • 59.
    Fallgren, Henrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kvalitetssäkringsprogram: Avseende IVL:s mätningar i omgivningsluft för kommuner och samverkansområden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver hur IVL:s luftkvalitetsmätningar i omgivningsluft kvalitetssäkras. Mätningarna sker antingen helt i IVL:s regi eller i samverkan med beställare såsom kommuner och luftvårdsförbund. I det senare fallet är ansvarsfördelningen viktig.

    Kvalitetssäkringsprogrammet omfattar dels kontinuerliga mätningar, dels provtagningsrutiner som följs av analys på IVL:s laboratorium. Mätmetoderna beskrivs översiktligt med redovisning av kvalitetsrelaterade parametrar. Till mätmetoderna redovisas även viktiga rutiner för kalibrering, kontroll och underhåll.

    Kvalitetskontroll och validering av mätdata behandlas, vilket relaterar till luftkvalitetsförordningens kvalitetsmål för tidstäckning, datafångst och mätosäkerhet.

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  • 60. Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Arvidsson, Rickard
    Björklund, Anna
    Guinée, Jeroen
    Heijungs, Reinout
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Six areas of methodological debate on attributional life cycle assessment2022In: E3S Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2267-1242, Vol. 349, p. 03007-03007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general agreement in the LCA community that there are two types of LCAs: attributional and consequential. There have been numerous discussions about the pros and cons of the two approaches and on differences in methodology, in particular about methods that can be used in consequential LCA.

    There are, however, methodological aspects of attributional LCA and how it can be used that need further attention. This article discusses six areas of debate and potential misunderstandings concerning attributional LCA. These are:

    1) LCA results of all the products in the world should add up to the total environmental impact of the world, sometimes referred to as the 100 % rule.

    2) Attributional LCA is less relevant than consequential LCA.

    3) System expansion, and/or substitution, cannot be used in attributional LCA.

    4) Attributional LCA leads to more truncation errors than consequential LCA does.

    5) There is a clear connection between the goal and questions of an LCA and the choice of attributional or consequential LCA.

    6) There is a clear boundary between attributional and consequential LCA. In the article, these statements are discussed, and it is argued that they are either misunderstandings or sometimes incorrect.

  • 61.
    Fjällström, Pär
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Persson, Emelie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mikroorganismer i arbetsmiljön vid förbehandlings- och samrötningsanläggningar: Kartläggning och åtgärder2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid förbehandlings- och samrötningsanläggningar förekommer mikroorganismer i det avfall som hanteras och rötning innebär att mikroorganismer bryter ner avfallet. Mikroorganismerna kan innebära hälsorisker för de anställda, då bioaerosoler, dvs. damm och vätskeaerosoler som innehåller mikroorganismer och deras metaboliter, kan uppstå vid hanteringen av avfallet. Forskningsprojektet om mikroorganismer i arbetsmiljön vid förbehandlings- och samrötningsanläggningar har undersökt när och var det finns risk för exponering för damm och aerosoler, och därmed för mikroorganismer.

    Den metodik som valts, och bedömts ge mest tillförlitligt underlag för en diskussion om åtgärder, är mätning av partiklar (uppdelat på olika storleksfraktioner) med direktvisande optiskt instrument. Mätinstrumentet har främst placerats stationärt för att följa hur dammhalten på utvalda platser varierar över tid, men har även burits runt i anläggningen av personalen för att studera dammhalterna i olika delar och vid olika arbetsmoment, exempelvis underhållsarbete och rondering. Studiebesök med mätningar och intervjuer har utförts vid tre förbehandlingsanläggningar, eftersom exponeringen bedöms vara högst i den typen av anläggningar.

    Mätningarna visar att förhöjda halter av partiklar förekommer vid platser och arbetsmoment där avfall hanteras öppet och där ventilationen är otillräcklig, och förhöjs ytterligare om materialet är i rörelse, om det är ostädat så att torkat avfall ”dammar” och/eller när man spolar vatten med högt tryck.

    Intervjuerna visade att de anställda generellt var överens om var riskmoment fanns och pekade ofta ut samma platser på anläggningarna. Detta visar att även om mätinstrument inte finns att tillgå kan en anläggning komma långt med att tillsammans med personalen kartlägga ”kritiska” platser/arbetsmoment.

    Där inga andra åtgärder fungerar eller är möjliga rekommenderas att personal använder andningsskydd i större utsträckning än vad som görs idag. Detta trots att personal inte, eller i mycket liten grad, upplevt problem. När det gäller luftvägsexponering kan man klara sig utan akuta besvär, men vid arbete under många år kan symptom/problem komma senare i livet.

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  • 62.
    Flodén, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Lars
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Christodoulou, Anastasia
    World Maritime University, Malmö, Sweden;Department of Maritime Studies, School of Maritime and Industrial Studies, University of Piraeus, Athens, Greece.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Mechanics and Maritime studies, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden;Department of Mechanics and Maritime studies, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rootzén, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    Department of Business Administration, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Shipping in the EU emissions trading system: implications for mitigation, costs and modal split2024In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EU recently decided to include shipping, meaning all intra-European shipping and50% of extra-European voyages, in the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS)beginning in 2024. This article provides an early assessment of the impacts of theEU ETS on the shipping sector’s potential reductions in greenhouse gas emissionsfor different types of ships. It further examines selected mitigation measures andthe impact on modals split and costs. The study employs a mixed-methodsapproach  combining  quantitative  estimates  (based  on  data  from  the  EUmonitoring,  reporting  and  verification  system)  with  qualitative  data  andinformation from interviews with key actors and from previous literature.

    This approach aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of theEU ETS. The inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS is expected to introduce significantincentives to reduce emissions. We estimate that switching to bio-methanol at anemissions allowance price of€90–100/tCO2will be cost-effective for a minor shareof shipping segments (representing about 0.5-5% of all ships), whereas at a priceabove€150/tCO2it could be cost-effective for a considerable share (potentially75%) of ships. In the short term, the costs incurred by the EU ETS will be passed onto transport customers as a surcharge. The increased cost may, unless properlyaddressed, drive carbon leakage. Meanwhile, a modal shift away from shippingmay occur in the roll-on, roll-off(RoRo) and roll-on passenger (RoPax) segmentsdue to direct competition with road and rail transport and the relative ease ofshifting to other modes of transport.

  • 63.
    Fransson, Nathalie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Passivitet i klimatfrågan: Fjärrvärmesektorns exponering mot en utvecklad bioekonomi och ett förändrat klimat2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringarna medför nya utmaningar för verksamheter som både beror av politiska beslut för att begränsa den globala uppvärmningen och av de fysiska förändringarna i klimatet. Beslut som tas av verksamheter inom det kommande decenniet kan resultera i inlåsningseffekter om klimatförändringsaspekten inte inkluderas. I projektet Passivitet i klimatfrågan: Fjärrvärmesektorns exponering mot en utvecklad bioekonomi och ett förändrat klimat identifieras vilka påverkansfaktorer som fjärrvärmebranschen i Sverige behöver inkludera i framtida investeringsbeslut för att framtidssäkra verksamheten mot klimatförändringarna och undvika inlåsningseffekter. 

    Sammanfattning max 200 ord

    Den svenska fjärrvärmebranschen står inför stora reinvesteringar detta decennium och tidigare studier visar att majoriteten planerar att investera i liknande teknik som i dag. Inom investeringarnas livslängd kommer förutsättningarna att förändras till följd av klimatförändringarna och ett investeringsbeslut som tas i dag måste inkludera klimatförändringsaspekten för att undvika inlåsningseffekter de kommande 30–40 åren. 

    Projektets mål är att framtidssäkra fjärrvärmens roll i det svenska energisystemet mot förändringar som kan uppstå till följd av klimatförändringarna. Detta genom att identifiera påverkansfaktorer och dess exponering till följd av en utvecklad bioekonomi inom EU och fysiska förändringar i och med ett förändrat klimat. De identifierade påverkansfaktorer grupperas i projektet till tre påverkansbilder. 1) Bränsleberoende: reinvestering i stora produktionsanläggningar centralt belägna i nätet med tungt bränsleberoende och därmed inlåsningseffekter. 2) Det fysiska systemet: störningar på ledningsnät och anläggningar som påverkar leveranssäkerheten. 3) Fjärrvärmeaffären: investeringsbeslut baseras på kunders efterfrågan i dag. Av de tre påverkansbilderna bedöms 3) Fjärrvärmeaffären, vara den mest akuta påverkansbilden att agera på, följt av 1) Bränsleberoendet, och minst akut, 2) Det fysiska systemet. Efter diskussioner med fjärrvärmeföretag bedöms påverkansbild 1) Bränsleberoendet, vara den som medför störst osäkerheter och är svårast att hantera.

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  • 64.
    Fredricsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Danielsson, Helena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Katarina
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pihl Karlsson, Gunilla
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nerentorp, Michelle
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Potter, Annika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Hans Christen
    Arenskoug, Hans
    Tunved, Peter
    Mellqvist, Johan
    Lindström, Bodil
    Nanos, Therese
    Andersson, Sandra
    Carlund, Thomas
    Leung, Wing
    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet AB.
    Nationell luftövervakning: Sakrapport med data från övervakning inom Program-område Luft t.o.m 20192021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvårdsverket, Luftenheten, ansvarar för den nationella luftövervakningen i bakgrundsmiljö. I rapporten redovisas resultat från verksamheten inom Programområde Luft avseende mätningar (genomförda av IVL, SU, SLU och SMHI) till och med 2019 och regionala modellberäkningar (utförda av SMHI) till och med 2018. 

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  • 65.
    Fridahl, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Schenuit, Felix
    German Institute for International and Security Affairs.
    Lundberg, Liv
    Research Institute of Sweden.
    Möllersten, Kenneth
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Böttcher, Miranda
    German Institute for International and Security Affairs.
    Rickels, Wilfried
    Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University.
    Novel carbon dioxide removals techniques must be integrated into the European Union’s climate policies2023In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In comparison to its emissions reductions policy, the European Union’s (EU) policy for achieving carbon dioxide (CO2) removals is underdeveloped. Only in forestry and land use management does current EU law allow its Member States to use removals to comply with their climate policy commitments. This excludes the potential role that novel removals could play for effectively and efficiently addressing climate policy objectives. Novel removals with significant European potential include bioenergy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, enhanced weathering, marine removal options like alkalinity enhancement, and direct air carbon capture and storage. Emissions reductions are crucial to mitigating climate change. However, in the past decade, the world community’s failure to reduce emissions at a sufficient speed to avoid dangerous climate change has become obvious.

    This reality acutely necessitates the development of innovative sets of policies to spur the deployment of novel CO2 removals, an urgency that is further underlined by the long lead time for many novel removal methods. Disregarding the potential of novel removals is incommensurate with the scale of the challenge of achieving EU’s commitment to reach net-zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. We argue that the current policy framework neither provides Union-wide economic incentives for novel CO2 removals, nor does it encourage EU Member States to develop national policy incentives. Our proposed solutions includes incentivizing removals through a conditional integration into the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), expanding the portfolio of removal methods in the Land-Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) Regulation, and to manage anticipations regarding which residual emissions that need to be counterbalanced by removals.

  • 66.
    Fridell, Erik
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hansson, Julia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Styhre, Linda
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Romson, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Studie på sjöfartsområdet: Styrmedel och scenarier för sjöfartens omställning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjöfarten står inför en stor omställning mot fossilfri drift av fartygen. Denna rapport beskriver styrmedel, tekniska frågor, hinder och scenarier för framtiden relaterat till denna utveckling. Inom IMO (International Maritime Organization) finns mål uppsatta för en minskning av utsläppen av växthusgaser från sjöfarten, styrmedel för kortsiktiga åtgärder finns på plats, främst avseende energieffektivisering, och mer långsiktiga ”market based measures” diskuteras. Inom EU finns ett antal förslag som när de implementeras kommer att få stor inverkan på sjöfarten och dess utsläpp av växthusgaser. I Sverige finns bland annat miljödifferentierade farledsavgifter och ecobonus, men ytterligare kraftfulla styrmedel krävs för att nå de mål om minskning av växthusgasutsläpp som satts upp.

    Det finns ett stort antal möjliga framtida hållbara marina bränslen som diskuteras t.ex. ammoniak, metan, metanol, vätgas och syntetisk diesel. I tillägg fortgår utvecklingen med ökad användning av eldrift.

    Ett antal scenarier presenteras i rapporten för utvecklingen av bränslemix och utsläpp av växthusgaser för svensk sjöfart, med syftet att analysera olika tänkbara styrmedel. Resultaten visar att el- och gasdrift kan bidra till att minska ökningen av emissioner av växthusgaser, men att ytterligare åtgärder behövs för att åstadkomma en sänkning av emissionerna. I ett scenario analyseras effekterna av de styrmedel som föreslås inom EU:s ”Fit for 55”.

    Det finns ett antal hinder som kan försena en utveckling mot ökad hållbarhet inom svensk sjöfart, både för eldrift och förnybara bränslen. Vidare diskuteras styrmedel som kan införas på nationell nivå. Här analyseras styrmedel för ökad användning av el, om en reduktionsplikt kan införas även för marina bränslen, en potentiell CO2-fond, investeringsstöd till ny teknik och bränsleinfrastruktur, klimatkrav på statens flotta, breddad ekobonus samt en vidareutveckling av miljödifferentierade farledsavgifter.

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  • 67.
    Fridén, Håkan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jacobson, Anton
    Nilsson Energy före detta IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet.
    Björk, Anders
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Uni- och multiderivata metoder för upptäckt av avvikelser i dammar2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dam monitoring is a large and important area for Swedish dam owners. It is a challenge to continuously monitor a dam construction with its sensors and be able to quickly react to changes that indicate a deviation in the dam. The report covers methods for computer-based detection of sensor and communication errors and the application of multivariate methods to detect and visualize anomalous states for a dam.The report is an account of the third of a series of research projects. The project has been run by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute AB during 2022–2023. All projects have been funded by Energiforsk and the SIVL foundation and with the aim to implement monitoring, detection, and visualization of sensor errors as well as overall condition monitoring of dams including warnings when the condition is moving towards a non-normal area.

    One purposes of this project has been to deepen the knowledge of the methods through an additional case study which has a different character both regarding the dam and its monitoring sensors. A second purpose has been to increase knowledge and competence both in breadth and depth for the involved industry. A third purpose has been to find ways to improve the accessibility of the results that our methods provide.In the previous two projects in the series, it was reported how we developed and installed a general monitoring application that runs in real time at two of the dam owners with data transfer from and to their signal databases. We have developed methods for independent monitoring of individual signals, univariate monitoring and started the development of multivariate monitoring.In this project, the accumulated experience has been used to connect a third dam, Case Study III, and to continue the development of the methodology. A large part of the project has also been devoted to dissemination of results in the form of webinars, a deeper course for staff at the power companies on the methodology used and the underlying theory.The project series now has three case studies and through the plant owners the project has gained access to more than 5 years of historical data for each dam. These data form the basis for further development and evaluation of monitoring methods. Collecting, building a common understanding of and pre-processing this data requires a lot of time and good cooperation between data specialists and dam owners, a foundation that has now been laid.

    This report is published both in Energiforsk's report series and in IVL's report series B.

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  • 68.
    Gasperini, Cristina
    et al.
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy;Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Bollmann, Kurt
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Department of Physical Geography Stockholm University Stockholm Sweden.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    De Pauw, Karen
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Diekmann, Martin
    Vegetation Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Ecology, FB2 University of Bremen Bremen Germany.
    Govaert, Sanne
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Graae, Bente J.
    Department of Biology NTNU Trondheim Norway.
    Hedwall, Per‐Ola
    Southern Swedish Forest Research Centre Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Lomma Sweden.
    Iacopetti, Giovanni
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Lindmo, Sigrid
    Department of Biology NTNU Trondheim Norway.
    Meeussen, Camille
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Orczewska, Anna
    Institute of Biology, Biotechnology and Environmental Protection, Faculty of Natural Sciences University of Silesia Katowice Poland.
    Ponette, Quentin
    Earth and Life Institute Université Catholique de Louvain Louvain‐la‐Neuve Belgium.
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute. IVL Swedish Environmental Institute Stockholm Sweden.
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Spicher, Fabien
    UMR CNRS 7058 “Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés” (EDYSAN) Université de Picardie Jules Verne Amiens France.
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Zellweger, Florian
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Landscape Research WSL Birmensdorf Switzerland.
    Selvi, Federico
    Department of Agriculture, Food, Environment and Forestry University of Florence Florence Italy.
    Frenne, Pieter De
    Forest & Nature Lab, Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering Ghent University Melle‐Gontrode Belgium.
    Soil seed bank responses to edge effects in temperate European forests2022In: Global Ecology and Biogeography, ISSN 1466-822X, E-ISSN 1466-8238, Vol. 31, no 9, p. 1877-1893Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The amount of forest edges is increasing globally due to forest fragmentationand land-use changes. However, edge effects on the soil seed bank of temperate forests are still poorly understood. Here, we assessed edge effects at contrasting spatialscales across Europe and quantified the extent to which edges can preserve the seedsof forest specialist plants.Location: Temperate European deciduous forests along a 2,300-km latitudinalgradient.Time period: 2018–2021.Major taxa studied: Vascular plants.Methods: Through a greenhouse germination experiment, we studied how edge effects alter the density, diversity, composition and functionality of forest soil seedbanks in 90 plots along different latitudes, elevations and forest management types.We also assessed which environmental conditions drive the seed bank responses at the forest edge versus interior and looked at the relationship between the seed bankand the herb layer species richness.

    Results: Overall, 10,108 seedlings of 250 species emerged from the soil seed bank.Seed density and species richness of generalists (species not only associated withforests) were higher at edges compared to interiors, with a negative influence of C : Nratio and litter quality. Conversely, forest specialist species richness did not declinefrom the interior to the edge. Also, edges were compositionally, but not functionally,different from interiors. The correlation between the seed bank and the herb layerspecies richness was positive and affected by microclimate.Main conclusions: Our results underpin how edge effects shape species diversity andcomposition of soil seed banks in ancient forests, especially increasing the proportionof generalist species and thus potentially favouring a shift in community composition.However, the presence of many forest specialists suggests that soil seed banks stillplay a key role in understorey species persistence and could support the resilience ofour fragmented forests.

  • 69. Gasperini, Cristina
    et al.
    Carrari, Elisa
    Govaert, Sanne
    Meeussen, Camille
    De Pauw, Karen
    Plue, Jan
    Sanczuk, Pieter
    Vanneste, Thomas
    Vangansbeke, Pieter
    Jacopetti, Giovanni
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Selvi, Federico
    Edge effects on the realised soil seed bank along microclimatic gradients in temperate European forests2021In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 798, p. 149373-149373, article id 149373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the crucial role of the seed bank in forest conservation and dynamics, the effects of forest edge microclimate and climate warming on germination responses from the forest seed bank are still almost unknown. Here, we investigated edge effects on the realised seed bank and seedling community in two types of European temperate deciduous forest, one in the Oceanic and one in the Mediterranean climatic region. Responses in terms of seedling density, diversity, species composition and functional type of the seed bank at the forest edge and interior were examined along latitudinal, elevational and stand structural gradients by means of soil translocation experiments. Moreover, we translocated soil samples from high to low elevation forests in the two regions, thus performing a warming simulation. Density, species diversity and mortality of the seedlings varied with region and elevation.

    Seedling density also differed between forest edge and interior position, while seedling cover mainly depended on forest structure. Both the edge and interior forest seed bank contained a high proportion of generalist species. In Belgium, a more homogeneous seed bank was found at the forest edge and interior, while in Italy compositional and ecological differences were larger: at the forest edge, more light and less moisture demanding seedling communities developed, with a higher proportion of generalists compared to the interior. In both regions, the upland-to-lowland translocation experiment revealed effects of warming on forest seed banks with thermophilization of the realised communities. Moreover, edge conditions shifted the seedling composition towards more light-demanding communities. The establishment of more light and warm-adapted species from the seed bank could in the long term alter the aboveground vegetation composition, with communities becoming progressively richer in light-demanding generalists and poorer in forest specialists.

  • 70.
    Glebe, Dag
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Martinsson, John
    RISE.
    Genell, Anders
    VTI.
    Bullerdatainsamling och autonom artidentifiering för att underlätta miljöövervakning2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend for Sweden’s environmental goals is in several cases negative, and one ofthe areas that shows an undesirable trend is the goal “A rich diversity of plant andanimal life”. Sweden’s follow-up to the habitat and bird directive and the shows acontinued vulnerable situation for biological diversity. But today it is difficult andcostly to monitor the Swedish environmental quality targets are met.The collection of sound and image data already takes place on a large scale today,but there is a large and untapped potential to simplify environmental monitoringthrough new cheap data collection devices and above all through new automaticAI-based analysis systems. Manual sampling and data collection is time-consumingand costly, which makes autonomous audio and video data collection attractive,especially in inaccessible locations such as underwater. In several cases, the publiccould be enlisted to help detect invasive species using a cell phone application thatuses artificial intelligence for species identification.This report reviews the state of the art in the use of sound and image data fornoise monitoring and noise mapping, for species identification of animals and plants,and for invasive species monitoring. The report reviews current and emergingtechnologies and methods and assesses their maturity, availability and reliability.This report aims to report opportunities and challenges linked to:• Systems to collect noise data to model noise impacts in the terrestrial andaquaticdomains and enable noise mapping• System for autonomous sound and image-based species identification,populationestimation and biodiversity monitoring• System for the detection of invasive species, e.g. mobile phone appsTechnical solutions and methods must be based on open data and open design.Echoacoustic noise data acquisitionBiological applications in acoustics are called bioacoustics or echoacoustics. Themost explored areas of passive acoustic monitoring, or PAM, are animal sounds inthe ultrasonic range (e.g.bats and whales), as traditional analysis methods can beused in those cases. For example, PAM can be realized with sound boxes, single orin arrays, or with collars or implanted devices on individual animal individuals.Acoustically active animals align themselves with each other and other sounds,which is why soundscapes are considered to provide information about the healthof the biosystem.It is important to address the entire measurement chain in PAM technology.The report’s overview of hardware is focused on audio, because camera technologyis established in Swedish wildlife management. Most hardware components in themeasurement chain need to be chosen from a practical point of view to work wellin measurement systems, such as battery life, memory management or connectivityoptions, and low cost if many acquisition devices are needed.

    The report also contains an overview of autonomous systems or integrated devicesthat cover the entire measurement chain when collecting sound data. The possibilitiesof combining audio and visual data for analysis are rarely used today, andthere can be great gains to be made in this field.Successful AI-based analysis methods have not made it into commercial applications.There is great pressure within the research community to make analysisresults, analysis tools and collected data available, to be able to reuse data andresults for resource reasons, and to offer greater data coverage. Standardized formatsfor metadata are also requested, aiming at international research practice.The success of citizen research can be partially attributed to new tools implementedin mobile apps, but there is great development potential to tailor toolsand methods to businesses and actual needs.AI in bioacoustics – State of the artThe AI-based methods most used in bioacoustics are deep learning methods, aboveall different forms of neural networks that are suitable for resource-demandinglistening and image review. The largest area is bird classification.The most common type of neural network in bioacoustics is CNN (convolutionalneural network), which is important in image and sound analysis, but new variantsare constantly being developed. Spectrograms (image representations of sound)are often used as input to deep learning models, but many variants are in use. Melspectrogramis the one that has worked best in bioacoustic contexts, because thefrequency scaling depicts the sound the same regardless of pitch, which is suitablefor CNN-type networks. Note that the same raw data can form the basis of differenttypes of training input, if they are of sufficient quality and resolution. The requirementsfor high-resolution data are expected to increase, which is important whencollected raw data is to be future-proofed, as are the requirements to link metadatato registered observations.In the machine listening area, there has been a fifteen-fold increase in thenumber of publications between 1998 and 2018. Estimation of population densityof birds using machine listening has been shown to give as good results as manualpoint counting, with respect to key parameters such as number of recorded birdspecies.Methods that do not require manual classification of training data are apromisingway forward for noise reduction and source separation. Annotationscarcity of training data can be addressed with embedding functions. In the areaof urban noise, there are methods for real-time data streaming using distributednetworks. Active learning methods, i.e. methods where experts actively participatein the learning process, quickly produce powerful results. An interesting variantis to train animals to make choices that become annotations of input data. Thisprovides a model representing the animals’ own perception, which must be usedwith caution.In summary, an extensive investment in noise data collection outside Sweden’sbuilt-up areas or around Sweden’s coasts does not seem realistic in today’s situation,but there are great opportunities to fruitfully integrate autonomous species identificationinto the ongoing monitoring activities in Swedish nature.

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  • 71.
    Graae, Lisette
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Boll, Kajsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Self-declarations of environmental classification at Fass.se: Experiences from the reviewing process during 20202021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2005 Sweden has a unique environmental classification system for pharmaceutical substances. It is a self-declaration system where each pharmaceutical company is responsible for their own environmental information, which is published on the open web-based portal www.fass.se. Prior to publication the environmental risk assessments are reviewed by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) as an independent, external part. The present report describes the experiences from the review process during the year 2020. 

    In 2020, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) were sent in for review 773 times. 68% of the reviewed assessments received the comment no remarks and were recommended to be published, whereas the other 32% were either recommended or needed to be corrected before publication. 694 unique substances were published at Fass.se during 2020. Of these substances 52% were exempted from classification, 27% were classified regarding environmental risk, and 21% could not gain any classification due to lack of data. 

    The work of improving the review system is an on-going process. As a part of this work IVL performs studies to increase the knowledge of pharmaceuticals in the environment. During the last four years the focus for this type of work has been on proposing and developing a model for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical products. In 2020 the focus was on improving the understanding of different stakeholder needs by mapping roles and responsibilities as well as drivers, incentives and barriers for different actors along the value chain. The results were published in the report (B2395) “Reduce environmental impacts of pharmaceuticals along the value chain” in September 2020.

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  • 72.
    Graae, Lisette
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ryding, Sven-Olof
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Agata
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöriskbedömning av läkemedelssubstanser2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Local emissions of pharmaceuticals at production sites can cause severe environmental problems. Currently there are no laws, regulations, or rules to demand the pharmaceutical sector to report emissions of pharmaceuticals from manufacturing facilities. There are however several voluntarily based initiatives both from governments, environmental organizations as well as from the pharmaceutical sector itself to monitor and promote less environmental pollution.

    One such initiative is the model for environmental risk assessment of pharmaceutical production that was developed by IVL in 2019 (report B2352, Pålsson et al). This report describes the further development and testing of the model for the use in public procurement decisions in Sweden. The study also included an investigation of other, similar national and international initiatives as well as a roadmap for further development of the model.  

    The risk assessment of antimicrobial substances was further developed during the project with an inclusion of PNEC-R calculations that specifically address the predicted no effect concentration of resistance as opposed to the ordinary PNEC-value which is based on ecotoxicological effects within the recipient.  

    The PNEC-R calculation should reflect concentrations withing the wastewater stream leaving the manufacturing site. For antimicrobial substances both an ecotoxicological based PNEC and a PNEC-R value should be determined and the lowest of the two should be used in the following risk calculation. Furthermore, the PEC-calculation for antimicrobial substances should be adjusted to not include the removal rate (%) for off-site wastewater treatment, since the mixture of different wastewater streams in off-site treatment plants rather increases than decreases the development of antimicrobial resistance.  

    The intended testing of the model with real world data provided by the companies, was unfortunately not feasible within the project. The main reasons given by the companies for not submitting data were competing priorities in other project and internal reorganisations, competing priorities in global organisations or external contract partners that were unwilling to provide the requested information.  

    Nevertheless, the theoretical evaluation and testing showed that it will be possible to use the proposed model and the risk phrases it generates within public procurement decisions. The model could be incorporated into the already existing evaluation system in Fass and thereby provide the procurement organization with the necessary risk phrases without revealing confidential data outside the third-party reviewer team. This is most likely an important addition to the existing suggested package of procurement criteria by the National Agency for Public Procurement as there are no possibilities at hand to give preference to bidders from a performance point of view. Making use of the different risk phrases in public procurement can be a more elaborated and distinct way to evaluate the input from bidders.  

    Sidbrytning 

    The mapping of the national and international initiatives showed that there are many relevant ongoing projects and initiatives covering models for risk assessment on pharmaceutical production and/or environmental aspects in public procurement of pharmaceuticals. Cooperation and alignment of the model developed by IVL with the other initiatives is needed. Further need for development of the model are the following: 

    In a complex value chain, the final risk phrase for the product is represented by the site with highest risk phrase, no matter how well the rest of the sites performed. This makes the model somewhat blunt. In future versions of the model, it is desirable that this is adjusted to better reflect the environmental performance of the whole value chain.  

    The PEC-local calculation for antimicrobial substances could be further updated to better reflect the concentrations in the wastewater stream leaving the on-site treatment facility, where the PNEC-R is preferably applied, rather than the concentration within the recipient. 

    Alignment of the model with the industrial initiatives taken by e.g. EFPIA. 

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  • 73.
    Granberg, Maria
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Dahl, Mikael
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Miljöundersökning efter hybridoljepåslag i Öckerö kommun2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On April 14-15, 2022 a marine spill of hybrid oil (VLSFO) reached the Öckerö and Hönö archipelago. The oil originated from a spill that occurred while the ship Alpine Penelope (Creole Marine Ltd) drew oil from the Swedish bunker ship Fox Luna (BRP Shipping AB) at sea while anchored by the lighthouse Trubaduren outside Gothenburg harbor. The crew estimated the spill to 30-50 L while the Swedish coastguard collected 500 L by the ship and an additional 1000 L of oily water at sea. Single clumps of oil were found as far north as “Ytre Hvaler”, a national park in southern Norway. 

    Öckerö municipality engaged IVL Swedish Environmental Research institute to 1) investigate the degree of marine pollution caused by the spill, and 2) provide suggestions for mitigation actions and make a follow-up plan for the spill.  On May 3, 2022 sediment, invertebrates (snails, Littorina littorea and oysters, Magallana gigas) and macroalgae (Fucus vesiculosus and Fucus serratus) were collected at five oil contaminated (Kröckle, Räveskär, Båteviksholmarna, Norra Öckerö and Saltars) and two reference sites (Halse långe and Tjolmen). Sampling was carried out together with two environmental officers from Öckerö municipality and a representative from ITOPF. All samples, including a water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” and an oil sample collected by the municipal staff during beach cleaning, were analyzed for their contents of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, BTEX, PAHs and alkylated PAHs. Measured concentrations in water, sediment and biota were compared to limit values for individual compounds given in HVMFS 2019:25 based on the EU water framework directive. Measured concentrations in oysters and algae were compared to limit values for seafood for human consumption, provided by the Swedish food agency and the Swedish EPA. Sediments were classified according to SGU guidelines.

    Elevated oil pollutant levels were detected in oysters, macroalgae and in seawater surrounding oil polluted algae. The site ”Norra Öckerö” was highly impacted, and both biological and consumption related limit were exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene in biota and bivalves. There are no limit values for PAHs in macroalgae, but by comparing to those developed for biota (bivalves and crustaceans), the environmental limit values were exceeded in algal shoots by a factor 13 for fluoranthene and a factor 132 for benzo(a)pyrene. The limit values for human consumption were also exceeded for benzo(a)pyrene and PAH4 in algae shots from “Norra Öckerö”. At the time of sampling there was thus a serious risk of PAH poisoning from eating oysters or algae (and likely other stationary organisms) collected in the ”Norra Öckerö” area and surroundings. 

    The sediment samples did not show any pollution related to the oil spill. The elevated levels of fluoranthene and pyrene measured at the reference site “Tjolmen” corresponded to SGU class 3 (moderate pollution). This pollution was likely combustion related, originating from boat or car traffic, and should be further investigated. The water sample from ”Norra Öckerö” contained high levels of phenol, the annual average limit value for benzo(a)pyrene was exceeded by a factor 8 and the maximum limit value for benzo(ghi)perylene was exceeded by a factor 3. Consequently, the water close to the algal belt was toxic. The analyzed oil sample contained high amounts of 2-6 ringed PAHs, which constituted almost 90% of the organic pollutants of the oil. This makes the Öckerö VLSFO oil particularly prone to causing long term effects.Although small, the spill did affect a large part of the coastline. Due to difficulties of coming ashore, all samples could not be collected at all stations. It is likely that biota from the station “Kröckle” contained similar levels of oil pollutants as biota from “Norra Öckerö”, yet samples could not be collected there. Correspondingly, biota from oil polluted areas that were not included in the sampling program likely contained high concentrations of oil pollutants in line with what was found at “Norra Öckerö”. The oil was very sticky and therefore particularly difficult to clean up. The algal belt that extends all along the brim of every island has functioned as an oil filter, collecting the remaining water borne oil, which has then continued to leak water soluble oil components to the coastal waters. In all, the oil spill has led to contamination of biota in many places, with “Norra Öckerö” as the most severely affected site, having negative consequences for marine life and also affecting recreation and collection of food from the sea. Because it has become popular to pick and eat wild algae, and algae farms have been established along the coasts, regulations for safe pollution levels in seaweed and algae should urgently be established by food authorities. The municipality is recommended to consider future oil spills and local pollutions sources, like harbors, roads et c in their coastal planning, especially regarding locations for aquaculture. A follow-up study of the Öckerö VLSFO spill is recommended to further understand the long-term effects on marine life and humans.

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  • 74.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindau, Lars
    Arnell, Jenny
    Saltsjöbaden 3"2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Air quality is a common issue of large concern all over the world. Threats to health and ecosystems have initiated policy measures ranging in scale from local to international.

    Though significant steps have been taken in many countries, the problems are not solved and are also increasing in many areas. 

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    Saltsjobaden-Gothenburg 12-14-March-2007
  • 75.
    Grennfelt, Peringe
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sjöberg, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Söderlund, Karin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Inventering av historiska luftkvalitetsdata från svenska tätorter - Del 32023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Data från tätortsmätningar avseende luftkvalitet från 1960 till början av 1980-talet, som arkiverats vid IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet, har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket inventerats och delvis digitaliserats.

    Arbetet har hittills gjorts i tre etapper, och i rapporten redovisas vad som hittills gjorts samt exempel på hur data kan utnyttjas för olika typer av utvärderingar, till exempel exponeringssituationer och trendanalyser. Digitaliseringen har hittills främst inriktats mot sot och svaveldioxid. Även halter av tungmetaller och svavel på partiklar har digitaliserats men i mindre utsträckning. 

    Utvärderingen har hittills visat att mätningar förekommit på cirka 80 orter och oftast med många mätstationer i varje ort. Mätningarnas tidsmässiga omfattning har varierat från några månader till många år. 

    Halterna var under 1960- och första hälften av 1970-talet avsevärt högre än idag, inte minst för svaveldioxid. Extrema situationer med dygnsmedelvärden på över 400 µg/m3 svaveldioxid uppmättes i bl.a. Göteborg och i flera industriorter med ogynnsamma spridningsförhållanden. 

    Fortsatt arbete med digitalisering kommer bland annat innefatta kvävedioxid. 

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    Inventering av historiska luftdata från svenska tätorter
  • 76.
    Gunnarsson, Josefin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindskog, Nils
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Gottfridsson, Marie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Tegstedt, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ProScale assessment within LCA on utility poles2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses the Proscale method to assess the direct human toxicity potential resulting from the cradle-to-gate production of a variety of utility poles, and to highlight the added value from filling a method gap by using ProScale alongside other LCA results.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 77.
    Gustafsson, Greta
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mawlayi, Faiz
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mattsson, Eskil
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stoll, Thomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Settergren, Hugo
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hasselmark Mason, Tanja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Vägledning för klimatanpassning av bostadsföretag: Klimatanpasssningslösningar med fokus på naturbaserade åtgärder2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatforskningen talar sitt tydliga språk: Desnabba klimatförändringar vi redan idag upplever,innebär nya utmaningar men också möjlighetertill omställning av hur vi utvecklar och förvaltarvår byggda miljö. Med denna vägledning villvi rusta bostadsföretag för denna framtid, därklimatanpassning av bostadsbeståndet inte är ettalternativ utan en nödvändighet.Det ligger ett stort arbete bakom denna vägledningmen mycket arbete återstår och vägledningengör inte anspråk på att vara något heltäckandeuppslagsverk, utan förhoppningsvis snarare ettinspirerande och kortfattat första insteg i hur vikan komma igång med konkreta åtgärder.

    Arbetet har varit en process av nära samarbetemellan människor och organisationer medolika perspektiv och kompetenser. Projektet harsamfinansierats av Stiftelsen Institutet för VattenochLuftvårdsforskning (SIVL) och SverigesAllmännytta. Vi har också haft förmånen att hamed oss fem allmännyttiga bostadsbolag, MKB,Nybo, Mimer, Vätterhem och Östersundshem, pådenna resa, som bidragit med sitt engagemanggenom bland annat fallstudier, diskussioner ochdelande av tidigare erfarenheter. Företagensdeltagande har lett till att den teoretiska grundsom presenteras i vägledningen är förankrad i denverklighet och de utmaningar som de ställs inför.Det har även inneburit att generell kunskap om klimatanpassningsarbetet kunnat exemplifieras och presenteras på ett sätt som går att känna igensig i.Då det är bråttom att agera och frågorna omklimatanpassning av vår byggda miljö ärkomplex har projektet tidigt valt att prioriterade två extremväderhändelser som vi redan nuser drabbar bostäder och boende i allt störreomfattning; skyfall och värmeböljor. Vi har också valt att fokusera på multifunktionella ochnaturbaserade lösningar som bostadsbolagen kanintegrera i sin ordinarie verksamhet.

    Genom ökad kunskap om risker och åtgärder,systematiskt arbete, bättre samverkan samt störreförståelse för ekonomiska aspekter kommer ocksåförståelsen för behovet av åtgärder öka, vilket kanskynda på anpassningsarbetet. Vår förhoppningär att vägledningen kommer spridas för att andrabolag, både allmännyttiga och övriga, ska kunnaanvända den.Det har varit vår ambition att skapa en vägledningsom är lättillgänglig, praktisk och som möterbostadsbolagen i de utmaningar de står inför,både nu och i framtiden.

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  • 78.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    De Wit, Pierre
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Robert, Chloé
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Laugen, Ane T.
    Universitetet i Agder.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kunskapsunderlag för en enhetlig förvaltning av OSPAR-listade Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar Del 3 – Underlag för bedömning av bevarandevärde av Mytilus- och Ostrea-bankar2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus edulis) and oysters (Ostrea edulis) are keystone species in coastal ecosystems, and contribute to increased biodiversity by creating habitats for other or-ganisms and to several other important ecosystem services.

    In recent years, both Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds have been reported to be in decline in Europe, and there are strong indications of a similar situation also for Mytilus in Sweden. For Ostrea, there is a general lack of knowledge about population sizes, which makes assessments of population development problematic. Con-servation measures such as stock enhancement and restoration are therefore increasing as biodi-versity is lost, and there is a growing interest in restoring habitats created by mussels and oysters in many parts of the world.

    Marine species with high dispersal potential, such as Mytilus and to some extent Ostrea, have historically been thought unlikely to show genetic differentiation on local scales. However, it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that dispersal barriers caused by, for example, current conditions or lack of suitable habitats, are common and can result in genetically differentiated subpopulations on geographically small scales. This means that knowledge of genetic structures can contribute valuable information for the establishment of effective management strategies for different species, for example through analysis of genetic diversity and dispersal mechanisms. For example, knowledge of population structures, local recruitment patterns and dispersal of larvae are of great value to ensure a good genetic basis for the conservation of source- and sink populations and to maintain a good recruitment base and spread of new individuals. For both Mytilus and Ostrea, information about genetic structures, recruitment patterns and larval dispersal is lacking in Sweden, hence limiting the possibilities of assessing the conservation value of different bivalve beds.This report presents the work done to fill this knowledge gap and thereby support the identifica-tion of valuable Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds for species conservation (WP3 in the project). With the help of genetic analyses, large-scale patterns of distribution of the different "species" of the gene-ra Mytilus and Ostrea in the Skagerrak have been studied. The aim was to analyse genetic diversi-ty and gene flow between different areas in the Skagerrak and to identify possible barriers to larval transport along the coasts of Sweden and Norway. To further study the connectivity (de-fined as how well areas are linked to each other by sea currents, eg larval transport from one population to another) between different populations, the spread of particles (eggs and larvae) from Mytilus- and Ostrea-beds was also evaluated using an oceanographic distribution model (ROMS / OpenDrift). The aim was also to identify important areas where larvae from several areas gather (sink areas) as well as important areas which contribute to a high dispersal of larvae (source regions).

    The results from both the oceanographic trajectory modelling and genetic analysis were con-sistent for Mytilus and illustrated a general transport of larvae northwards along the coast. The results also showed that beds located in the inner archipelago were more isolated than beds in the outer part of the archipelago, especially inside of the islands Tjörn and Orust, and in the Oslo Fjord. A barrier was also observed between Tvedestrand and Kragerö along the Norwegian coast. The southern European species M. galloprovencialis was also observed in Swedish waters for the first time, in several different places, but in a low proportion of the total number of mussels sampled. Genetic monitoring of this alien species is desirable to study how the occurrence of the species develops in the future and how it interacts with local populations of M. edulis.For Ostrea, the genetic patterns and results from the oceanographic modelling were less con-sistent. The dispersal simulations showed that sites in the inner archipelago had little larval ex-change with other areas, while sites in the central archipelago had the most exchange of larvae both among themselves and, above all, with sites in the outer archipelago. The genetic data, how-ever, did not show a clear geographical structure. This is attributed to historical movements of oysters. Common to Mytilus and Ostrea is that larvae were in general transported northwards along the coast of Sweden, and that larvae from many different sites seem to gather in the archi-pelago around the Koster island (sink area). Based on the back-tracking of larvae, important source areas for larvae were found further south between Öckerö and Väderöarna (source areas).

    Based on the results presented in this report, it is concluded that both the Mytilus and the Ostrea populations in different geographical areas along the Swedish west coast should be managed as separate sub-units as extensive genetic structures and dispersal barriers were observed for both species. For example, it may be important to preserve populations in the Gothenburg area and in the area around Koster, as one is an important source area with the potential to contribute to significant dispersal of both species, and the other was identified to be an important sink area where large numbers of larvae gather. It is also important to preserve both nearshore and off-shore beds due to the low larval dispersal between these two environments. The bivalve beds in the central archipelago receive larvae from both the outer and the inner archipelago, so it is pos-sible that these beds can act as bridges/steppingstones and connect beds in the outer and inner archipelago. Some areas, such as the area inside the islands of Orust and Tjörn were found to be more or less isolated, illustrating the importance of local management that takes into account the lack of larval transport in and out of the area. With regard to the Orust area, it is also important to study how the large number of mussel farms in the area affect the wild populations.All in all, the project has resulted in valuable knowledge that can support the development of constructive and long-term sustainable management strategies for both Mytilus and Ostrea, but that there is also a need for further knowledge building connected to certain aspects, especially linked to the dispersal and population structures for Ostrea as well as to the interactions between farmed and wild Mytilus.

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  • 79.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå Universitet.
    Åström, Stefan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    MM Johansson, Emelie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Quantification of population exposure to NO2, PM10 and PM2.5, and estimated health impacts 20192022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish population exposure to concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was quantified for 2019, and the health and associated economic consequences were calculated. Most of the population was exposed to levels below the environmental standards. However, compared to the recently updated WHO 2021 Air Quality Guidelines, our calculations indicate that 82% of the population is exposed to unacceptable levels of PM2.5, and 11 % to unacceptable levels of NO2. We estimate a total of 6740 deaths per year. The health impacts can be estimated to cause socio-economic costs of ~168 billion SEK. 

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  • 80.
    Gustafsson, Malin S.M.
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lindén, Jenny
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Johansson, Emelie M.M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Watne, Ågot K.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Air pollution removal with urban greenery – Introducing the Vegetation Impact Dynamic Assessment model (VIDA)2024In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 323, p. 120397-120397, article id 120397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban greenery is identified as a potential tool in air pollution mitigation. However, the impact is still debated. This paper introduces the innovative VIDA (Vegetation Impact Dynamic Assessment) model, specifically designed to quantify air pollution removal through deposition on vegetation. The VIDA model offers an advanced representation of vegetation that could be integrated into urban air quality dispersion models in the future. Furthermore, the model serves as a valuable tool for exploring the intricate interactions among deposition, resuspension, and wash-off processes, as well as understanding how meteorological conditions and various leaf traits influence these processes.The current version of the model focuses on particulate matter (PM) and encompasses a range of processes, including deposition on vegetation surfaces, encapsulation within the waxy cuticle, wind-driven resuspension, and wash-off.

    Additionally, the model takes into consideration dynamic changes in PM concentrations on the leaf surface over time, incorporating factors such as PM size fractions, meteorological conditions, and leaf characteristics. This comprehensive approach allows for the evaluation of various species or species groups based on their distinct traits. The VIDA model effectively reproduces measured data, yet continued evaluation remains crucial as new data emerges. Notably, challenges are encountered due to data scarcity and the absence of standardized methods for characterizing vegetation traits. Addressing these challenges and refining the representation of wash-off process will enhance the VIDA model's utility in predicting the dynamic relationship between vegetation and air quality. The introduction of VIDA provides a significant advancement in modelling air pollution removal by deposition to vegetation at a relevant local scale and enables inclusion of urban greenery as tool in urban planning for air pollution mitigation. 

  • 81.
    Gustafsson, Malin
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Watne, Ågot
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Fridén, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hållbar datadriven kustzonsplanering och förvaltning2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coastal marine ecosystems all over the world are under threat due to human activities and climate change. The Maritime Spatial Planning Framework Directive (2014/89/EU) states that maritime spatial planning should support and facilitate the sustainable growth of offshore activities such as fishing, shipping, and aquaculture, while preserving, protecting, and enhancing our marine environments. To succeed, data, good knowledge and careful planning of our complex marine ecosystems are required. Models can be effective tools for coastal zone planning and management, as they enable scenario simulations and non-invasive experiments. Access to good quality data both as input to models and for model validation is essential to ensure high quality model results. However, it is often a challenge to find good data. 

    The goal of this synthesis was to evaluate opportunities and shortcomings in how data, models and planning tools are used today and how they could be used in the future. As part of this, we have compiled, described, and evaluated different models, planning tools and data sources. We have also investigated whether there are new technologies that could help fill the gaps and shortcomings identified. For example, can data and models be combined and used to facilitate coastal zone planning and management? 

    The results from this synthesis show that the current inventory and mapping of species and flora in the coastal zone is insufficient, to serve as a basis for reliable planning. There are many available models and planning tools adapted for the coastal zone, but in most cases basic input data are missing, such as spatial data on where different species and biotopes are located as well as bathymetry. If the underlying data for the models or planning tools is deficient, there is a high risk that the results will be misinterpreted or overinterpreted. 

    In addition to traditional inventory, new techniques and methods should be explored. This may involve combining, for example, environmental DNA, machine learning techniques, modelling, and measurements with new low-cost sensors to acquire the data of spatial distribution of species and biotopes that are missing. 

    Furthermore, the results from this study show that there are great opportunities in sharing and reusing data in coastal zone planning and management. There are today several data portals where data is shared, however, it can be difficult to find the right data due to insufficient metadata. A system for data management and sharing is needed. In particular, we want to highlight the value of working with linked data and persistent identifiers. In order to preserve our coastal ecosystems and enable sustainable growth of offshore activities, we must gather expertise on for example environment and digitization from both authorities, researchers and business practitioners. This will require an overarching long-term investment that includes the development of new methods and techniques as well as data management. 

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  • 82. Gustavsson Binder, Tobias
    HVO100 - analys av nuläge och framtida utveckling2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ren HVO, alltså HVO100, används av många upphandlare, transportköpare och transportbolag för att minska sina växthusgasutsläpp och leva upp till sina klimatåtaganden. I nuläget finns dock flera osäkerhetsfaktorer kopplat till marknaden för HVO100. Inte minst är en sådan faktor ovissheten i vad som sker med skattebefrielsen för rena och höginblandade biodrivmedel från 1 januari 2023 då statsstödsgodkännandet från EU-kommissionen löper ut. Aviserade förändringar av reduktionsplikten från 1 januari 2024 kan också få följder. Hur dessa faktorer, tillsammans med andra faktorer, kommer påverka HVO100-marknaden är i nuläget osäkert, vilket skapar ovisshet för alla som använder HVO100 för att minska sin klimatpåverkan.

    På uppdrag av Trafikverket har IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet genomfört en studie av marknaden för HVO100 där både dagens marknad och framtida utveckling analyserats. Studien baseras primärt på intervjuer med ledande aktörer på drivmedelsmarknaden, primärt med leverantörer men även med producenter. Flera aspekter av marknaden har studerats, inklusive prisbild, tillgång och geografisk fördelning. Dessutom har framtida utveckling analyserats genom fyra olika styrmedelsscenarier. Scenarierna skiljer sig åt avseende skattebefrielsen, huruvida rena och höginblandade flyttas in i reduktionsplikten samt reduktionspliktens nivåer. En kortare analys av RME100/B100, det vill säga rapsbaserad biodiesel, har också genomförts.

    Priset för HVO100 har sedan reduktionspliktens införande legat ca 1-2 kr över priset för vanlig diesel. Detta har dock förändrats under 2022. Såväl innan som efter Rysslands invasion av Ukraina har både priset och prisskillnaden gentemot vanlig diesel fluktuerat. I nuläget är prisskillnaden ca 5 kr. Flera faktorer har bidragit till detta. Både ökad efterfrågan och att Tyskland under senaste året höjt sanktionsavgiften för att inte leva upp till reduktionsplikten sägs ha haft stor betydelse. RME100/B100 sticker ut i jämförelse då priset i nuläget är ca 3 kr/litern lägre än för vanlig diesel.

    Samtidigt som marknaden sista året växt avseende sålda volymer har en påtaglig förändring skett genom att flera leverantörer ersatt HVO100 med en produkt ofta benämnd som HVO97. Denna ingår i reduktionsplikten och hjälper därför leverantörerna att uppnå sin reduktionsplikt. Detta innebär att slutkunder de facto inte bidrar till additionell klimatnytta då leverantörerna kan minska inblandningen i den låginblandade dieseln med motsvarande volym. 

    När det gäller förändringar av de fyra scenarierna gör aktörerna olika bedömningar kring hur marknaden påverkas. Några anser att bäst förutsättning skapas genom att lägga in rena och höginblandade biodrivmedel i reduktionsplikten, inte minst då detta möjliggör för leverantörerna att korssubventionera HVO100 och därmed att trygga efterfrågan. Andra anser att en sådan förändring riskerar att göra HVO100 till en ifrågasatt produkt då slutkunder inte bidrar till additionell klimatnytta genom att tanka HVO100. Dessutom finns stora frågetecken om hur rena biodrivmedelsleverantörer påverkas då dessa inte har möjlighet att korssubventionera.

    Det finns dock en stor samstämmighet i att en kraftig nedjustering av reduktionsplikten kan få stora konsekvenser för HVO100-marknaden. Det beror på att det kan leda till lägre priser på vanlig diesel och därmed öka prisskillnaden ytterligare. Om det kombineras med att skattebefrielsen slopas riskeras en prisskillnad på över 10 kr/litern. Ett sådant scenario bedöms ha en kraftigt negativ inverkan på marknaden för HVO100.

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  • 83.
    Hallberg, Elisabet
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Andersson, Simon
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nellström, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessment of closed loops for industrial plastic packaging2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project Closing the loop of industrial plastic aims to increase the circular use of materials from industrial plastic packaging through closed loop recycling. Within this project, a study has been made where the goal was to compare the climate change impact of four different scenarios for three case studies.

    The four main scenarios are Closed loop recycling, Closed and open loop recycling, Open loop recycling, and Incineration and the three case studies included in the study are Packaging made of expanded polystyrene (EPS), big bags made of polypropylene (PP) and film made of low-density polyethylene (LDPE).

    For all three case studies, the main conclusion is that the climate impact is lower for closed loop recycling than for all three alternatives mentioned above. Additionally, the study identifies the second-best option as a mix of Closed and open loop recycling, followed by Open loop recycling, and finally, Incineration.

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    Life cycle assessment of closed loops for industrial plastic packaging
  • 84.
    Halling, Maja
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    ProScaleE - user needs and perspectives: Interview study for the development of the ProScaleE methodology2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra SafeChem toolbox includes several tools, among them is the ProScale method that was developed as a scoring system based on both hazard and exposure for assessing direct chemical risks to workers, professionals and consumers associated with products in a life cycle perspective. However, a need for a sibling, ProScaleE, that focuses on the effects on the environment was identified. The aim of the task reported herein is to continue the work of developing the ProScaleE method by collecting user needs and perspectives from the members of the ProScale consortium and other stakeholders. The work has been performed by interviews focusing on expectations, thoughts, and ideas on how the ProScaleE method can be developed and what features it should include.  

     

    All interviewed participants expressed a strong need for a tool like ProScaleE and agreed on its value. Due to new upcoming legislative proposals from the EU Commission the interest on environmental effects of chemicals is expected to increase and become an even more important issue for industry. 

    The feasibility and practicability of the tool is of utmost importance. Having a database that already includes the relevant input parameters for different substances would greatly enhance the ease of use. Preferable easily accessible data derived from a common source, such as the REACH should be used. Developing an easy-to-use method is crucial since ProScaleE's target audience should primarily be people without ecotoxicological expertise who need to be able to quickly evaluate chemicals based on H-phrases. 

    While emphasizing the importance of user-friendliness, it is crucial to ensure that the method does not become excessively simplified, resulting in a loss of relevance. To enhance its relevance, more specific data, in addition to H-phrases, such as persistence, bioaccumulation potential, toxicity, mobility, and endocrine disruption, should be included. It is also crucial to incorporate different compartments of the environment, such as water, soil, and air.  

    In short, two types of input data should be needed to evaluate a substance with ProscaleE, information about the intrinsic ecotoxicity of the substances, as described above, and an exposure estimate for the related uses along the entire life cycle. 

    The importance of proper bases of description of the hazard as well as the relevance of the ranking of H-phrases was stressed. It is advisable to utilize the descriptors provided by REACH to ensures consistency and compatibility with existing frameworks and data sources, when developing ProScaleE, not the least consistency with ProScale on human health. The most relevant descriptors to consider would be environmental release categories (ERCs), specific environmental release categories (SPERCs) and risk management measures (RMMs). 

    It is recommended to have the same approach when developing ProscaleE as when ProScale was developed. When developing the method, it is recommended to begin with a simple approach. Starting with a minimum set of parameters, such as H-phrases for environmental effects, allows for initial validation and testing of the method's performance. Once the basic functionality is established and proven successful, additional functions can be added. There is a strong desire for future versions of ProScale and ProScaleE to be seamlessly integrated into Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) software platforms like GaBi or SimaPro. This integration would eliminate the need for duplicative modelling efforts and align with the long-term goal of ProScale to streamline and enhance environmental impact assessments. 

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  • 85.
    Hallquist, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Salberg, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Emissionsmätningar från bussar: Euroklass VI-gasbussar och bränsledrivna värmare i elbussar2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the frame work of a research project funded by Västtrafik and the foundation SIVL, the emissions from individual Euro class VI gas buses and fuel-operated heaters in electric buses have been characterised, in total 37 buses (20 gas buses and 17 heaters).

    An extractive measurement method has been used where the ambient air is continuously measured, and particle and gaseous concentrations are measured with high time resolution (≥1 Hz).

    Emission factors (EFs) were retrieved using the carbon balance method, assuming complete combustion and a specific fuel carbon content. The results are reported as mass or number of pollutants per kilo fuel burnt. 

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  • 86.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Davíðsdóttir, Brynhildur
    University of Iceland.
    Fridell, Erik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jivén, Karl
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Koosup Yum, Kevin
    Sintef Ocean AS.
    Latapí, Mauricio
    University of Iceland.
    Lundström, Helena
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Parsmo, Rasmus
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Stenersen, Dag
    Sintef Ocean AS.
    Wimby, Per
    Stena Rederi AB.
    Burgren, Johan
    PowerCell Sweden AB.
    HOPE - Hydrogen fuel cells solutions in Nordic shipping. Project summary: A Nordic Maritime Transport and Energy Research Programme Project2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries aim for a carbon-neutral Nordic region. Maritime transport is one of the key remaining sectors to decarbonize and is important from a Nordic perspective due to the relatively large Nordic involvement in this industry. The HOPE project addresses how regional shipping in the Nordic region can do the transition to become fossil-free. The project aims at clarifying the potential role of hydrogen based marine solutions in reducing the Nordic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the centre of the project is a ship concept where a typical RoPax-vessel with operating distances of around 100 nautical miles is designed for including operation with hydrogen as fuel and fuel cells for energy conversion. The overall design of the concept ship is compared with selected other fuel alternatives from a cost perspective. 

    Further, both the conditions for designing such a ship and the consequences are studied. The conditions include technical design and costs of fuel systems and handling, powertrains etc. but also an analysis of barriers and drivers for the realisation of hydrogen solutions for shipping, such as economic, legal, and policy issues. For example, in terms of drivers, policy options needed to accelerate the uptake of hydrogen based marine solutions are assessed. Strategies and the potential of producing these fuels in the Nordic region are also reviewed from a shipping perspective. A realistic potential for uptake of these technologies/fuels by Nordic shipping are assessed and the benefits regarding lower emissions of GHGs and air pollutants are estimated. This report summarizes the assessments made in the HOPE project including main findings. 

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  • 87.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Grahn, Maria
    Chalmers.
    Malmgren, Elin
    Chalmers.
    D Korberg, Andrei
    Aalborg University.
    Taljegård, Maria
    Chalmers.
    E Anderson, James
    Ford.
    Brynolf, Selma
    Chalmers.
    Ridjan Skov, Iva
    Aalborg University.
    J Wallington, Timothy
    Ford.
    Review of electrofuel feasibility - cost and environmental impact2022In: Progress in Energy, E-ISSN 2516-1083, Vol. A, no 2595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrofuels, fuels produced from electricity, water, and carbon or nitrogen, are of interest assubstitutes for fossil fuels in all energy and chemical sectors. This paper focuses on electrofuels for transportation, where some can be used in existing vehicle/vessel/aircraft fleets and fueling infrastructure.

    The aim of this study is to review publications on electrofuels and summarize costs and environmental performance. A special case, denoted as bio-electrofuels, involves hydrogen supplementing existing biomethane production (e.g. anaerobic digestion) to generate additional or different fuels. We use costs, identified in the literature, to calculate harmonized production costs for a range of electrofuels and bio-electrofuels.

    Results from the harmonized calculations show that bio-electrofuels generally have lower costs than electrofuels produced using captured carbon. Lowest costs are found for liquefied bio-electro-methane, bio-electro-methanol, and bio-electro-dimethyl ether. The highest cost is for electro-jet fuel. All analyzed fuels have the potential for long-term production costs in the range 90–160 € per MWh. Dominant factors impacting production costs are electrolyzer and electricity costs, the latter connected to capacity factors (CFs) and cost for hydrogen storage. Electrofuel production costs also depend on regional conditions for renewable electricity generation, which are analyzed in sensitivity analyses usingcorresponding CFs in four European regions.

    Results show a production cost range forelectro-methanol of 76–118 € per MWh depending on scenario and region assuming an electrolyzer CAPEX of 300–450 € per kWelec and CFs of 45%–65%. Lowest production costs are found in regions with good conditions for renewable electricity, such as Ireland and western Spain. The choice of system boundary has a large impact on the environmental assessments. The literature is not consistent regarding the environmental impact from different CO2 sources. The literature, however, points to the fact that renewable energy sources are required to achieve low global warming impact over the electrofuel life cycle.

  • 88.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Maritime Environmental Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Hörselgången 4, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden;IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klugman, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Elginoz, Nilay
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granacher, Julia
    Industrial Process and Energy Systems Engineering (IPESE), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1951 Sion, Switzerland.
    Hasselberg, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedman, Fredrik
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Efraimsson, Nora
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Sofie
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Safarian, Sahar
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Aschebergsgatan 44, 411 33 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tjus, Kåre
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Valhallavägen 81, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Biodiesel from Bark and Black Liquor—A Techno-Economic, Social, and Environmental Assessment2023In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 99-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A techno-economic assessment and environmental and social sustainability assessments ofnovel Fischer–Tropsch (FT) biodiesel production from the wet and dry gasification of biomass-based residue streams (bark and black liquor from pulp production) for transport applications are presented. A typical French kraft pulp mill serves as the reference case and large-scale biofuel-production-process integration is explored. Relatively low greenhouse gas emission levels can be obtained for the FT biodiesel (total span: 16–83 g CO2eq/MJ in the assessed EU countries). Actual process configuration and low-carbon electricity are critical for overall performance.

    The site-specific social assessment indicates an overall positive social effect for local community, value chain actors, and society. Important social aspects include (i) job creation potential, (ii) economic development through job creation and new business opportunities, and (iii) health and safety for workers. For social risks, the country of implementation is important. Heat and electricity use are the key contributors to social impacts.The estimated production cost for biobased crude oil is about 13 €/GJ, and it is 14 €/GJ (0.47 €/L or50 €/MWh) for the FT biodiesel. However, there are uncertainties, i.e., due to the low technologyreadiness level of the gasification technologies, especially wet gasification. However, the studiedconcept may provide substantial GHG reduction compared to fossil diesel at a relatively low cost.

  • 89.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Nojpanya, Pavinee
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    LTU.
    Gustavsson Binder, Tobias
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Costs for reducing GHG emissions from road and air transport with biofuels and electrofuels2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable fuels for transport are needed to reach future climate targets. However, the potential future role of different biofuels, hydrogen, and electrofuels (produced by electricity, water, and CO2) in different transportation sectors remains uncertain. Increased knowledge about the preconditions for different renewable fuels for road and air transport to contribute to the transformation of the transport sector is needed to ensure the transformation is done in a climate- and cost-effective way. The CO2 abatement cost, i.e., the cost of reducing a certain amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is central from both a societal and business perspective, the latter partly due to the design of the Swedish reduction obligation system.

    The abatement cost of a specific fuel value chain depends on the fuel production cost and the GHG reduction provided by the fuel. This report provides an updated summary of the CO2 abatement costs for various types of biofuels and electrofuels for road transport and aviation, relevant in a Swedish context. Fuel production costs and GHG performance (well to wheel) for the selected renewable fuel pathways are mapped based on published data. The estimated CO2 abatement cost ranges from -0.37 to 4.03 SEK/kg CO2-equivalent. Methane from anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and ethanol from fermentation of sugarcane and maize end up with negative CO2 abatement cost given the assumptions made, meaning it is more economically beneficial to use than its fossil counterpart.

    Electrofuels pathways (particularly diesel and aviation fuels) have, on the other hand, relatively high CO2 abatement costs. Also, so-called bio-electrofuels produced from biogenic excess CO2 from biofuel production and electricity linked to biofuel production generally have higher CO2 abatement costs than the corresponding forest biomass-based biofuel pathway. For forest biomass-based biofuels, bio-electrofuels and electrofuels, methanol, and methane pathways in general have somewhat lower CO2 abatement costs than hydrocarbon-based fuels (gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel).Since most of the assessed renewable fuel pathways achieve substantial GHG emission reduction compared to fossil fuels, the fuel production cost is, in general, more important than the GHG performance to achieve a low CO2 abatement cost. The production cost for fossil fuels also influences the CO2 abatement cost to a large extent. More estimates of cost and GHG performance for gasification of waste-based pathways are needed and for certain pathways under development (e.g., including hydropyrolysis).

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  • 90.
    Harris, Steve
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Mata, Érika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Plepys, Andrius
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Sharing is daring, but is it sustainable? An assessment of sharing cars, electric tools and offices in Sweden2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 170, p. 105583-105583, article id 105583Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 91. Hassani, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Castell, Núria
    Watne, Ågot K.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schneider, Philipp
    Citizen-operated mobile low-cost sensors for urban PM2.5 monitoring: field calibration, uncertainty estimation, and application2023In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 95, p. 104607-104607, article id 104607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research communities, engagement campaigns, and administrative agents are increasingly valuing low-cost air-quality monitoring technologies, despite data quality concerns. Mobile low-cost sensors have already been used for delivering a spatial representation of pollutant concentrations, though less attention is given to their uncertainty quantification. Here, we perform static/on-bike inter-comparison tests to assess the performance of the Snifferbike sensor kit in measuring outdoor PM2.5 (Particulate Matter < 2.5 μm). We build a network of citizen-operated Snifferbike sensors in Kristiansand, Norway, and calibrate the measurements using Machine

    Learning techniques to estimate the concentrations of PM2.5 along the city roads. We also propose a method to estimate the minimum number of PM2.5 measurements required per road segment to assure data representativeness. The co-location of three Snifferbike kits (Sensirion SPS30) at the monitoring station showed a RMSD of 7.55 μg m−3. We approximate that one km h−1 increase in the speed of the bikes will add 0.03 - 0.04 μg m−3 to the Standard Deviation of the Snifferbike PM2.5 measurements. We estimate that at least 27 measurements per road segment are required (50 m here) if the data are sufficiently dispersed over time. We recommend calibrating the mobile sensors when they coincide with reference monitoring stations.

  • 92. Hassani, Amirhossein
    et al.
    Castell, Núria
    Watne, Ågot K.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Schneider, Philipp
    Citizen-operated mobile low-cost sensors for urban PM2.5 monitoring: field calibration, uncertainty estimation, and application2023In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 95, p. 104607-104607, article id 104607Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 93. Hassellöv, Martin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Therese
    Mattsson, Karin
    Magnusson, Kerstin
    Strand, Jakob
    Lenz, Robin
    Bavel, Bert van
    Eidsvoll, David Pettersson
    Progress towards monitoring of microlitter in Scandinavian marine environments2018In: TemaNord, 2018, 551, 2018Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four different case studies were carried out to determine dominating microlitter types from urban environments to the regional Scandinavian seas (eastern North Sea). The sampling was both from sediment near sources (urban runoff and road dust sediment), and further out from coastal sediments. The sea surface layer and subsurface samples was taken in two different gradients, in the Oslo and Roskilde fjords, where also blue mussels were sampled. Best available technologies for sampling each compartment was used and evaluated, and while the water samples was analysed as collected, the sediment and biota samples needed some pretreatment of chemical digestion and/or heavy density liquid floatation or elutriation.

    In order to develop visual identification as objective as possible, a visual and physical observation scheme was proposed. The visual identification scheme should be complemented with spectroscopic identification to different degrees depending on the size fractions.Spectroscopic identification is still often a quite time-consuming process, meaning that for monitoring purposes it is not currently advisable to aim to identify all particles during monitoring studies. Until fully or partly automated spectroscopic methods are available they are still important tools for verification of representative types of particles in samples above 100 μm.

    The amount of particles that should be identified to provide adequate compositional information would be dependent on the aim of the study as well as the type and composition of the samples. However, in order to do monitoring and include sample composition in the results a minimum of 100 of the fewest particles should be counted in a sample to achieve 10% standard deviation in terms of counting statistical uncertainty.The field is however rapidly evolving, and automated procedures are already being published. For research purposes and more detailed monitoring and screening studies spectroscopic methods can aside from providing particle identification also give clues on additives and level of degradation.The most common types of microlitter found varied between studies but common trends could be identified between the road tunnel sediment and the urban creek sediment that these contained black particles resembling tire rubber from both visual and tactile tests, and also asphalt, charcoal, oil/tar particles and road marker particles. In the coastal water samples the surface layer was dominated by polystyrene foam particles and polyethylene fragments and films.

    In the subsurface water samples fibres, films and fragments of plastic was most common. In both the Gothenburg urban creek sediment and Oslo fjord surface water samples particles that could be related to artificial sports turf (polyethylene green grass and clear cut, tire granulate) was observed. The microlitter in mussels was dominated by fibres. The approach of using gradient studies, and include both near source sampling as well as recipient gradient sampling, was concluded to be very suitable to determine sources and fate.

  • 94.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Jutterström, Sara
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Moldanova, Jana
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Påverkan på luftkvalitet i städer av utsläpp från närliggande jordbruk2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IVL Svenska Miljöinstitutet har på uppdrag av Naturvårdsverket undersökt hur stor påverkan utsläpp av ammoniak (NH3) från närliggande jordbruk har på stadsluften i Uppsala, med fokus på halterna av små partiklar (PM2.5) samt potential för utsläpps¬minskningar för att förbättra stadsluften från denna påverkan. Denna fråga är viktig att belysa eftersom utsläppen av NH3 från jordbruket inte förväntas minska i samma takt som utsläpp av andra luftföroreningar. Man har kunnat konstatera, i andra regioner, att det inte bara är viktigt att minska på utsläppen av svavel- och kväveoxider utan att även NH3-utsläppen behöver minskas.

    En jämförelse av skillnader i halterna av små partiklar och deras komponenter visar en ökad effekt av jordbruksemissioner av NH3 på vintern, då bidraget ökar från årsmedelvärden på 2,3 % och 1,2 % för regional bakgrund och centrala staden till 3,3 % och 1,6 % för vintermedelvärdet. Skillnaderna mellan säsongerna beror på ett flertal faktorer som exempelvis hur mycket NO3- och SO42- som finns tillgängligt för att bilda partiklar. På vintern är ammoniakutsläppen lägre och NOx- och SOx-utsläppen är relativt sett högre samtidigt som omblandningen är lägre jämfört med övriga delar av året. Detta gör i sin tur att kvoten mellan ammoniak och HNO3 och SO42- är lägre och en större del av ammoniakutsläppen kommer därför att bilda partikelformig NH4+.

    Under sommaren är, förutom den högre kvoten mellan NH3 och nitrat och sulfat, även kondensation av nitrat på partiklarna reducerad p.g.a. högre temperaturer vilket begränsar ammoniakens potential att bidra till partiklar ytterligare. Detta innebär att utsläpps¬minskningar av NH3 kan ha större effekt på vintern/hösten med avseende på bildning av sekundära aerosoler än under vår och sommar och kan vara jämförbar med effekten från ytterligare minskningar av SOx- och NOx-utsläpp, även om NH3-utsläppen är högre på våren och sommaren.

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  • 95.
    Hellsten, Sofie
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Yifang, Ban
    KTH.
    Georganos, Stefanos
    KTH.
    Ihrfors, Jane
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Kronnäs, Veronika
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Hafner, Sebastian
    KTH.
    Zang, Puzhao
    KTH.
    Användningen av satellitdata för att utveckla miljöövervakningen i Sverige – En syntes2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver kunskapsläget för miljöövervakning med fjärranalys, med fokus på ämnesområden som är relevanta för Naturvårdsverket och Havs- och vattenmyndigheten, exempelvis tillämpningar för luftkvalitet, naturresurser, biodiversitet samt för sjöar, kust och hav.Fjärranalys erbjuder såväl goda möjligheter som utmaningar, eftersom fjärranalysövervakningen behöver integreras i den nuvarande miljöövervakningen. Forskarna bedömer att tillämpbarheten inom exempelvis luftkvalitet kommer att öka framöver, genom att ett flertal nya satelliter och instrument kan förbättra övervakningen av luftföroreningar från satelliter.

    Fjärranalys har potential att underlätta för både Naturvårdsverket och HaV att följa upp flera av Sveriges miljökvalitetsmål och för att kartlägga biologisk mångfald i olika skalor, men kräver dock att HaV och Naturvårdsverket behöver producera data som är standardiserade, geolokaliserade och tidsmässigt uppdaterade, för att kunna användas i kombination med satellitdata.Forskarna rekommenderar en rad åtgärder som Naturvårdsverket och HaV kan vidta för att ytterligare integrera fjärranalys i miljöövervakningen, samt förslag på fortsatt forskning och utveckling.Projektet har finansierats med medel från Naturvårdsverkets miljöforskningsanslag som finansierar forskning till stöd för Naturvårdsverkets och Havs- och vattenmyndighetens kunskapsbehov.

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  • 96.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Supply chain guide for identification of regulated per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances2022Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a deliverable from task 4.4 of the POPFREE project (stage 3). Based on the OECD Comprehensive Global Database of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs) more than 4700 substances have been categorised for their current regulatory status in Sweden, the EU and globally.

    For example, more than 1000 substances were categorised as covered by the Regulation (EU) No 2019/1021 of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) for Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), its salts and PFOA-related compounds. The categorisations are associated with a high level of uncertainty due to the limited size of this project.

    Substance by substance evaluations have not been possible and all categorisations are based on group level criteria. Next steps forward are discussed, including the development of digital tools, to support the manufacture and use of products without PFAS. 

    This report is a deliverable from task 4.4 of the UDI stage 3 project “POPFREE – Promotion of PFAS-free alternatives. POPFREE is funded by Vinnova, the Swedish Innovations Agency and coordinated by RISE.

    Among the tasks is 4.4, which is led by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute and executed in collaboration with Volvo Cars, RISE and the Swedish Chemicals Agency. The POPFREE project ran from 2020 to 2022.

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    POPFREE Deliverable D4.3
  • 97.
    Holmquist, Hanna
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Roos, Sandra
    Schellenberger, Steffen
    Jönsson, Christina
    Peters, Gregory
    What difference can drop-in substitution actually make? A life cycle assessment of alternative water repellent chemicals2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 329, p. 129661-129661, article id 129661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PFAS-related potential toxicity impacts as indicated by LCA results. Based on the results presented here, specific DWRs within the non-fluorinated DWR group could not be identified as preferable to others. This LCA does however provide a relevant starting point for more detailed studies on specific DWR systems and it supports moves to phase-out PFASs from non-essential DWR uses.

  • 98.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Togerö, Åse
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Larsson, Johan
    E.on.
    Jägersro – En klimatoptimerad stadsdel: Klimatanalys av stadsdelen Jägersro2024Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report highlights the critical role that cities play in addressing climate challenges and the strength they possess as centres for innovation and action. Specifically, it focuses on the planned city district of Jägersro in Malmö, Sweden, and its ambition to be the most sustainable district in the Öresund region.A central aspect of the report is the recognition that cities contribute to approximately 70% of greenhouse gas emissions, which simultaneously means that they have enormous potential to be catalysts for positive change. This is linked to the goals of the Paris Agreement and the need to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.Jägersro, the new city district, is described as a dense green mixed-use development that will include housing, workplaces, schools, preschools, retail, and more, over an area of approximately 40 hectares.

    A key factor here is that the project has set ambitious sustainability goals and is striving to become the most sustainable district in the Öresund region.The report introduces two methods for calculating and managing climate impact. First, in line with the Paris Agreement, the climate impact of the district and its inhabitants is linked to the remaining CO2 budget for 2050 according to IPCC calculations. Second, the concept of climate neutrality is used, where the climate impact for the district is calculated up to 2050 with a system boundary linked to the builders' and landlords’ sphere of influence.A central point in the report is the importance of clear system boundaries and delimitations for accurately measuring climate impact from cities. This is discussed in conjunction with the complex interaction between urban areas and their surroundings, which involves multifaceted processes and activities. Clear guidelines are advocated to avoid underestimation or overestimation of climate impact and to address key factors effectively.

    The report presents a dynamic mathematical scenario tool to quantify the climate impact from the district. This model includes various variables, including construction, energy consumption, and mobility, which provides a more realistic picture of how these factors interact and affect climate impact.This report describes and develops the benefits and challenges of using the CO2e budget model for an urban development project such as Jägersro, including the complexity involved in calculating climate impact for an entire city district. Its adaptability and flexibility are mentioned as critical factors, especially as the community develops and new sustainability strategies are implemented. This dynamic modelling enables real-time adjustment to better address uncertainties in the future.

    The report goes into specific categories that have a major impact on the climate, including buildings, energy, and person-related emissions such as food, consumption, and mobility. Measures to balance climate impact, such as "embedded wood," "biochar," and "trees," are identified as important sources of carbon sinks.In conclusion, the report emphasizes that for cities to lead the climate transition, a holistic perspective and collaboration at all levels are required. Urban planning, political decisions, and citizen engagement are mentioned as essential factors for creating green and sustainable cities that not only contribute to achieving climate goals but also provide attractive and healthy living environments for todays and future generations.Key points•    Cities play a critical role in addressing climate challenges and have the potential to be catalysts for positive change.•    The planned city district of Jägersro in Malmö, Sweden, is ambitious to be the most sustainable district in the Öresund region.•    The report introduces two methods for calculating and managing climate impact from cities: the CO2e budget model and the concept of climate neutrality.•    The report also presents a dynamic mathematical scenario tool to quantify the climate impact from Jägersro.•    The report concludes that for cities to lead the climate transition, a holistic perspective and collaboration at all levels are required.Research implicationsThe report's findings have several important implications for research on climate impact from cities. First, it emphasizes the importance of clear system boundaries and delimitations for accurately measuring climate impact. Second, it suggests that dynamic modelling can be a valuable tool for quantifying climate impact from cities, especially when considering the complex interactions between different factors. Third, it highlights the need for collaboration between researchers, policymakers, and practitioners to develop and implement effective strategies for reducing climate impact from cities.Policy implicationsThe report's findings also have several important implications for policy. First, it suggests that cities should adopt ambitious sustainability goals, such as the goal of becoming climate neutral. Second, it recommends that cities use clear and consistent methods for calculating climate impact. Third, it suggests that cities invest in research and development to develop new technologies and strategies for reducing climate impact.Public engagement implicationsThe report's findings also implications for public engagement. It emphasizes the need for public awareness of the importance of climate action in cities. 

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  • 99. Hooftman, Danny A.P.
    et al.
    Kimberley, Adam
    Cousins, Sara A.O.
    Santamaría Bueno, Silvia
    Honnay, Olivier
    Krickl, Patricia
    Plue, Jan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Poschlod, Peter
    Traveset, Anna
    Bullock, James M.
    Could green infrastructure supplement ecosystem service provision from semi-natural grasslands?2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 328, p. 116952-116952, article id 116952Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ancient semi-natural grasslands in Europe are important for ecosystem service (ES) provision. Often, the surrounding matrix contains ‘Grassland Green Infrastructure’ (GGI) that contain grassland species which have the potential to supplement grassland ES provision across the landscape. Here we investigate the potential for GGI to deliver a set of complementary ES, driven by plant composition.We surveyed 36 landscapes across three European countries comprising core grasslands and their surrounding GGI. We calculated community-level values of plant species characteristics to provide indicators for four ES: nature conservation value, pollination, carbon storage and aesthetic appeal.Inferred ES delivery for GGI was substantially lower than in core grasslands for conservation, pollination and aesthetic appeal indicators, but not for carbon storage.

    These differences were driven by the GGI having 17% fewer plant species, and compositional differences, with 61% of species unique to the core grasslands. In addition, connectivity to the core, the amount of GGI and inferred seed dispersal distances by livestock, were strongly positively correlated with conservation value, pollination and aesthetic indicators. All ES indicators showed similar responses to the GGI spatial structure and distance to the core, suggesting robust effects of these drivers on ES. We projected that improved landscape-wide delivery of nature conservation value and pollination could be achieved through targeted GGI management. Reductions in the distances seeds would need to disperse, more GGI, along with a diversification of the GGI elements, were predicted to enhance service credits.We conclude that for vegetation-related ES, species surveys can be employed to assess potential ES delivery. Creating and enhancing GGI is a useful landscape management strategy to supplement the ES delivered by ancient grasslands.

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  • 100.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Sanne, Johan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Lund, Emma
    Fredricsson, Christian
    Levin, Kristoffer
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Hur överförs nationella miljömål till lokala beslut i transport- och samhällsplaneringen?2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Stafetten, som finansierats av Naturvårdsverket, har studerat miljömål på nationell, regional och lokal nivå, deras roll för transportplaneringen, och vad som kan göras för att målen ska få större genomslag. Deltagande organisationer är IVL Svenska Miljöinstituten, Trivector Traffic och Lund universitet. I denna rapport beskrivs hur miljömålen överförs till lokala beslut i den regionala transportplaneringen och i den kommunala samhällsplaneringen.

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